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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477832

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing and new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are emerging, there is an urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines to control disease outbreaks by herd immunity. Surveillance of rare safety issues related to these vaccines is progressing, since more granular data emerge with regard to adverse events of COVID-19 vaccines during post-marketing surveillance. Interestingly, four cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) presenting with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination have already been reported. We here expand our current knowledge of this rare but important association and report a case of AAV presenting with massive rhabdomyolysis and pauci-immune crescentic GN after Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. As huge vaccination programs are ongoing worldwide, post-marketing surveillance systems must continue to assess vaccine safety important for the detection of any events associated with COVID-19 vaccination. This is especially relevant in complex diseases where diagnosis is often challenging, as in our patient with AAV presenting with massive rhabdomyolysis and pauci-immune crescentic GN.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Rhabdomyolysis/pathology , Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/blood , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis/immunology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/immunology
2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 649336, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325555

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted healthcare services for kidney disease patients. Lockdown and social distancing were mandated worldwide, resulting in closure of medical services. The diagnosis of various kidney diseases may have been delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic because non-urgent tests and visits were postponed due to closure of medical services during the lockdown. Methods: We here report the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a total number of 209 native kidney diseases requiring renal biopsy for diagnosis in a retrospective observational study from a tertiary hospital in Germany. Results: The lockdown period in March and April 2020 primarily affected patients admitted to the normal medical ward with a compensatory increased rate of renal biopsies in the postlockdown phase. In addition, there was a shift toward more patients admitted with hemoglobinuria during the COVID-19 pandemic. This phenomenon of an increased number of patients with hemoglobinuria during the COVID-19 pandemic was specifically observed in a subgroup with hypertensive nephropathy requiring renal biopsy and associated with increased proteinuria, not attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown period itself. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of identifying a subpopulation susceptible to closure of medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic and diagnostic delay of specific kidney diseases. Therefore, the COVID-19 pandemic should be regarded as a risk factor especially in patients with diseases other than COVID-19 primarily admitted to the normal medical ward.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 644715, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266665

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is very common in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) and considered as a risk factor for COVID-19 severity. SARS-CoV-2 renal tropism has been observed in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that direct viral injury of the kidneys may contribute to AKI. We examined 20 adult cases with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring ICU supportive care in a single-center prospective observational study and investigated whether urinary markers for viral infection (SARS-CoV-2 N) and shedded cellular membrane proteins (ACE2, TMPRSS2) allow identification of patients at risk for AKI and outcome of COVID-19. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether urinary markers for viral infection (SARS-CoV-2 N) and shedded cellular membrane proteins (ACE2, TMPRSS2) allow identification of patients at risk for AKI and outcome of COVID-19. Results: Urinary SARS-CoV-2 N measured at ICU admission identified patients at risk for AKI in COVID-19 (HR 5.9, 95% CI 1.4-26, p = 0.0095). In addition, the combination of urinary SARS-CoV-2 N and plasma albumin measurements further improved the association with AKI (HR 11.4, 95% CI 2.7-48, p = 0.0016). Finally, combining urinary SARS-CoV-2 N and plasma albumin measurements associated with the length of ICU supportive care (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.9, p = 0.0273) and premature death (HR 7.6, 95% CI 1.3-44, p = 0.0240). In contrast, urinary ACE2 and TMPRSS2 did not correlate with AKI in COVID-19. Conclusions: In conclusion, urinary SARS-CoV-2 N levels associate with risk for AKI and correlate with COVID-19 severity.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 168-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060446

ABSTRACT

The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and protein in anatomically distinct regions of the nasopharynx and brain. Furthermore, we describe the morphological changes associated with infection such as thromboembolic ischemic infarction of the CNS and present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can enter the nervous system by crossing the neural-mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 appears to follow neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Central Nervous System , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Smell/physiology , Virus Internalization
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 168-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952133

ABSTRACT

The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and protein in anatomically distinct regions of the nasopharynx and brain. Furthermore, we describe the morphological changes associated with infection such as thromboembolic ischemic infarction of the CNS and present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can enter the nervous system by crossing the neural-mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 appears to follow neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Central Nervous System , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Smell/physiology , Virus Internalization
9.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 20: 100884, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722780

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anterior chamber fluid and/or the vitreous in patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNA on the ocular surface is unclear. Knowledge about the infectious state of intraocular structures could influence the daily work of ophthalmic surgeons. Observations: We analyzed ocular samples from a patient who had succumbed to COVID-19 pneumonia for the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We detected viral RNA in the ocular-surface samples on one swab and in one excidate from the conjunctiva. Samples from the anterior chamber and vitreous revealed no SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 can effectively be inactivated with standard disinfection agents. The now proven absence of SARS-CoV-2 in intraocular fluids could influence how ophthalmic surgeons work. Without having to account for the risk of a contagion via the anterior chamber and/or vitreous body, the surgical staff would require no additional, more elaborate protection.

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