Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
1.
Hall, Andrew J.; Clement, Nicholas D.; Ojeda-Thies, Cristina, MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.; Toro, Giuseppe, Johansen, Antony, White, Tim O.; Duckworth, Andrew D.; Abdul-Jabar, Hani, Abu-Rajab, Rashid, Abugarja, Ahmed, Adam, Karen, Aguado Hernández, Héctor J.; Améstica Lazcano, Gedeón, Anderson, Sarah, Ansar, Mahmood, Antrobus, Jonathan, Aragón Achig, Esteban Javier, Archunan, Maheswaran, Arrieta Salinas, Mirentxu, Ashford-Wilson, Sarah, Assens Gibert, Cristina, Athanasopoulou, Katerina, Awadelkarim, Mohamed, Baird, Stuart, Bajada, Stefan, Balakrishnan, Shobana, Balasubramanian, Sathishkumar, Ballantyne, James A.; Bárcena Goitiandia, Leopoldo, Barkham, Benjamin, Barmpagianni, Christina, Barres-Carsi, Mariano, Barrett, Sarah, Baskaran, Dinnish, Bell, Jean, Bell, Katrina, Bell, Stuart, Bellelli, Giuseppe, Benchimol, Javier Alberto, Boietti, Bruno Rafael, Boswell, Sally, Braile, Adriano, Brennan, Caitlin, Brent, Louise, Brooke, Ben, Bruno, Gaetano, Burahee, Abdus, Burns, Shirley, Calabrò, Giampiero, Campbell, Lucy, Carabelli, Guido Sebastian, Carnegie, Carol, Carretero Cristobal, Guillermo, Caruana, Ethan, Cassinello Ogea, M. Concepción, Castellanos Robles, Juan, Castillon, Pablo, Chakrabarti, Anil, Cecere, Antonio Benedetto, Chen, Ping, Clarke, Jon V.; Collins, Grace, Corrales Cardenal, Jorge E.; Corsi, Maurizio, Cózar Adelantado, Gara María, Craxford, Simon, Crooks, Melissa, Cuarental-García, Javier, Cuthbert, Rory, Dall, Graham, Daskalakis, Ioannis, De Cicco, Annalisa, Diana, de la Fuente de Dios, Demaria, Pablo, Dereix, John, Díaz Jiménez, Julian, Dinamarca Montecinos, José Luis, Do Le, Ha Phuong, Donoso Coppa, Juan Pablo, Drosos, Georgios, Duffy, Andrew, East, Jamie, Eastwood, Deborah, Elbahari, Hassan, Elias de Molins Peña, Carmen, Elmamoun, Mamoun, Emmerson, Ben, Escobar Sánchez, Daniel, Faimali, Martina, Farré-Mercadé, Maria Victòria, Farrow, Luke, Fayez, Almari, Fell, Adam, Fenner, Christopher, Ferguson, David, Finlayson, Louise, Flores Gómez, Aldo, Freeman, Nicholas, French, Jonathan, Gabardo Calvo, Santiago, Gagliardo, Nicola, Garcia Albiñana, Joan, García Cruz, Guillermo, García de Cortázar Antolín, Unai, García Virto, Virginia, Gealy, Sophie, Gil Caballero, Sandra Marcela, Gill, Moneet, González González, María Soledad, Gopireddy, Rajesh, Guntley, Diane, Gurung, Binay, Guzmán Rosales, Guadalupe, Haddad, Nedaa, Hafeez, Mahum, Haller, Petra, Halligan, Emer, Hardie, John, Hawker, Imogen, Helal, Amr, Herrera Cruz, Mariana, Herreros Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Ruben, Horton, James, Howells, Sean, Howieson, Alan, Hughes, Luke, Hünicken Torrez, Flavia Lorena, Hurtado Ortega, Ana, Huxley, Peter, Hamid, Hytham K. S.; Ilahi, Nida, Iliadis, Alexis, Inman, Dominic, Jadhao, Piyush, Jandoo, Rajan, Jawad, Lucy, Jayatilaka, Malwattage Lara Tania, Jenkins, Paul