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Clin Exp Neuroimmunol ; 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819880


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is still a global pandemic. In most infected people, SARS-CoV-2 can only cause moderate symptoms, while in other patients, it leads to severe illness and eventually death. Although the main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is often seen in the lungs, this disease affects almost all body organs. The excessive and prolonged release of inflammatory cytokines that may occur in COVID-19 patients, known as cytokine storms, stimulates undesired immune responses and can cause various tissues damage. In the current review article, we focus on the potential advantages of the intrinsic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) as the efferent arm of inflammatory reflex in COVID-19 management. Considering this endogenous protective mechanism against chronic inflammation, we focused on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the destruction of this anti-inflammatory system. Several studies indicated the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with the alpha7 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as the effector molecule of the inflammatory reflex. On the other hand, neurological manifestations have increasingly been identified as significant extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The rational connection between these findings and COVID-19 pathogenesis may be an important issue in both our understanding and dealing with this disease. COVID-19 is deeply rooted in our daily life and requires an urgent need for the establishment of effective therapeutic options, and all the possible treatments must be considered for the control of such inflammatory conditions.

Immunol Invest ; 51(2): 246-265, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799529


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to public health. There is an urgent need for discovery methods for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Understanding immunogenicity together with immune responses are expected to provide further information about this virus. We hope that this narrative review article may create new insights for researchers to take great strides toward designing vaccines and novel therapies in the near future. The functional properties of the immune system in COVID-19 infection is not exactly clarified yet. This is compounded by the many gaps in our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity properties. Possible immune responses according to current literature are discussed as the first line of defense and acquired immunity. Here, we focus on proposed modern preventive immunotherapy methods in COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2