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1.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 10: 2050313X221113934, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956966

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability in coronavirus disease 2019 infection is already a known fact. But in this article, we have discussed a unique case where the patient had suffered from relapsing thrombus formation. This report describes the case of a patient who presented with chronic coronavirus disease 2019-induced recurrent thrombi refractory to multiple antithrombotic regimens because of multiple recurrent inflammatory flares without any evidence of chronic persistent viral infection. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory medications. Still, he had repeated episodes of right ventricular thrombus. Coronavirus disease 2019 can provoke a severe relapsing hypercoagulable state without evidence of persisting viral infection. Rebound inflammatory flares rather than viral recurrence may play a trigger.

2.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 16: 17539447221105013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulting in COVID-19 disease is associated with widespread inflammation and a prothrombotic state, resulting in frequent venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. It is currently unknown whether anticoagulation is protective for VTE events. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to identify predictors of VTE in COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases for relevant observational studies of VTE in COVID-19 disease. The effect size for predictors of VTE was calculated using a random-effects model and presented as forest plots. Heterogeneity among studies was expressed as Q statistics and I2. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for all identified observational studies. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot analysis. RESULTS: We identified 28 studies involving 6053 patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. The overall pooled prevalence of VTE events was 20.7%. Male sex was associated with a higher risk of VTE events, whereas prior history of VTE, smoking, and cancer were not. VTE events were significantly higher in severely ill patients, mechanically ventilated patients, those requiring intensive care admission, and those with a low PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F ratio). Chronic comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease, did not increase the risk of VTE events. Patients with VTE had higher leukocyte counts and higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin. The occurrence of VTE was associated with increased length of stay but did not impact mortality. Therapeutic and prophylactic doses of anticoagulation were not protective against VTE. CONCLUSION: VTE in COVID-19 is associated with male gender and severe disease but not with traditional risk factors for VTE. The occurrence of VTE does not appear to be mitigated by either prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation. The occurrence of VTE in this population is associated with an increased length of stay but does not appear to impact mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
3.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101236, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814290

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension is one of the difficult situations to treat. Complex pathophysiology, association of the multiple comorbidities make clinical scenario challenging. Recently it is being shown that patients who had recovered from coronavirus disease infection, are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. Studies on animals have been going on to find out newer treatment options. There are recent advancements in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Role of anticoagulation, recombinant fusion proteins, stem cell therapy are emerging as therapeutic options for affected patients. SGLT2 inhibitors have potential to have beneficial effects on pulmonary hypertension. Apart from the medical managements, advanced interventions are also getting popular. In this review article, the authors have discussed pathophysiology, recent advancement of treatments including coronavirus disease patients, and future aspect of managing pulmonary hypertension. We have highlighted treatment options for patients with sleep apnea, interstitial lung disease to discuss the challenges and possible options to manage those patients.

4.
Am J Med ; 135(7): 897-905, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Statins have been commonly used for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. We hypothesized that statins may improve in-hospital outcomes for hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its known anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at the largest municipal health care system in the United States, including adult patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 1 and December 1, 2020. The primary endpoint was in-hospital death. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance possible confounding variables between patients receiving statins during hospitalization (statin group) and those not receiving statins (non-statin group). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of statin use and other variables with in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: There were 8897 patients eligible for study enrollment, with 3359 patients in the statin group and 5538 patients in the non-statin group. After propensity score matching, both the statin and non-statin groups included 2817 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the statin group had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.80; P < .001) and mechanical ventilation (OR 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.90; P < .001) compared with the non-statin group. CONCLUSION: Statin use was associated with lower likelihood of in-hospital mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States
6.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 22(1): 9-26, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530485

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has affected human lives across the globe. On 11 December 2020, the US FDA granted an emergency use authorization for the first COVID-19 vaccine, and vaccines are now widely available. Undoubtedly, the emergence of these vaccines has led to substantial relief, helping alleviate the fear and anxiety around the COVID-19 illness for both the general public and clinicians. However, recent cases of vaccine complications, including myopericarditis, have been reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines. This article discusses the cases, possible pathogenesis of myopericarditis, and treatment of the condition. Most cases were mild and should not yet change vaccine policies, although prospective studies are needed to better assess the risk-benefit ratios in different groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Myocarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , /adverse effects
7.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 21(5): 499-512, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996493

ABSTRACT

Hyperuricemia and gout have been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease, stroke, hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, possibly through a proinflammatory milieu. However, not all the drugs used in gout treatment improve CV outcomes; colchicine has shown improved CV outcomes in patients with recent myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease independent of lipid-lowering effects. There is resurging interest in colchicine following publication of the COLCOT, LoDoCo, LoDoCo2, LoDoCo-MI trials, and COLCORONA trial which will shed light on its utility in COVID-19. Our aim is to review the CV use of colchicine beyond pericardial diseases, as well as CV outcomes of the available gout therapies, including allopurinol and febuxostat. The CARES trial and its surrounding controversies, which lead to the US FDA 'black box' warning on febuxostat, in addition to the recent FAST trial which contradicts this and finds febuxostat to be non-inferior, are discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Gout Suppressants/therapeutic use , Gout/drug therapy , Gout/etiology , COVID-19 , Colchicine/adverse effects , Febuxostat/adverse effects , Febuxostat/therapeutic use , Gout Suppressants/adverse effects , Humans , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Hyperuricemia/etiology , Pandemics
8.
Drugs ; 80(15): 1553-1562, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716437

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV­2), is now a global pandemic. This virus primarily affects the respiratory tract and causes lung injury characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the pathophysiology of COVID-19 is not yet clear, the most widely accepted mechanism is systemic inflammation. A clinically significant effect of the inflammation is coagulopathy. As a result of this effect, patients are found to have a high risk of venous thromboembolism. Studies have reported a high incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the most updated evidence on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the coagulopathy of COVID-19. Prophylactic anticoagulation is recommended for all in-patients with COVID-19. Those with a higher risk of developing thromboembolic events or who have already developed venous thromboembolism should be treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. We also discuss post-discharge prophylaxis for high-risk patients and some newly proposed treatments for the hypercoagulability that could improve the outcomes of the affected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
9.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(4): 311-324, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612313

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now a global pandemic with the highest number of affected individuals in the modern era. Not only is the infection inflicting significant morbidity and mortality, but there has also been a significant strain to the health care system and the economy. COVID-19 typically presents as viral pneumonia, occasionally leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. However, emerging evidence suggests that it has a significant impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system by direct myocardial damage, severe systemic inflammatory response, hypoxia, right heart strain secondary to ARDS and lung injury, and plaque rupture secondary to inflammation. Primary cardiac manifestations include acute myocarditis, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, and abnormal clotting. Several consensus documents have been released to help manage CV disease during this pandemic. In this review, we summarize key cardiac manifestations, their management, and future implications.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
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