J.; Jeyapalan, Rathan, Johnson, David, Johnston, Andrew, Joseph, Sarah, Kapoor, Siddhant, Karagiannidis, Georgios, Karanam, Krishna Saga, Kattakayam, Freddy, Konarski, Alastair, Kontakis, Georgios, Labrador Hernández, Gregorio, Lancaster, Victoria, Landi, Giovanni, Le, Brian, Liew, Ignatius, Logishetty, Kartik, Lopez Marquez, Andrew Carlomaria Daniel, Lopez, Judit, Lum, Joann, Macpherson, Gavin J.; Madan, Suvira, Mahroof, Sabreena, Malik-Tabassum, Khalid, Mallina, Ravi, Maqsood, Afnan, Marson, Ben, Martin Legorburo, M. José, Martin-Perez, Encarna, Martínez Jiménez, Tania, Martinez Martin, Javier, Mayne, Alistair, Mayor, Amy, McAlinden, Gavan, McLean, Lucille, McDonald, Lorna, McIntyre, Joshua, McKay, Pamela, McKean, Greg, McShane, Heather, Medici, Antonio, Meeke, Chelsea, Meldrum, Evonne, Mendez, Mijail, Mercer, Scott, Merino Perez, Josu, Mesa-Lampré, María-Pilar, Mighton, Shuna, Milne, Kirsty, Mohamed Yaseen, Muhammed, Moppett, Iain, Mora, Jesus, Morales-Zumel, Sira, Moreno Fenoll, Irene Blanca, Mousa, Adham, Murray, Alastair W.; Murray, Elspeth V.; Nair, Radhika, Neary, Fiona, Negri, Giacomo, Negus, Oliver, Newham-Harvey, Fiona, Ng, Nigel, Nightingale, Jess, Noor Mohamed Anver, Sumiya, Nunag, Perrico, O'Hare, Matthew, Ollivere, Ben, Ortés Gómez, Raquel, Owens, AnneMarie, Page, Siobhan, Palloni, Valentina, Panagiotopoulos, Andreas, Panagiotopoulos, Elias, Panesar, Paul, Papadopoulos, Antonios, Spyridon, Papagiannis, Pareja Sierra, Teresa, Park, Chang, Parwaiz, Hammad, Paterson-Byrne, Paul, Patton, Sam, Pearce, Jack, Porter, Marina, Pellegrino, Achille, Pèrez Cuellar, Arturo, Pezzella, Raffaele, Phadnis, Ashish, Pinder, Charlotte, Piper, Danielle, Powell-Bowns, Matilda, Prieto Martín, Rocío, Probert, Annabel, Ramesh, Ashwanth, Ramírez de Arellano, Manuel Vicente Mejía, Renton, Duncan, Rickman, Stephen, Robertson, Alastair, Roche Albero, Adrian, Rodrigo Verguizas, José Alberto, Rodríguez Couso, Myriam, Rooney, Joanna, Sáez-López, Pilar, Saldaña-Díaz, Andres, Santulli, Adriano, Sanz Pérez, Marta Isabel, Sarraf, Khaled M.; Scarsbrook, Christine, Scott, Chloe E. H.; Scott, Jennifer, Shah, Sachi, Sharaf, Sharief, Sharma, Sidharth, Shirley, Denise, Siano, Antonio, Simpson, James, Singh, Abhinav, Singh, Amit, Sinnett, Tim, Sisodia, Gurudatt, Smith, Philomena, Sophena Bert, Eugenia, Steel, Michael, Stewart, Avril, Stewart, Claire, Sugand, Kapil, Sullivan, Niall, Sweeting, Lauren, Symes, Michael, Tan, Dylan Jun Hao, Tancredi, Francesco, Tatani, Irini, Thomas, Philip, Thomson, Fraser, Toner, Niamh S.; Tong, Anna, Toro, Antonio, Tosounidis, Theodoros, Tottas, Stylianos, Trinidad Leo, Andrea, Tucker, Damien, Vemulapalli, Krishna, Ventura Garces, Diego, Vernon, Olivia Katherine, Viveros Garcia, Juan Carlos, Ward, Alex, Ward, Kirsty, Watson, Kate, Weerasuriya, Thisara, Wickramanayake, Udara, Wilkinson, Hannah, Windley, Joseph, Wood, Janet, Wynell-Mayow, William, Zatti, Giovanni, Zeiton, Moez, Zurrón Lobato, Miriam.
The Surgeon ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1763986

