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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(19): 523-528, 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319324

ABSTRACT

On January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) declared, under Section 319 of the Public Health Service Act, a U.S. public health emergency because of the emergence of a novel virus, SARS-CoV-2.* After 13 renewals, the public health emergency will expire on May 11, 2023. Authorizations to collect certain public health data will expire on that date as well. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 and the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies remains a public health priority, and a number of surveillance indicators have been identified to facilitate ongoing monitoring. After expiration of the public health emergency, COVID-19-associated hospital admission levels will be the primary indicator of COVID-19 trends to help guide community and personal decisions related to risk and prevention behaviors; the percentage of COVID-19-associated deaths among all reported deaths, based on provisional death certificate data, will be the primary indicator used to monitor COVID-19 mortality. Emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis and the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, derived from an established sentinel network, will help detect early changes in trends. National genomic surveillance will continue to be used to estimate SARS-CoV-2 variant proportions; wastewater surveillance and traveler-based genomic surveillance will also continue to be used to monitor SARS-CoV-2 variants. Disease severity and hospitalization-related outcomes are monitored via sentinel surveillance and large health care databases. Monitoring of COVID-19 vaccination coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine safety will also continue. Integrated strategies for surveillance of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses can further guide prevention efforts. COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths are largely preventable through receipt of updated vaccines and timely administration of therapeutics (1-4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sentinel Surveillance , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(14): 355-361, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261987

ABSTRACT

In the United States, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections cause an estimated 58,000-80,000 hospitalizations among children aged <5 years (1,2) and 60,000-160,000 hospitalizations among adults aged ≥65 years each year (3-5). U.S. RSV epidemics typically follow seasonal patterns, peaking in December or January (6,7), but the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted RSV seasonality during 2020-2022 (8). To describe U.S. RSV seasonality during prepandemic and pandemic periods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS)* during July 2017-February 2023 were analyzed. Seasonal RSV epidemics were defined as the weeks during which the percentage of PCR test results that were positive for RSV was ≥3% (9). Nationally, prepandemic seasons (2017-2020) began in October, peaked in December, and ended in April. During 2020-21, the typical winter RSV epidemic did not occur. The 2021-22 season began in May, peaked in July, and ended in January. The 2022-23 season started (June) and peaked (November) later than the 2021-22 season, but earlier than prepandemic seasons. In both prepandemic and pandemic periods, epidemics began earlier in Florida and the Southeast and later in regions further north and west. With several RSV prevention products in development,† ongoing monitoring of RSV circulation can guide the timing of RSV immunoprophylaxis and of clinical trials and postlicensure effectiveness studies. Although the timing of the 2022-23 season suggests that seasonal patterns are returning toward those observed in prepandemic years, clinicians should be aware that off-season RSV circulation might continue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Florida/epidemiology , Seasons
4.
Birth Defects Res ; 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We describe clinical characteristics, pregnancy, and infant outcomes in pregnant people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by trimester of infection. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network and included people with infection in 2020, with known timing of infection and pregnancy outcome. Outcomes are described by trimester of infection. Pregnancy outcomes included live birth and pregnancy loss (<20 weeks and ≥20 weeks gestation). Infant outcomes included preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), small for gestational age, birth defects, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated for pregnancy and selected infant outcomes by trimester of infection, controlling for demographics. RESULTS: Of 35,200 people included in this analysis, 50.8% of pregnant people had infection in the third trimester, 30.8% in the second, and 18.3% in the first. Third trimester infection was associated with a higher frequency of preterm birth compared to first or second trimester infection combined (17.8% vs. 11.8%; aPR 1.44 95% CI: 1.35-1.54). Prevalence of birth defects was 553.4/10,000 live births, with no difference by trimester of infection. CONCLUSIONS: There were no signals for increased birth defects among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are significant causes of respiratory illness in children. METHODS: Influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years old were analyzed from FluSurv-NET and COVID-NET, two population-based surveillance systems with similar catchment areas and methodology. The annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100 000 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2020-September 30, 2021) was compared to influenza-associated hospitalization rates during the 2017-18 through 2019-20 influenza seasons. In-hospital outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, were compared. RESULTS: Among children <18 years old, the COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate (48.2) was higher than influenza-associated hospitalization rates: 2017-18 (33.5), 2018-19 (33.8), and 2019-20 (41.7). The COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate was higher among adolescents 12-17 years old (COVID-19: 59.9; influenza range: 12.2-14.1), but similar or lower among children 5-11 (COVID-19: 25.0; influenza range: 24.3-31.7) and 0-4 (COVID-19: 66.8; influenza range: 70.9-91.5) years old. Among children <18 years old, a higher proportion with COVID-19 required ICU admission compared with influenza (26.4% vs 21.6%; p < 0.01). Pediatric deaths were uncommon during both COVID-19- and influenza-associated hospitalizations (0.7% vs 0.5%; p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of extensive mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate during 2020-2021 was higher among adolescents and similar or lower among children <12 years old compared with influenza during the three seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 adds substantially to the existing burden of pediatric hospitalizations and severe outcomes caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trends in estimates of US pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced seroprevalence from commercial laboratory specimens may overrepresent children with frequent healthcare needs. We examined seroprevalence trends and compared seroprevalence estimates by testing type and diagnostic coding. METHODS: Cross-sectional convenience samples of residual sera between September 2021 and February 2022 from 52 U.S. jurisdictions were assayed for infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; monthly seroprevalence estimates were calculated by age group. Multivariate logistic analyses compared seroprevalence estimates for specimens associated with ICD-10 codes and laboratory orders indicating well-child care with estimates for other pediatric specimens. RESULTS: Infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased in each age group; from 30% to 68% (1-4 years), 38% to 77% (5-11 years), and 40% to 74% (12-17 years). On multivariate analysis, patients with well-child ICD-10 codes were seropositive more often than other patients aged 1-17 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07); children aged 9-11 years receiving standard lipid screening were seropositive more often than those receiving other laboratory tests (1.05; 1.02-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: Infection-induced seroprevalence more than doubled among children under 12 between September 2021 and February 2022, and increased 85% in adolescents. Differences in seroprevalence by care type did not substantially impact US pediatric seroprevalence estimates.

