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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162342, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235328

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) are safe and effective proteins produced in laboratory that may be used to target a single epitope of a highly conserved protein of a virus or a bacterial pathogen. For this purpose, the epitope is selected among those that play the major role as targets for prevention of infection or tissue damage. In this paper, characteristics of the most important mABs that have been licensed and used or are in advanced stages of development for use in prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases are discussed. We showed that a great number of mABs effective against virus or bacterial infections have been developed, although only in a small number of cases these are licensed for use in clinical practice and have reached the market. Although some examples of therapeutic efficacy have been shown, not unlike more traditional antiviral or antibacterial treatments, their efficacy is significantly greater in prophylaxis or early post-exposure treatment. Although in many cases the use of vaccines is more effective and cost-effective than that of mABs, for many infectious diseases no vaccines have yet been developed and licensed. Furthermore, in emergency situations, like in epidemics or pandemics, the availability of mABs can be an attractive adjunct to our armament to reduce the impact. Finally, the availability of mABs against bacteria can be an important alternative, when multidrug-resistant strains are involved.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Epitopes , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
2.
JAMA ; 329(6): 482-489, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310661

ABSTRACT

Importance: Influenza virus infections declined globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Loss of natural immunity from lower rates of influenza infection and documented antigenic changes in circulating viruses may have resulted in increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection during the 2021-2022 influenza season. Objective: To compare the risk of influenza virus infection among household contacts of patients with influenza during the 2021-2022 influenza season with risk of influenza virus infection among household contacts during influenza seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study of influenza transmission enrolled households in 2 states before the COVID-19 pandemic (2017-2020) and in 4 US states during the 2021-2022 influenza season. Primary cases were individuals with the earliest laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) virus infection in a household. Household contacts were people living with the primary cases who self-collected nasal swabs daily for influenza molecular testing and completed symptom diaries daily for 5 to 10 days after enrollment. Exposures: Household contacts living with a primary case. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relative risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) virus infection in household contacts during the 2021-2022 season compared with prepandemic seasons. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, vaccination status, frequency of interaction with the primary case, and household density. Subgroup analyses by age, vaccination status, and frequency of interaction with the primary case were also conducted. Results: During the prepandemic seasons, 152 primary cases (median age, 13 years; 3.9% Black; 52.0% female) and 353 household contacts (median age, 33 years; 2.8% Black; 54.1% female) were included and during the 2021-2022 influenza season, 84 primary cases (median age, 10 years; 13.1% Black; 52.4% female) and 186 household contacts (median age, 28.5 years; 14.0% Black; 63.4% female) were included in the analysis. During the prepandemic influenza seasons, 20.1% (71/353) of household contacts were infected with influenza A(H3N2) viruses compared with 50.0% (93/186) of household contacts in 2021-2022. The adjusted relative risk of A(H3N2) virus infection in 2021-2022 was 2.31 (95% CI, 1.86-2.86) compared with prepandemic seasons. Conclusions and Relevance: Among cohorts in 5 US states, there was a significantly increased risk of household transmission of influenza A(H3N2) in 2021-2022 compared with prepandemic seasons. Additional research is needed to understand reasons for this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Family Characteristics , United States/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Self-Testing
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e067878, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302319

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and evaluate diagnostic models used to predict viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched from 1 January 1975 to 3 February 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included diagnostic models predicting viral ARIs in children (<18 years) who sought medical attention from a healthcare setting and were written in English. Prediction model studies specific to SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Study screening, data extraction and quality assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Study characteristics, including population, methods and results, were extracted and evaluated for bias and applicability using the Checklist for Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modelling Studies and PROBAST (Prediction model Risk Of Bias Assessment Tool). RESULTS: Of 7049 unique studies screened, 196 underwent full text review and 18 were included. The most common outcome was viral-specific influenza (n=7; 58%). Internal validation was performed in 8 studies (44%), 10 studies (56%) reported discrimination measures, 4 studies (22%) reported calibration measures and none performed external validation. According to PROBAST, a high risk of bias was identified in the analytic aspects in all studies. However, the existing studies had minimal bias concerns related to the study populations, inclusion and modelling of predictors, and outcome ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic prediction can aid clinicians in aetiological diagnoses of viral ARIs. External validation should be performed on rigorously internally validated models with populations intended for model application. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022308917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Bias , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 151(4): 926-930.e2, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against type I IFNs occur in approximately 10% of adults with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The frequency of anti-IFN autoantibodies in children with severe sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We quantified anti-type I IFN autoantibodies in a multicenter cohort of children with severe COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: Circulating anti-IFN-α2 antibodies were measured by a radioligand binding assay. Whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and functional studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to study any patients with levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies exceeding the assay's positive control. RESULTS: Among 168 patients with severe COVID-19, 199 with MIS-C, and 45 with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections, only 1 had high levels of anti-IFN-α2 antibodies. Anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies were not detected in patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin before sample collection. Whole-exome sequencing identified a missense variant in the ankyrin domain of NFKB2, encoding the p100 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells, aka NF-κB, essential for noncanonical NF-κB signaling. The patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibited impaired cleavage of p100 characteristic of NFKB2 haploinsufficiency, an inborn error of immunity with a high prevalence of autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of anti-IFN-α2 autoantibodies in children and adolescents with MIS-C, severe COVID-19, and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare but can occur in patients with inborn errors of immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoantibodies , NF-kappa B , Haploinsufficiency , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
5.
J Pediatr ; 257: 113372, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287980