ABSTRACT

Aims This international study aimed to assess: 1) the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative COVID-19 among patients with hip fracture, 2) the effect on 30-day mortality, and 3) clinical factors associated with the infection and with mortality in COVID-19-positive patients. Methods A multicentre collaboration among 112 centres in 14 countries collected data on all patients presenting with a hip fracture between 1st March-31st May 2020. Demographics, residence, place of injury, presentation blood tests, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, management, ASA grade, length of stay, COVID-19 and 30-day mortality status were recorded. Results A total of 7090 patients were included, with a mean age of 82.2 (range 50-104) years and 4959 (70%) being female. Of 651 (9.2%) patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 225 (34.6%) were positive at presentation and 426 (65.4%) became positive postoperatively. Positive COVID-19 status was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.38, p=0.001), residential care (OR 2.15, p<0.001), inpatient fall (OR 2.23, p=0.003), cancer (OR 0.63, p=0.009), ASA grade 4-5 (OR 1.59, p=0.008;OR 8.28, p<0.001), and longer admission (OR 1.06 for each increasing day, p<0.001). Patients with COVID-19 at any time had a significantly lower chance of 30-day survival versus those without COVID-19 (72.7% versus 92.6%, p<0.001). COVID-19 was independently associated with an increased 30-day mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 2.83, p<0.001). Increasing age (HR 1.03, p=0.028), male sex (HR 2.35, p<0.001), renal disease (HR 1.53, p=0.017), and pulmonary disease (HR 1.45, p=0.039) were independently associated with a higher 30-day mortality risk in patients with COVID-19 when adjusting for confounders. Conclusion The prevalence of COVID-19 in hip fracture patients during the first wave of the pandemic was 9%, and was independently associated with a three-fold increased 30-day mortality risk. Among COVID-19-positive patients, those who were older, male, with renal or pulmonary disease had a significantly higher mortality risk.

2.
Am J Infect Control ; 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns towards domestic laundering of healthcare worker (HCW) uniforms; this is common practice in countries such as the United Kingdom (UK) and United States. Previous research suggested 4-32% of nurses did not adhere to laundry policies, which could be an infection control risk. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of UK healthcare workers towards domestic laundering of uniforms during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Online and paper questionnaires were distributed to HCWs and nursing students who regularly wear uniforms. Differences in knowledge between HCWs were analyzed by Chi-squared tests and attitudes were examined using exploratory factor analysis. RESULTS: About 86% of participants (n = 1099 of 1277) laundered their uniforms domestically. Respondents were confident in laundering their uniforms appropriately (71%), however 17% failed to launder at the recommended temperature (60°C). Most participants (68%) would prefer their employer launder their uniforms, with mixed negative emotions towards domestic laundering. Limited provision of uniforms and changing and/or storage facilities were a barrier to following guidelines. CONCLUSION: Most HCWs domestically launder their uniforms, despite a preference for professional laundering. One-fifth of HCWs deviated from the UK National Health Service uniform guidelines; onsite changing facilities were the most significant barrier towards adherence.

3.
Sci Adv ; 7(52): eabk1755, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608794

ABSTRACT

The 2020 U.S. election saw a record turnout, saw a huge increase in absentee voting, and brought unified national Democratic control­yet these facts alone do not imply that vote-by-mail increased turnout or benefited Democrats. Using new microdata on millions of individual voters and aggregated turnout data across all 50 states, this paper offers a causal analysis of the impact of absentee vote-by-mail during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. Focusing on natural experiments in Texas and Indiana, we find that 65-year-olds voted at nearly the same rate as 64-year-olds, despite the fact that only 65-year-olds could vote absentee without an excuse. Being just old enough to vote no-excuse absentee did not substantially increase Democratic turnout relative to Republican turnout. Voter interest appeared to be more important in driving turnout across vote modes, neutralizing the electoral impact of Democrats voting by mail at higher rates during the historic pandemic.