7.
Lancet regional health Americas ; 18:100403-100403, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147777

ABSTRACT

Background Sero-surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can reveal trends and differences in subgroups and capture undetected or unreported infections that are not included in case-based surveillance systems. Methods Cross-sectional, convenience samples of remnant sera from clinical laboratories from 51 U.S. jurisdictions were assayed for infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibodies biweekly from October 25, 2020, to July 11, 2021, and monthly from September 6, 2021, to February 26, 2022. Test results were analyzed for trends in infection-induced, nucleocapsid-protein seroprevalence using mixed effects models that adjusted for demographic variables and assay type. Findings Analyses of 1,469,792 serum specimens revealed U.S. infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 8.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9%–8.1%) in November 2020 to 58.2% (CI: 57.4%–58.9%) in February 2022. The U.S. ratio of the change in estimated seroprevalence to the change in reported case prevalence was 2.8 (CI: 2.8–2.9) during winter 2020–2021, 2.3 (CI: 2.0–2.5) during summer 2021, and 3.1 (CI: 3.0–3.3) during winter 2021–2022. Change in seroprevalence to change in case prevalence ratios ranged from 2.6 (CI: 2.3–2.8) to 3.5 (CI: 3.3–3.7) by region in winter 2021–2022. Interpretation Ratios of the change in seroprevalence to the change in case prevalence suggest a high proportion of infections were not detected by case-based surveillance during periods of increased transmission. The largest increases in the seroprevalence to case prevalence ratios coincided with the spread of the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and with increased accessibility of home testing. Ratios varied by region and season with the highest ratios in the midwestern and southern United States during winter 2021–2022. Our results demonstrate that reported case counts did not fully capture differing underlying infection rates and demonstrate the value of sero-surveillance in understanding the full burden of infection. Levels of infection-induced antibody seroprevalence, particularly spikes during periods of increased transmission, are important to contextualize vaccine effectiveness data as the susceptibility to infection of the U.S. population changes. Funding This work was supported by the 10.13039/100000030Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 18: 100403, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131781