ABSTRACT

Aseptic meningitis is a rare but potentially serious complication of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. In this case series, meningitic symptoms following intravenous immunoglobulin initiation in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome were rare (7/2,086 [0.3%]). However, they required the need for additional therapy and/or readmission.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Meningitis, Aseptic , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis , Meningitis, Aseptic/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Disease Progression
6.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(5): 356-371, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used successfully to support adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related cardiac or respiratory failure refractory to conventional therapies. Comprehensive reports of children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2-related ECMO support for conditions, including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and acute COVID-19, are needed. DESIGN: Case series of patients from the Overcoming COVID-19 public health surveillance registry. SETTING: Sixty-three hospitals in 32 U.S. states reporting to the registry between March 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021. PATIENTS: Patients less than 21 years admitted to the ICU meeting Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final cohort included 2,733 patients with MIS-C ( n = 1,530; 37 [2.4%] requiring ECMO) or acute COVID-19 ( n = 1,203; 71 [5.9%] requiring ECMO). ECMO patients in both groups were older than those without ECMO support (MIS-C median 15.4 vs 9.9 yr; acute COVID-19 median 15.3 vs 13.6 yr). The body mass index percentile was similar in the MIS-C ECMO versus no ECMO groups (89.9 vs 85.8; p = 0.22) but higher in the COVID-19 ECMO versus no ECMO groups (98.3 vs 96.5; p = 0.03). Patients on ECMO with MIS-C versus COVID-19 were supported more often with venoarterial ECMO (92% vs 41%) for primary cardiac indications (87% vs 23%), had ECMO initiated earlier (median 1 vs 5 d from hospitalization), shorter ECMO courses (median 3.9 vs 14 d), shorter hospital length of stay (median 20 vs 52 d), lower in-hospital mortality (27% vs 37%), and less major morbidity at discharge in survivors (new tracheostomy, oxygen or mechanical ventilation need or neurologic deficit; 0% vs 11%, 0% vs 20%, and 8% vs 15%, respectively). Most patients with MIS-C requiring ECMO support (87%) were admitted during the pre-Delta (variant B.1.617.2) period, while most patients with acute COVID-19 requiring ECMO support (70%) were admitted during the Delta variant period. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO support for SARS-CoV-2-related critical illness was uncommon, but type, initiation, and duration of ECMO use in MIS-C and acute COVID-19 were markedly different. Like pre-pandemic pediatric ECMO cohorts, most patients survived to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(3): ofad122, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272461

ABSTRACT

Background: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reportedly uncommon, though empiric antibiotic use has been high. However, data regarding empiric antibiotic use and bacterial coinfection in children with critical illness from COVID-19 are scarce. Methods: We evaluated children and adolescents aged <19 years admitted to a pediatric intensive care or high-acuity unit for COVID-19 between March and December 2020. Based on qualifying microbiology results from the first 3 days of admission, we adjudicated whether patients had community-onset bacterial coinfection. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of those who did and did not (1) receive antibiotics and (2) have bacterial coinfection early in admission. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed factors associated with these outcomes. Results: Of the 532 patients, 63.3% received empiric antibiotics, but only 7.1% had bacterial coinfection, and only 3.0% had respiratory bacterial coinfection. In multivariable analyses, empiric antibiotics were more likely to be prescribed for immunocompromised patients (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.34 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.79]), those requiring any respiratory support except mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05-1.90]), or those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.36-2.47]) (compared with no respiratory support). The presence of a pulmonary comorbidity other than asthma (aRR, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.15-4.62]) was associated with bacterial coinfection. Conclusions: Community-onset bacterial coinfection in children with critical COVID-19 is infrequent, but empiric antibiotics are commonly prescribed. These findings inform antimicrobial use and support rapid de-escalation when evaluation shows coinfection is unlikely.