5.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256004

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
6.
Med Teach ; 43(7): 810-816, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243349

ABSTRACT

Competency-based medical education has been advocated as the future of medical education for nearly a half-century. Inherent to this is the promise that advancement and transitions in training would be defined by readiness to practice rather than by time. Of the logistical problems facing competency-based, time-variable (CBTV) training, enacting time variability may be the largest hurdle to clear. Although it is true that an 'all or nothing' approach to CBTV training would require massive overhauls of both medical education and health care systems, the authors propose that training institutions should gradually evolve within their current environments to incrementally move toward the best version of CBTV training for learners, supervisors, and patients. In support of this evolution, the authors seek to demonstrate the feasibility of advancing toward the goal of realistic CBTV training by detailing examples of successful CBTV training and describing key features of initial steps toward CBTV training implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Clinical Competence , Competency-Based Education , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Surgeon ; 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240628

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in major disruption to hip fracture services. This frail patient group requires specialist care, and disruption to services is likely to result in increases in morbidity, mortality and long-term healthcare costs. AIMS: To assess disruption to hip fracture services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed for completion by a senior clinician or service manager in each participating unit between April-September 2020. The survey was incorporated into existing national-level audits in Germany (n = 71), Scotland (n = 16), and Ireland (n = 16). Responses from a further 82 units in 11 nations were obtained via an online survey. RESULTS: There were 185 units from 14 countries that returned the survey. 102/160 (63.7%) units reported a worsening of overall service quality, which was attributed predominantly to staff redistribution, reallocation of inpatient areas, and reduced access to surgical facilities. There was a high rate of redeployment of staff to other services: two thirds lost specialist orthopaedic nurses, a third lost orthogeriatrics services, and a quarter lost physiotherapists. Reallocation of inpatient areas resulted in patients being managed by non-specialised teams in generic wards, which increased transit of patients and staff between clinical areas. There was reduced operating department access, with 74/160 (46.2%) centres reporting a >50% reduction. Reduced theatre efficiency was reported by 135/160 (84.4%) and was attributed to staff and resource redistribution, longer anaesthetic and transfer times, and delays for preoperative COVID-19 testing and using personal protective equipment (PPE). CONCLUSION: Hip fracture services were disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic and this may have a sustained impact on health and social care. Protection of hip fracture services is essential to ensure satisfactory outcomes for this vulnerable patient group.

8.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 681-688, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166984

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to assess the rate of postoperative COVID-19 following hip and knee arthroplasty performed in March 2020 in the UK. The secondary aims were to assess whether there were clinical factors associated with COVID-19 status, the mortality rate of patients with COVID-19, and the rate of potential COVID-19 in patients not presenting to healthcare services. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective study was conducted of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March 2020 to 31 March 2020) with a minimum of 60 days follow-up. Patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, procedure type, primary or revision, length of stay (LOS), COVID-19 test status, and postoperative mortality were recorded. A subgroup of patients (n = 211) who had not presented to healthcare services after discharge were contacted and questioned as to whether they had symptoms of COVID-19. RESULTS: Five (0.5%) of 1,073 patients who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 postoperatively. When adjusting for confounding factors, increasing LOS (p = 0.022) was the only significant factor associated with developing COVID-19 following surgery and a stay greater than three days was a reliable predictor with an area under the curve of 81% (p = 0.018). There were three (0.3%) deaths in the study cohort and the overall mortality rate attributable to COVID-19 was 0.09% (n = 1/1,073), with one (20%) of the five patients with COVID-19 dying postoperatively. Of the 211 patients contacted, two had symptoms within two to 14 days postoperatively with a positive predictive value of 31% and it was therefore estimated that one patient may have had undiagnosed COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The rate of postoperative COVID-19 was 0.5% and may have been as high as 1% when accounting for those patients not presenting to healthcare services, which was similar to the estimated population prevalence during the study period. The overall mortality rate secondary to COVID-19 was low (0.09%), however the mortality rate for those patients developing COVID-19 was 20%. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):681-688.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Audit , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14549, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109524