ABSTRACT

Background: Sero-surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can reveal trends and differences in subgroups and capture undetected or unreported infections that are not included in case-based surveillance systems. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience samples of remnant sera from clinical laboratories from 51 U.S. jurisdictions were assayed for infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 antibodies biweekly from October 25, 2020, to July 11, 2021, and monthly from September 6, 2021, to February 26, 2022. Test results were analyzed for trends in infection-induced, nucleocapsid-protein seroprevalence using mixed effects models that adjusted for demographic variables and assay type. Findings: Analyses of 1,469,792 serum specimens revealed U.S. infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 8.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9%-8.1%) in November 2020 to 58.2% (CI: 57.4%-58.9%) in February 2022. The U.S. ratio of the change in estimated seroprevalence to the change in reported case prevalence was 2.8 (CI: 2.8-2.9) during winter 2020-2021, 2.3 (CI: 2.0-2.5) during summer 2021, and 3.1 (CI: 3.0-3.3) during winter 2021-2022. Change in seroprevalence to change in case prevalence ratios ranged from 2.6 (CI: 2.3-2.8) to 3.5 (CI: 3.3-3.7) by region in winter 2021-2022. Interpretation: Ratios of the change in seroprevalence to the change in case prevalence suggest a high proportion of infections were not detected by case-based surveillance during periods of increased transmission. The largest increases in the seroprevalence to case prevalence ratios coincided with the spread of the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and with increased accessibility of home testing. Ratios varied by region and season with the highest ratios in the midwestern and southern United States during winter 2021-2022. Our results demonstrate that reported case counts did not fully capture differing underlying infection rates and demonstrate the value of sero-surveillance in understanding the full burden of infection. Levels of infection-induced antibody seroprevalence, particularly spikes during periods of increased transmission, are important to contextualize vaccine effectiveness data as the susceptibility to infection of the U.S. population changes. Funding: This work was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

9.
Pediatrics ; 150(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the 6-month incidence of laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, postnatal care, hospitalization, and mortality among infants born to people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by timing of maternal infection. METHODS: Using a cohort of liveborn infants from pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infections in the year 2020 from 10 United States jurisdictions in the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mother and Babies Network, we describe weighted estimates of infant outcomes from birth through 6 months of age from electronic health and laboratory records. RESULTS: Of 6601 exposed infants with laboratory information through 6 months of age, 1.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.1) tested positive, 19.1% (17.5-20.6) tested negative, and 80.0% (78.4-81.6) were not known to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Among those ≤14 days of age, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred only with maternal infection ≤14 days before delivery. Of 3967 infants with medical record abstraction, breastmilk feeding initiation was lower when maternal infection occurred ≤14 days before delivery compared with >14 days (77.6% [72.5-82.6] versus 88.3% [84.7-92.0]). Six-month all-cause hospitalization was 4.1% (2.0-6.2). All-cause mortality was higher among infants born to people with infection ≤14 days (1.0% [0.4-1.6]) than >14 days (0.3% [0.1-0.5]) before delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Results are reassuring, with low incidences of most health outcomes examined. Incidence of infant SARS-CoV-2, breastmilk feeding initiation, and all-cause mortality differed by timing of maternal infection. Strategies to prevent infections and support pregnant people with coronavirus disease 2019 may improve infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
10.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S8): S787-S796, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089550

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe prevalence of breast milk feeding among people with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and examine associations between breast milk feeding, timing of maternal infection before delivery, and rooming-in status during delivery hospitalization. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee of whether people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 2020 initiated breast milk feeding at birth. Results. Among 11 114 (weighted number) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.4%, 87.6%) initiated breast milk feeding during birth hospitalization. People with infection within 14 days before delivery had significantly lower prevalence of breast milk feeding (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.94) than did those with infection at least 14 days before delivery. When stratified by rooming-in status, the association between timing of infection and breast milk feeding remained only among infants who did not room in with their mother (APR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.88). Conclusions. Pregnant and postpartum people with SARS-CoV-2 infection should have access to lactation support and be advised about the importance of breast milk feeding and how to safely feed their infants in the same room. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S8):S787-S796. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307023).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Breast Feeding , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1265-1270, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056549

ABSTRACT

Increases in severe respiratory illness and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) among children and adolescents resulting from enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections occurred biennially in the United States during 2014, 2016, and 2018, primarily in late summer and fall. Although EV-D68 annual trends are not fully understood, EV-D68 levels were lower than expected in 2020, potentially because of implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures (e.g., wearing face masks, enhanced hand hygiene, and physical distancing) (1). In August 2022, clinicians in several geographic areas notified CDC of an increase in hospitalizations of pediatric patients with severe respiratory illness and positive rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) test results.* Surveillance data were analyzed from multiple national data sources to characterize reported trends in acute respiratory illness (ARI), asthma/reactive airway disease (RAD) exacerbations, and the percentage of positive RV/EV and EV-D68 test results during 2022 compared with previous years. These data demonstrated an increase in emergency department (ED) visits by children and adolescents with ARI and asthma/RAD in late summer 2022. The percentage of positive RV/EV test results in national laboratory-based surveillance and the percentage of positive EV-D68 test results in pediatric sentinel surveillance also increased during this time. Previous increases in EV-D68 respiratory illness have led to substantial resource demands in some hospitals and have also coincided with increases in cases of AFM (2), a rare but serious neurologic disease affecting the spinal cord. Therefore, clinicians should consider AFM in patients with acute flaccid limb weakness, especially after respiratory illness or fever, and ensure prompt hospitalization and referral to specialty care for such cases. Clinicians should also test for poliovirus infection in patients suspected of having AFM because of the clinical similarity to acute flaccid paralysis caused by poliovirus. Ongoing surveillance for EV-D68 is critical to ensuring preparedness for possible future increases in ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , United States/epidemiology
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1253-1259, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056547