8.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242492

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic, neurologic involvement was common in children and adolescents hospitalized in the United States for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complications. Objective: To provide an update on the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement among children and adolescents in 2021. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series investigation of patients reported to public health surveillance hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related illness between December 15, 2020, and December 31, 2021, in 55 US hospitals in 31 states with follow-up at hospital discharge. A total of 2253 patients were enrolled during the investigation period. Patients suspected of having multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who did not meet criteria (n = 85) were excluded. Patients (<21 years) with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) meeting criteria for MIS-C or acute COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening neurologic involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiological features. Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, vaccination status, and hospital discharge outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits). Results: Of 2168 patients included (58% male; median age, 10.3 years), 1435 (66%) met criteria for MIS-C, and 476 (22%) had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement vs without were older (median age, 12 vs 10 years) and more frequently had underlying neurologic disorders (107 of 476 [22%] vs 240 of 1692 [14%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 42 (9%) developed acute SARS-CoV-2-related life-threatening conditions, including central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 23; 15 with possible/confirmed encephalitis, 6 meningitis, 1 transverse myelitis, 1 nonhemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy), stroke (n = 11), severe encephalopathy (n = 5), acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 2), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1). Ten of 42 (24%) survived with new neurologic deficits at discharge and 8 (19%) died. Among patients with life-threatening neurologic conditions, 15 of 16 vaccine-eligible patients (94%) were unvaccinated. Conclusions and Relevance: SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic involvement persisted in US children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or MIS-C in 2021 and was again mostly transient. Central nervous system infection/demyelination accounted for a higher proportion of life-threatening conditions, and most vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. COVID-19 vaccination may prevent some SARS-CoV-2-related neurologic complications and merits further study.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2254909, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234746

ABSTRACT

Importance: Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses, which continued to circulate during the COVID-19 pandemic, are commonly detected in pediatric patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Yet detailed characterization of rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection over time is limited, especially by age group and health care setting. Objective: To quantify and characterize rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents seeking medical care for ARI at emergency departments (EDs) or hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN), a multicenter, active, prospective surveillance platform, for pediatric patients who sought medical care for fever and/or respiratory symptoms at 7 EDs or hospitals within NVSN across the US between December 2016 and February 2021. Persons younger than 18 years were enrolled in NVSN, and respiratory specimens were collected and tested for multiple viruses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients in whom rhinovirus and/or enterovirus, or another virus, was detected by calendar month and by prepandemic (December 1, 2016, to March 11, 2020) or pandemic (March 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021) periods. Month-specific adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results (among all tested) by setting (ED or inpatient) and age group (<2, 2-4, or 5-17 years) were calculated, comparing each month during the pandemic to equivalent months of previous years. Results: Of the 38 198 children and adolescents who were enrolled and tested, 11 303 (29.6%; mean [SD] age, 2.8 [3.7] years; 6733 boys [59.6%]) had rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results. In prepandemic and pandemic periods, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in 29.4% (9795 of 33 317) and 30.9% (1508 of 4881) of all patients who were enrolled and tested and in 42.2% (9795 of 23 236) and 73.0% (1508 of 2066) of those with test positivity for any virus, respectively. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were the most frequently detected viruses in both periods and all age groups in the ED and inpatient setting. From April to September 2020 (pandemic period), rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detectable at similar or lower odds than in prepandemic years, with aORs ranging from 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.19) to 0.76 (95% CI, 0.55-1.05) in the ED and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01-0.11) to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.07) in the inpatient setting. However, unlike some other viruses, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses soon returned to prepandemic levels and from October 2020 to February 2021 were detected at similar or higher odds than in prepandemic months in both settings, with aORs ranging from 1.47 (95% CI, 1.12-1.93) to 3.01 (95% CI, 2.30-3.94) in the ED and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03-1.79) to 2.44 (95% CI, 1.78-3.34) in the inpatient setting, and in all age groups. Compared with prepandemic years, during the pandemic, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in patients who were slightly older, although most (74.5% [1124 of 1508]) were younger than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study show that rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses persisted and were the most common respiratory virus group detected across all pediatric age groups and in both ED and inpatient settings. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses remain a leading factor in ARI health care burden, and active ARI surveillance in children and adolescents remains critical for defining the health care burden of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Male , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Rhinovirus , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization for persons ≥16 years in December 2020 and for adolescents 12-15 years in May 2021. Despite the clear benefits and favorable safety profile, vaccine uptake in adolescents has been suboptimal. We sought to assess factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in adolescents 12-18 years of age. METHODS: Between June 1, 2021 and April 29, 2022, we assessed factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in hospitalized adolescents ages 12-18 years enrolled in the Overcoming COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness network. Demographic characteristics and clinical information were captured through parent interview and/or electronic medical record abstraction; COVID-19 vaccination was assessed through documented sources. We assessed associations between receipt of COVID-19 vaccine and demographic and clinical factors using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for each factor associated with non-vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1,665 hospitalized adolescents without COVID-19, 56% were unvaccinated. Unvaccinated adolescents were younger (median age 15.1 years vs. 15.4 years, p<0.01) and resided in areas with higher social vulnerability index (SVI) scores (median 0.6 vs 0.5, p<0.001) than vaccinated adolescents. Residence in the Midwest [aOR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.80, 3.79)] or South [aOR 2.49 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.54)] US census regions, rarely or never receiving influenza vaccine [aOR 5.31 (95% CI: 3.81, 7.47)], and rarely or never taking precautions against COVID-19 [aOR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.94, 5.31)] were associated with non-vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents should focus on persons with geographic, socioeconomic, and medical risk factors associated with non-vaccination.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS: We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS: Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228064

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized through a Notch1-dependent mechanism. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variants impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant-negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL leading to Notch1 upregulation. Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in a mTORC1-dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 227(12): 1343-1347, 2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222658

ABSTRACT

From 2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) household transmission studies (enrolling April 2020 to January 2022) with rapid enrollment and specimen collection for 14 days, 61% (43/70) of primary cases had culturable virus detected ≥6 days post-onset. Risk of secondary infection among household contacts tended to be greater when primary cases had culturable virus detected after onset. Regardless of duration of culturable virus, most secondary infections (70%, 28/40) had serial intervals <6 days, suggesting early transmission. These data examine viral culture as a proxy for infectiousness, reaffirm the need for rapid control measures after infection, and highlight the potential for prolonged infectiousness (≥6 days) in many individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tennessee/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , California/epidemiology
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(20): e025915, 2022 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138319

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac complications related to COVID-19 in children and adolescents include ventricular dysfunction, myocarditis, coronary artery aneurysm, and bradyarrhythmias, but tachyarrhythmias are less understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of children and adolescents experiencing tachyarrhythmias while hospitalized for acute severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Methods and Results This study involved a case series of 63 patients with tachyarrhythmias reported in a public health surveillance registry of patients aged <21 years hospitalized from March 15, 2020, to December 31, 2021, at 63 US hospitals. Patients with tachyarrhythmias were compared with patients with severe COVID-19-related complications without tachyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias were reported in 22 of 1257 patients (1.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 41 of 2343 (1.7%) patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. They included supraventricular tachycardia in 28 (44%), accelerated junctional rhythm in 9 (14%), and ventricular tachycardia in 38 (60%); >1 type was reported in 12 (19%). Registry patients with versus without tachyarrhythmia were older (median age, 15.4 [range, 10.4-17.4] versus 10.0 [range, 5.4-14.8] years) and had higher illness severity on hospital admission. Intervention for treatment of tachyarrhythmia was required in 37 (59%) patients and included antiarrhythmic medication (n=31, 49%), electrical cardioversion (n=11, 17%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n=8, 13%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=9, 14%). Patients with tachyarrhythmias had longer hospital length of stay than those who did not, and 9 (14%) versus 77 (2%) died. Conclusions Tachyarrhythmias were a rare complication of acute severe COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents and were associated with worse clinical outcomes, highlighting the importance of close monitoring, aggressive treatment, and postdischarge care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Hospitalization , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy
17.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) overlap with other syndromes, making the diagnosis difficult for clinicians. We aimed to compare clinical differences between patients with and without clinical MIS-C diagnosis and develop a diagnostic prediction model to assist clinicians in identification of patients with MIS-C within the first 24 hours of hospital presentation. METHODS: A cohort of 127 patients (<21 years) were admitted to an academic children's hospital and evaluated for MIS-C. The primary outcome measure was MIS-C diagnosis at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Clinical, laboratory, and cardiac features were extracted from the medical record, compared among groups, and selected a priori to identify candidate predictors. Final predictors were identified through a logistic regression model with bootstrapped backward selection in which only variables selected in more than 80% of 500 bootstraps were included in the final model. RESULTS: Of 127 children admitted to our hospital with concern for MIS-C, 45 were clinically diagnosed with MIS-C and 82 were diagnosed with alternative diagnoses. We found a model with four variables-the presence of hypotension and/or fluid resuscitation, abdominal pain, new rash, and the value of serum sodium-showed excellent discrimination (concordance index 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.96) and good calibration in identifying patients with MIS-C. CONCLUSION: A diagnostic prediction model with early clinical and laboratory features shows excellent discrimination and may assist clinicians in distinguishing patients with MIS-C. This model will require external and prospective validation prior to widespread use.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(8): 1351-1358, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in blood has high sensitivity in adults with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but sensitivity in pediatric patients is unclear. Recent data suggest that persistent SARS-CoV-2 spike antigenemia may contribute to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We quantified SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) antigens in blood of pediatric patients with either acute COVID-19 or MIS-C using ultrasensitive immunoassays (Meso Scale Discovery). METHODS: Plasma was collected from inpatients (<21 years) enrolled across 15 hospitals in 15 US states. Acute COVID-19 patients (n = 36) had a range of disease severity and positive nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR within 24 hours of blood collection. Patients with MIS-C (n = 53) met CDC criteria and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR or serology). Controls were patients pre-COVID-19 (n = 67) or within 24 hours of negative RT-PCR (n = 43). RESULTS: Specificities of N and S assays were 95-97% and 100%, respectively. In acute COVID-19 patients, N/S plasma assays had 89%/64% sensitivity; sensitivities in patients with concurrent nasopharyngeal swab cycle threshold (Ct) ≤35 were 93%/63%. Antigen concentrations ranged from 1.28-3844 pg/mL (N) and 1.65-1071 pg/mL (S) and correlated with disease severity. In MIS-C, antigens were detected in 3/53 (5.7%) samples (3 N-positive: 1.7, 1.9, 121.1 pg/mL; 1 S-positive: 2.3 pg/mL); the patient with highest N had positive nasopharyngeal RT-PCR (Ct 22.3) concurrent with blood draw. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasensitive blood SARS-CoV-2 antigen measurement has high diagnostic yield in children with acute COVID-19. Antigens were undetectable in most MIS-C patients, suggesting that persistent antigenemia is not a common contributor to MIS-C pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Immunoassay , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1253-1259, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056547

ABSTRACT

The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) is a prospective, active, population-based surveillance platform that enrolls children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at seven pediatric medical centers. ARIs are caused by respiratory viruses including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which result in morbidity among infants and young children (1-6). NVSN estimates the incidence of pathogen-specific pediatric ARIs and collects clinical data (e.g., underlying medical conditions and vaccination status) to assess risk factors for severe disease and calculate influenza and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. Current NVSN inpatient (i.e., hospital) surveillance began in 2015, expanded to emergency departments (EDs) in 2016, and to outpatient clinics in 2018. This report describes demographic characteristics of enrolled children who received care in these settings, and yearly circulation of influenza, RSV, HMPV, HPIV1-3, adenovirus, human rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV),* and SARS-CoV-2 during December 2016-August 2021. Among 90,085 eligible infants, children, and adolescents (children) aged <18 years† with ARI, 51,441 (57%) were enrolled, nearly 75% of whom were aged <5 years; 43% were hospitalized. Infants aged <1 year accounted for the largest proportion (38%) of those hospitalized. The most common pathogens detected were RV/EV and RSV. Before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, detected respiratory viruses followed previously described seasonal trends, with annual peaks of influenza and RSV in late fall and winter (7,8). After the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and implementation of associated pandemic nonpharmaceutical interventions and community mitigation measures, many respiratory viruses circulated at lower-than-expected levels during April 2020-May 2021. Beginning in summer 2021, NVSN detected higher than anticipated enrollment of hospitalized children as well as atypical interseasonal circulation of RSV. Further analyses of NVSN data and continued surveillance are vital in highlighting risk factors for severe disease and health disparities, measuring the effectiveness of vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based prophylactics, and guiding policies to protect young children from pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Clin Invest ; 132(17)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009250
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