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Motor Activity/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Accelerometry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
10.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 888-897, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045576

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to determine the influence of COVID-19 on 30-day mortality following hip fracture. Secondary aims were to determine predictors of COVID-19 status on presentation and later in the admission; the rate of hospital acquired COVID-19; and the predictive value of negative swabs on admission. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients presenting with a hip fracture to 17 Scottish centres in March and April 2020. Demographics, presentation blood tests, COVID-19 status, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, management, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: In all, 78/833 (9.4%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. The 30-day survival of patients with COVID-19 was significantly lower than for those without (65.4% vs 91%; p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 within seven days of admission (likely community acquired) was independently associated with male sex (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, p = 0.040, confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 5.25) and symptoms of COVID-19 (OR 15.56, CI 6.61 to 36.60, p < 0.001). Diagnosis of COVID-19 made between seven and 30 days of admission to hospital (likely hospital acquired) was independently associated with male sex (OR 1.73, CI 1.05 to 2.87, p = 0.032), Nottingham Hip Fracture Score ≥ 7 (OR 1.91, CI 1.09 to 3.34, p = 0.024), pulmonary disease (OR 1.68, CI 1.00 to 2.81, p = 0.049), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥ 3 (OR 2.37, CI 1.13 to 4.97, p = 0.022), and length of stay ≥ nine days (OR 1.98, CI 1.18 to 3.31, p = 0.009). A total of 38 (58.5%) COVID-19 cases were probably hospital acquired infections. The false-negative rate of a negative swab on admission was 0% in asymptomatic patients and 2.9% in symptomatic patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with a three times increased 30-day mortality rate. Nosocomial transmission may have accounted for approximately half of all cases during the first wave of the pandemic. Identification of risk factors for having COVID-19 on admission or acquiring COVID-19 in hospital may guide pathways for isolating or shielding patients respectively. Length of stay was the only modifiable risk factor, which emphasizes the importance of high-quality and timely care in this patient group. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):888-897.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hip Fractures/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
11.
Bone Joint Res ; 9(12): 873-883, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992623

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aims of this meta-analysis were to assess: 1) the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hip fracture patients; 2) the associated mortality rate and risk associated with COVID-19; 3) the patient demographics associated with COVID-19; 4) time of diagnosis; and 5) length of follow-up after diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: Searches of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were performed in October 2020 in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Search terms included "hip", "fracture", and "COVID-19". The criteria for inclusion were published clinical articles reporting the mortality rate associated with COVID-19 in hip fracture patients. In total, 53 articles were identified and following full text screening 28 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 28 studies reported the mortality of COVID-19-positive patients, of which 21 studies reported the prevalence of COVID-19-positive patients and compared the mortality rate to COVID-19-negative patients. The prevalence of COVID-19 was 13% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11% to 16%) and was associated with a crude mortality rate of 35% (95% CI 32% to 39%), which was a significantly increased risk compared to those patients without COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 7.11, 95% CI 5.04 to 10.04; p < 0.001). COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to be male (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.96; p = 0.002). The duration of follow-up was reported in 20 (71.4%) studies. A total of 17 studies reported whether a patient presented with COVID-19 (n = 108 patients, 35.1%) or developed COVID-19 following admission (n = 200, 64.9%), of which six studies reported a mean time to diagnosis of post-admission COVID-19 at 15 days (2 to 25). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of COVID-19 was 13%, of which approximately one-third of patients were diagnosed on admission, and was associated with male sex. COVID-19-positive patients had a crude mortality rate of 35%, being seven times greater than those without COVID-19. Due to the heterogenicity of the reported data minimum reporting standards of outcomes associated with COVID-19 are suggested. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(12):873-883.