ABSTRACT

The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) is a prospective, active, population-based surveillance platform that enrolls children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at seven pediatric medical centers. ARIs are caused by respiratory viruses including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which result in morbidity among infants and young children (1-6). NVSN estimates the incidence of pathogen-specific pediatric ARIs and collects clinical data (e.g., underlying medical conditions and vaccination status) to assess risk factors for severe disease and calculate influenza and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. Current NVSN inpatient (i.e., hospital) surveillance began in 2015, expanded to emergency departments (EDs) in 2016, and to outpatient clinics in 2018. This report describes demographic characteristics of enrolled children who received care in these settings, and yearly circulation of influenza, RSV, HMPV, HPIV1-3, adenovirus, human rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV),* and SARS-CoV-2 during December 2016-August 2021. Among 90,085 eligible infants, children, and adolescents (children) aged <18 years† with ARI, 51,441 (57%) were enrolled, nearly 75% of whom were aged <5 years; 43% were hospitalized. Infants aged <1 year accounted for the largest proportion (38%) of those hospitalized. The most common pathogens detected were RV/EV and RSV. Before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, detected respiratory viruses followed previously described seasonal trends, with annual peaks of influenza and RSV in late fall and winter (7,8). After the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and implementation of associated pandemic nonpharmaceutical interventions and community mitigation measures, many respiratory viruses circulated at lower-than-expected levels during April 2020-May 2021. Beginning in summer 2021, NVSN detected higher than anticipated enrollment of hospitalized children as well as atypical interseasonal circulation of RSV. Further analyses of NVSN data and continued surveillance are vital in highlighting risk factors for severe disease and health disparities, measuring the effectiveness of vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based prophylactics, and guiding policies to protect young children from pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S264-S270, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assess if state-issued nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are associated with reduced rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection as measured through anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) seroprevalence, a proxy for cumulative prior infection that distinguishes seropositivity from vaccination. METHODS: Monthly anti-N seroprevalence during 1 August 2020 to 30 March 2021 was estimated using a nationwide blood donor serosurvey. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we measured the association of seropositivity and state-issued, county-specific NPIs for mask mandates, gathering bans, and bar closures. RESULTS: Compared with individuals living in a county with all three NPIs in place, the odds of having anti-N antibodies were 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.3) times higher for people living in a county that did not have any of the 3 NPIs, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.5-1.7) times higher for people living in a county that only had a mask mandate and gathering ban policy, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) times higher for people living in a county that had only a mask mandate. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with studies assessing NPIs relative to COVID-19 incidence and mortality, the presence of NPIs were associated with lower SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence indicating lower rates of cumulative infections. Multiple NPIs are likely more effective than single NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(10): 1071-1081, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013227

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding risk factors for hospitalization in vaccinated persons and the association of COVID-19 vaccines with hospitalization rates is critical for public health efforts to control COVID-19. Objective: To determine characteristics of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among vaccinated persons and comparative hospitalization rates in unvaccinated and vaccinated persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: From January 1, 2021, to April 30, 2022, patients 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from more than 250 hospitals in the population-based COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. State immunization information system data were linked to cases, and the vaccination coverage data of the defined catchment population were used to compare hospitalization rates in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patient characteristics were compared in a representative sample with detailed medical record review; unweighted case counts and weighted percentages were calculated. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days before or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among vaccinated vs unvaccinated persons and factors associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization in vaccinated persons were assessed. Results: Using representative data from 192 509 hospitalizations (see Table 1 for demographic information), monthly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates ranged from 3.5 times to 17.7 times higher in unvaccinated persons than vaccinated persons regardless of booster dose status. From January to April 2022, when the Omicron variant was predominant, hospitalization rates were 10.5 times higher in unvaccinated persons and 2.5 times higher in vaccinated persons with no booster dose, respectively, compared with those who had received a booster dose. Among sampled cases, vaccinated hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were older than those who were unvaccinated (median [IQR] age, 70 [58-80] years vs 58 [46-70] years, respectively; P < .001) and more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions (1926 [77.8%] vs 4124 [51.6%], respectively; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US adults hospitalized with COVID-19, unvaccinated adults were more likely to be hospitalized compared with vaccinated adults; hospitalization rates were lowest in those who had received a booster dose. Hospitalized vaccinated persons were older and more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions and be long-term care facility residents compared with hospitalized unvaccinated persons. The study results suggest that clinicians and public health practitioners should continue to promote vaccination with all recommended doses for eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010322

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases represent a heavy global burden, causing important economic losses, impacting animal health and production, and costing millions of human lives. The vaccination of animals and humans to prevent inter-species zoonotic disease transmission is an important intervention. However, efforts to develop and implement vaccine interventions to reduce zoonotic disease impacts are often limited to the veterinary and agricultural sectors and do not reflect the shared burden of disease. Multisectoral collaboration, including co-development opportunities for human and animal vaccines, expanding vaccine use to include animal reservoirs such as wildlife, and strategically using vaccines to interrupt complex transmission cycles is needed. Addressing zoonoses requires a multi-faceted One Health approach, wherein vaccinating people and animals plays a critical role.

16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(33): 1057-1064, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994637

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, continues to circulate globally, high levels of vaccine- and infection-induced immunity and the availability of effective treatments and prevention tools have substantially reduced the risk for medically significant COVID-19 illness (severe acute illness and post-COVID-19 conditions) and associated hospitalization and death (1). These circumstances now allow public health efforts to minimize the individual and societal health impacts of COVID-19 by focusing on sustainable measures to further reduce medically significant illness as well as to minimize strain on the health care system, while reducing barriers to social, educational, and economic activity (2). Individual risk for medically significant COVID-19 depends on a person's risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and their risk for developing severe illness if infected (3). Exposure risk can be mitigated through nonpharmaceutical interventions, including improving ventilation, use of masks or respirators indoors, and testing (4). The risk for medically significant illness increases with age, disability status, and underlying medical conditions but is considerably reduced by immunity derived from vaccination, previous infection, or both, as well as timely access to effective biomedical prevention measures and treatments (3,5). CDC's public health recommendations change in response to evolving science, the availability of biomedical and public health tools, and changes in context, such as levels of immunity in the population and currently circulating variants. CDC recommends a strategic approach to minimizing the impact of COVID-19 on health and society that relies on vaccination and therapeutics to prevent severe illness; use of multicomponent prevention measures where feasible; and particular emphasis on protecting persons at high risk for severe illness. Efforts to expand access to vaccination and therapeutics, including the use of preexposure prophylaxis for persons who are immunocompromised, antiviral agents, and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, should be intensified to reduce the risk for medically significant illness and death. Efforts to protect persons at high risk for severe illness must ensure that all persons have access to information to understand their individual risk, as well as efficient and equitable access to vaccination, therapeutics, testing, and other prevention measures. Current priorities for preventing medically significant illness should focus on ensuring that persons 1) understand their risk, 2) take steps to protect themselves and others through vaccines, therapeutics, and nonpharmaceutical interventions when needed, 3) receive testing and wear masks if they have been exposed, and 4) receive testing if they are symptomatic, and isolate for ≥5 days if they are infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
17.
N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 620-630, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia. METHODS: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children's of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children's of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenovirus Infections, Human/complications , Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/virology , Humans , Infant , Viremia
18.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1328-1337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. RESULT: Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0124722, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950018

ABSTRACT

Previous COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection; how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during 27 July 2020 to 27 August 2020 from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were severalfold lower in the unvaccinated study population compared to published concentrations at 28 days postvaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63 to 86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection; ~30% of neutralizing and 1 to 14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. Our study not only supports observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination postinfection to maximize protection against COVID-19, but also provides a large data set of pre-COVID-19 vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations that will serve as an important comparator in the current setting of vaccine-induced and hybrid immunity. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and displace circulating virus strains, we recommend that standardized binding antibody assays that include spike protein-based antigens be utilized to estimate antibody concentrations correlated with protection from COVID-19. These estimates will be helpful in informing public health guidance, such as the need for additional COVID-19 vaccine booster doses to prevent symptomatic infection. IMPORTANCE Although COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from COVID-19, how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. We assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized assays on serum specimens collected from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable antibodies. We found that most unvaccinated persons with qualitative antibody evidence of prior infection had quantitative antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% VE against COVID-19. However, only a small proportion had antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% VE, suggesting that persons with prior COVID-19 would benefit from vaccination to maximize protective antibody concentrations against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunization, Secondary , Vaccine Efficacy , COVID-19 Serotherapy
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