12.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(4): 92-94, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a struggle for medical systems throughout the world. In austere locations in which testing, resupply, and evacuation have been limited or impossible, unique challenges exist. This case series demonstrates the importance of population isolation in preventing disease from overwhelming medical assets. METHODS: This is a case series describing the outbreak of COVID-19 in an isolated population in Africa. The population consists of a main population with a Role 2 capability, with several supported satellite populations with a Role 1 capability. Outbreaks in five satellite population centers occurred over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic from its start on approximately 1 March 2020 until 28 April 2020, when a more robust medical asset became available at the central evacuation hub within the main population. RESULTS: Population movement controls and the use of telehealth prevented the spread within the main population at risk and enabled the setup of medical assets to prepare for anticipated widespread disease. CONCLUSION: Isolation of disease in the satellite populations and treating in place, rather than immediately moving to the larger population center's medical facilities, prevented widespread exposure. Isolation also protected critical patient transport capabilities for use for high-risk patients. In addition, this strategy provided time and resources to develop infrastructure to handle anticipated larger outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Africa , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Prev Med ; 143: 106371, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972474

ABSTRACT

The initial response to COVID-19 included quarantine policies. This study aims to determine the infection containment proportions and cost of two variations of quarantine policies based on geographic travel and close contact with infected individuals within deployed US military populations. Special Operations Command Africa (SOCAF) records of individuals quarantined between March 1, 2020 and June 1, 2020 were examined. The infection containment proportion and cost in containment hours were compared between types of quarantine and between geographic areas. Geographic quarantine contained 2 cases out of 63 quarantined individuals in West Africa (3.2%) compared to 0 out of 221 in East Africa (p = 0.0486). Close contact quarantine contained 3 cases out of 31 quarantined individuals in West Africa compared to 4 out of 55 in East Africa (7.3%, p = 0.6989). Total confinement was 42,048 h for each contained infection using geographic quarantine compared to 4076 h using close contact quarantine. In the US military population deployed to Africa for COVID-19, quarantining based on geographic movement is an order of magnitude more costly in terms of time for each contained infection then quarantining based on close contact with infected individuals. There is not a statistical difference between East and West Africa. The associated costs of quarantine must be carefully weighed against the risk of disease spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Geography/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/economics , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Africa, Eastern , Africa, Western , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
OR-MS Today ; 47(4), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-953420

ABSTRACT

Ruiz et al discuss the use of Kaggle in classrooms. Kaggle is an online data science platform best known for its public machine learning competitions. Since its inception in 2008, Kaggle has hosted thousands of competitions to advance research on a myriad of topics ranging from satellite imagery feature detection to COVID-19 research analysis. Besides hosting these global competitions, Kaggle has grown into an expansive data science educational platform that offers full courses, an open-source dataset repository, and a feature known as Kaggle InClass competitions (KICs). These KICs are contests specifically tailored for use in an academic setting that are completely customizable by the hosting professor or teaching assistant. In turn, the Kaggle platform provides a leaderboard, centralized location to access the competition data, and support for various popular code libraries.

15.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(12): 1774-1781, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949095

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to assess the independent association of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on postoperative mortality for patients undergoing orthopaedic and trauma surgery. The secondary aim was to identify factors that were associated with developing COVID-19 during the postoperative period. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting to nine centres over a 50-day period during the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March 2020 to 19 April 2020) with a minimum of 50 days follow-up. Patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, priority (urgent or elective), procedure type, COVID-19 status, and postoperative mortality were recorded. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,659 procedures were performed in 1,569 patients. There were 68 (4.3%) patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19. There were 85 (5.4%) deaths postoperatively. Patients who had COVID-19 had a significantly lower survival rate when compared with those without a proven SARS-CoV-2 infection (67.6% vs 95.8%, p < 0.001). When adjusting for confounding variables (older age (p < 0.001), female sex (p = 0.004), hip fracture (p = 0.003), and increasing ASA grade (p < 0.001)) a diagnosis of COVID-19 was associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 3.12; p = 0.014). A total of 62 patients developed COVID-19 postoperatively, of which two were in the elective and 60 were in the urgent group. Patients aged > 77 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.16; p = 0.001), with increasing ASA grade (OR 2.74; p < 0.001), sustaining a hip (OR 4.56; p = 0.008) or periprosthetic fracture (OR 14.70; p < 0.001) were more likely to develop COVID-19 postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Perioperative COVID-19 nearly doubled the background postoperative mortality risk following surgery. Patients at risk of developing COVID-19 postoperatively (patients > 77 years, increasing morbidity, sustaining a hip or periprosthetic fracture) may benefit from perioperative shielding. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(12):1774-1781.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Hip Fractures/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hip Fractures/complications , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1219-1228, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844187

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to assess the independent influence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on 30-day mortality for patients with a hip fracture. The secondary aims were to determine whether: 1) there were clinical predictors of COVID-19 status; and 2) whether social lockdown influenced the incidence and epidemiology of hip fractures. METHODS: A national multicentre retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting to six trauma centres or units with a hip fracture over a 46-day period (23 days pre- and 23 days post-lockdown). Patient demographics, type of residence, place of injury, presentation blood tests, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, anaesthetic, length of stay, COVID-19 status, and 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: Of 317 patients with acute hip fracture, 27 (8.5%) had a positive COVID-19 test. Only seven (26%) had suggestive symptoms on admission. COVID-19-positive patients had a significantly lower 30-day survival compared to those without COVID-19 (64.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45.7 to 83.3 vs 91.7%, 95% CI 88.2 to 94.8; p < 0.001). COVID-19 was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality risk adjusting for: 1) age, sex, type of residence (hazard ratio (HR) 2.93; p = 0.008); 2) Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (HR 3.52; p = 0.001); and 3) ASA (HR 3.45; p = 0.004). Presentation platelet count predicted subsequent COVID-19 status; a value of < 217 × 109/l was associated with 68% area under the curve (95% CI 58 to 77; p = 0.002) and a sensitivity and specificity of 63%. A similar number of patients presented with hip fracture in the 23 days pre-lockdown (n = 160) and 23 days post-lockdown (n = 157) with no significant (all p ≥ 0.130) difference in patient demographics, residence, place of injury, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, time to surgery, ASA, or management. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was independently associated with an increased 30-day mortality rate for patients with a hip fracture. Notably, most patients with hip fracture and COVID-19 lacked suggestive symptoms at presentation. Platelet count was an indicator of risk of COVID-19 infection. These findings have implications for the management of hip fractures, in particular the need for COVID-19 testing. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1219-1228.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Proportional Hazards Models , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Survival Rate , Trauma Centers
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14052-14056, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592019

ABSTRACT

In response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many scholars and policy makers are urging the United States to expand voting-by-mail programs to safeguard the electoral process. What are the effects of vote-by-mail? In this paper, we provide a comprehensive design-based analysis of the effect of universal vote-by-mail-a policy under which every voter is mailed a ballot in advance of the election-on electoral outcomes. We collect data from 1996 to 2018 on all three US states that implemented universal vote-by-mail in a staggered fashion across counties, allowing us to use a difference-in-differences design at the county level to estimate causal effects. We find that 1) universal vote-by-mail does not appear to affect either party's share of turnout, 2) universal vote-by-mail does not appear to increase either party's vote share, and 3) universal vote-by-mail modestly increases overall average turnout rates, in line with previous estimates. All three conclusions support the conventional wisdom of election administration experts and contradict many popular claims in the media.

20.
Med Teach ; 42(7): 756-761, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361339

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems around the world, impacting how we deliver medical education. The normal day-to-day routines have been altered for a number of reasons, including changes to scheduled training rotations, physical distancing requirements, trainee redeployment, and heightened level of concern. Medical educators will likely need to adapt their programs to maximize learning, maintain effective care delivery, and ensure competent graduates. Along with a continued focus on learner/faculty wellness, medical educators will have to optimize existing training experiences, adapt those that are no longer viable, employ new technologies, and be flexible when assessing competencies. These practical tips offer guidance on how to adapt medical education programs within the constraints of the pandemic landscape, stressing the need for communication, innovation, collaboration, flexibility, and planning within the era of competency-based medical education.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Occupations/education , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Organizational Culture , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students, Health Occupations/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL