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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 633, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Individuals with chronic medical conditions are considered highly exposed to COVID-19 pandemic stress, but emerging evidence is demonstrating that resilience is common even among them. We aimed at identifying sustained resilient outcomes and their predictors in chronically ill people during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: This international 4-wave 1-year longitudinal online survey included items on socio-demographic characteristics, economic and living situation, lifestyle and habits, pandemic-related issues, and history of mental disorders. Adherence to and approval of imposed restrictions, trust in governments and in scientific community during the pandemic were also investigated. The following tools were administered: the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the PTSD Checklist DSM-5, the Oslo Social Support Scale, the Padua Inventory, and the Portrait Values Questionnaire. RESULTS: One thousand fifty-two individuals reporting a chronic condition out of 8011 total participants from 13 countries were included in the study, and 965 had data available for the final model. The estimated probability of being "sustained-resilient" was 34%. Older male individuals, participants employed before and during the pandemic or with perceived social support were more likely to belong to the sustained-resilience group. Loneliness, a previous mental disorder, high hedonism, fear of COVID-19 contamination, concern for the health of loved ones, and non-approving pandemic restrictions were predictors of not-resilient outcomes in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: We found similarities and differences from established predictors of resilience and identified some new ones specific to pandemics. Further investigation is warranted and could inform the design of resilience-building interventions in people with chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , Chronic Disease , Depression , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Prospective Studies
3.
Fam Relat ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019254

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal cross-lagged association between family mutuality, depression, and anxiety among Chinese adolescents before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Background: Limited attention has been paid to the longitudinal links between family mutuality, depression, and anxiety in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect data from three high schools and two middle schools in Chengdu City at two time points: Time 1 (T1), December 23, 2019-January 13, 2020; Time 2 (T2), June 16-July 8, 2020. The sample consisted of 7,958 participants who completed two wave surveys before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We analyzed the data using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. Results: The longitudinal cross-lagged model showed family mutuality at T1 significantly predicted depression, anxiety, and family mutuality at T2. We observed a decreasing prevalence of depression and anxiety after the COVID-19 lockdown. Conclusion: Family mutuality plays an important role in mitigating long-term mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety. More family-centered psychological interventions could be developed to alleviate mental health disorders during lockdowns. Implications: Improving family mutuality (e.g., mutual support, interaction, and caring among family members) could be beneficial for reducing mental health disorders among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-12, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943143

ABSTRACT

The WHO recently included Gaming Disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis. Whether there are distinct groups of adolescents who differ based on severity of gaming disorder and their relationships with other mental health and addictive behavior outcomes, including problematic smartphone use (PSU), remains unclear. The current study explored and identified subtypes of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity and estimated the association between these subtypes and other disorders. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing the severity of IGD, PSU, depression, and anxiety during COVID-19. We conducted a latent class analysis of IGD symptoms among 1,305 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.2; male = 58.5%) from 11 secondary schools in Macao (SAR), China. Multinomial logistic regression estimated correlates of latent class membership and PSU. A 4-class model adequately described the sample subgroups. Classes were labeled as normative gamers (30.9%), occasional gamers (42.4%), problematic gamers (22.7%), and addictive gamers (4.1%). Relative to normative gamers, PSU severity, depression, and being male were significantly higher among problematic gamers, addictive gamers, and occasional gamers. Only problematic gamers showed significant positive associations with anxiety severity compared to the other groups. The study revealed the differences in severity of gaming disorder and its association with psychopathology outcomes. Application in screening for IGD and comorbidity is discussed. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03133-8.

5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(10): 3934-3941, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918062

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak had a detrimental impact on the mental health of older adults. This study evaluated the central symptoms and their associations in the network of depressive symptoms and compared the network structure differences between male and female older adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Altogether, 3,946 older adults participated in this study. We evaluated the centrality indicators for network robustness using stability and accuracy tests, and examined the potential differences between the structure and connectivity of depression networks in male and female older adults. Results: The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 43.7% (95% CI=40.6-46.7%) in males, and 54.8% (95% CI=53.1-56.5%) in females (P<0.05). Sad Mood, Guilt, Motor problems and Lack of Energy were influential symptoms in the network model. Gender differences were found in the network global strength, especially in the following edges: Sad Mood--Guilt, Concentration--Guilt, Anhedonia--Motor, Lack of Energy--Suicide, Appetite--Suicide and Concentration--Suicide. Conclusions: Central symptoms in the depressive symptom network among male and female older adults may be prioritized in the treatment and prevention of depression during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Sex Factors
6.
Psychological Medicine ; 52(7):1321-1332, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870943

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected public health and wellbeing. In response to the pandemic threat of the coronavirus epidemic, several countries, including China, adopted lockdown and quarantine policies, which may cause psychological distress. This study aimed to explore the psychological impact of province-wide lockdown and personal quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak in China as well as the corresponding risk factors and protective factors.MethodsWe examined the immediate (2-week) and delayed (2-month) impact of province-wide lockdown and personal quarantine on psychological distress in a national sample of 1390 Chinese residents.ResultsNo immediate impact of province-wide lockdown on psychological distress was observed, whereas personal quarantine increased individuals’ anxiety, fear, and anger. Despite the lack of initial association, psychological distress increased among those in province-wide lockdown. Self-stigma and personal control both significantly moderated the association between lockdown and psychological distress, but in different directions. Those with higher self-stigma and lower personal control were more impacted by the lockdown. Government support moderated the impact of quarantine on psychological distress, but not that of lockdown.ConclusionsThe delayed effects of lockdown and quarantine on psychological distress were observed, and self-stigma, social support, and perceived control moderate the relationships. This study is the first to demonstrate the psychological costs of province-wide lockdowns on individuals’ mental health, providing evidence of the need for mitigation strategies and timely public mental health preparedness in countries with recent outbreaks of COVID-19.

7.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 836156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855440

ABSTRACT

Background: Overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) is one of the largest communities of international migrant workers. They face systemic barriers to fulfilling their health needs. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened this condition and provided a context to evaluate the utility of a digital mental health intervention delivered within a stepped-care model to address OFW mental health. Using an implementation science framework, this study aimed to evaluate stakeholders' perspectives on the implementation of Kumusta Kabayan, a mobile phone-based mental health app, for OFWs in Macao. Methods: A mixed-methods convergent design was used by conducting two parallel steps, including quantitative and qualitative measures. The quantitative data was collected from Filipino team members and local non-governmental organization (NGO) staff members (N = 12). The qualitative data were gathered from interviews with OFWs in Macao who used the app (N = 25; 80% females, 76% domestic workers). Results: From the online survey, the staff members of the local partner NGO and the Filipino team members strongly perceived that their organization could adapt Kumusta Kabayan to their program and generally evaluated that Kumusta Kabayan achieved its goal and was received well by OFWs. In the interviews, the OFW app users shared their experiences in using Kumusta Kabayan, which was thematically organized into six aspects of the participants' experience: (1) promotional channel and expectation; (2) when to use the app and in what language; (3) lessons learnt; (4) memorable aspects; (5) key facilitators and barriers; and (6) suggestions. Conclusion: Kumusta Kabayan was well accepted and shows potential to be integrated into the existing support services for OFWs in Macao. This app has the promise of being scaled-up for OFWs in other countries by collaborating with local and overseas stakeholders. Lessons learnt from this evaluation could also be implemented in wider digital mental health services in different settings.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 311: 214-223, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in potentially disadvantaged groups. We investigated changes in anxiety and depression symptoms during the first year of the pandemic in six European countries and Australia by prior mental disorders and migration status. METHODS: Overall, 4674 adults answered a web-based survey in May-June 2020 and were followed by three repeated surveys up to February 2021. Information on psychosocial, financial and demographic, living conditions, prior mental disorders, depression and anxiety symptoms during the pandemic and migration status was collected. Weighted general estimation equations modelling was used to investigate the association between prior mental disorders, migration status, and symptoms over time. RESULTS: Most participants were <40 years old (48%), women (78%) and highly educated (62%). The baseline prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms ranged between 19%-45% and 13%-35%, respectively. In most countries, prevalence rates remained unchanged throughout the pandemic and were higher among people with prior mental disorders than without even after adjustment for several factors. We observed interactions between previous mental disorders and symptoms of anxiety or depression over time in two countries. No difference by migration status was noted. LIMITATIONS: Convenience sampling limits generalizability. Self-assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety might involve some misclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety symptoms were worse among individuals with prior mental disorders than without, but there was no clear trend of worsening mental health in the observed groups during the observed period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans
9.
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology ; 16:183449092210893-183449092210893, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1770137

ABSTRACT

A population-based, longitudinal study was conducted among 29 provinces in mainland China to investigate how public trust in physicians (PTP) changed since the outbreak of COVID-19 and how the resulting lockdown and social support contributed to its restoration. The baseline sample ( n = 3,233) was obtained during the period of the most rapid progression of COVID-19 (February 1 to 9, 2020, T1). Follow-up ( n = 1,380) took place during the recovery period (March 17 to 24, T2). Latent profile models and a latent transition model were estimated. Participants were classified into either a moderate trust (21% at T1;45% transition into high at T2) or a high trust (79% at T1;88% remained in the high group) group in the latent profile. A latent transition from moderate to high trust was observed in locked-down regions and among those with higher social support. Social support moderated the transition from low to high trust. The current study showed that the epidemic outbreak and lockdown experience in China were associated with increased PTP;furthermore, public trust can be restored during a public health emergency. Attention should be paid to assure that social support and risk management strategies maintain PTP.

10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598043

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound influence on the mental health and well-being of individuals across the globe. Emotional competence, defined as one's ability to recognize, understand, and manage their emotions, has been found linked with mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety) in previous studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the direction of the association between these factors among populations exposed to COVID-19. This study examined the possible mediation relationships between depression, anxiety, emotional competence, and COVID-19 exposure among Chinese adolescents. Methods: Responses from 7,958 Chinese adolescents who had previously taken part in a two-wave study before (December 23, 2019-January 13, 2020) and during COVID-19 (June 16, 2020-July 8, 2020) were analyzed (51.67% males, mean age = 11.74, SD = 2.15). Structural equation modeling with three covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity) was used to test the longitudinal mediation relationships between COVID-19 exposure and depression, anxiety via emotional competence. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of depression (38.67 to 36.74%) and anxiety (13.02 to 12.77%) decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. The T2 emotional competence significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 anxiety (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.011 [0.004-0.019], p < 0.05). T2 emotional competence also significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 depression (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.013 [0.005-0.022], p < 0.05). The results indicated that T2 emotional competence had a significant and negative influence on T2 anxiety (ß = -0.266, SE = 0.005, p < 0.001), and T2 depression (ß = -0.326, SE = 0.029, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This longitudinal research study demonstrated the crucial role of emotional competence in influencing the severity of long-term mental health problems, and suggested that emotional competence interventions can be conducted to improve mental well-being among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 460, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397857

ABSTRACT

In network theory depression is conceptualized as a complex network of individual symptoms that influence each other, and central symptoms in the network have the greatest impact on other symptoms. Clinical features of depression are largely determined by sociocultural context. No previous study examined the network structure of depressive symptoms in Hong Kong residents. The aim of this study was to characterize the depressive symptom network structure in a community adult sample in Hong Kong during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 11,072 participants were recruited between 24 March and 20 April 2020. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The network structure of depressive symptoms was characterized, and indices of "strength", "betweenness", and "closeness" were used to identify symptoms central to the network. Network stability was examined using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Guilt, Sad Mood, and Energy symptoms had the highest centrality values. In contrast, Concentration, Suicide, and Sleep had lower centrality values. There were no significant differences in network global strength (p = 0.259), distribution of edge weights (p = 0.73) and individual edge weights (all p values > 0.05 after Holm-Bonferroni corrections) between males and females. Guilt, Sad Mood, and Energy symptoms were central in the depressive symptom network. These central symptoms may be targets for focused treatments and future psychological and neurobiological research to gain novel insight into depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1374, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health measures, such as social isolation, are vital to control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but such measures may increase the risk of depression. Thus, this study examines the influencing and moderating factors of depressive symptoms among individuals subjected to mandatory social isolation. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data from people under mandatory home or centralized social isolation in Shenzhen, China, from February 28 to March 6, 2020. The perceived risk of infection with COVID-19, perceived tone of media coverage, perceived quality of people-oriented public health services, and their depressive symptoms were assessed. Three rounds of stepwise multiple regression were performed to examine the moderating effects after controlling various variables, such as demographics, duration and venue of mandatory social isolation, infection and isolation status of family, time spent on COVID-related news, and online social support. RESULTS: Among the 340 participants, 57.6% were men, the average age was 35.5 years old (SD = 8.37), and 55.6% held a bachelor's degree or above. Individuals subjected to mandatory social isolation generally reported low levels of depressive symptoms. Perceived susceptibility to infection was relatively low, whereas perceived tone of media coverage was mainly positive. In terms of perceived quality of public health services, 12 (3.5%), 103 (30.3%), and 225 (66.2%) participants reported low, medium, and high quality of people-oriented services, respectively. Perceived susceptibility was positively associated with depression, whereas perceived tone of media coverage was negatively associated. The quality of people-centered public health services moderated the association between perceived risk and depressive symptoms and between perceived tone of media coverage and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the depressive symptoms among individuals subjected to mandatory social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlighted that frontline public health workers play a critical role in protecting public mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
13.
J Health Psychol ; 27(9): 2211-2226, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285167

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS) and self-reported Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) in the general population. This study used linear regressions for analyses, based on an online survey conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown among 2441 Chinese adults in February 2020. The results showed negative coping and attributing responsibilities to individuals were associated with more PTSS, while both positive and negative coping, as well as attributing responsibilities to individuals were related to more PTG. Moreover, attribution of responsibilities modified the association between coping and PTSS, but not PTG. These findings shed light on mental health interventions in a pandemic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 649989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211874

ABSTRACT

Background: Workplace violence is a major concern for clinicians worldwide. There has been little data on the epidemiology of workplace violence against frontline clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the pattern of workplace violence and its association with quality of life (QOL) against frontline clinicians during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted in China between March 15 and March 20, 2020. Frontline clinicians' experience with workplace violence was measured with six standardized questions derived from the Workplace Violence Scale, while anxiety, depressive, and insomnia symptoms, and QOL were measured using the General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, respectively. Univariate analyses, multivariable logistic regression analyses, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted. Results: A total of 15,531 clinicians completed the assessment; 2,878 (18.5, 95% CI = 17.92-19.14%) reported workplace violence during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (verbal violence: 16.1%; physical violence: 6.9%). According to multivariable models, key correlates of workplace violence were male gender, longer work experience, higher education level, smoking, working in the psychiatry or emergency department, working in tertiary hospitals, being involved in direct care of infected patients, having infected family/ friends/ colleagues, and frequently using social communication programs. Clinicians working in inpatient departments were less likely to report workplace violence compared to those working in outpatient departments. SEM analysis revealed that both violence and emotional disturbances (anxiety, depression, and insomnia) directly affected QOL (standardized direct effect = -0.031, and -0.566, respectively, P < 0.05), while emotional disturbances partly mediated the association between work violence and QOL (standardized indirect effect = -0.184, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Frontline clinicians were vulnerable to workplace violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the negative impact of workplace violence on quality of care and clinicians' QOL, health authorities and policymakers should take effective measures to reduce workplace violence against clinicians.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 223, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189206

ABSTRACT

Poor psychiatric status and sleep quality were common among frontline healthcare workers (FHWs) during the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but the change in these mental health outcomes overtime remained unknown. This study compared the psychiatric status and sleep quality of FHWs during and after the COVID-19 outbreak in China. FHWs who volunteered to work in Hubei province (the COVID-19 epicenter) were assessed at baseline during the COVID-19 outbreak and re-assessed when they returned to their place of origin (Liaoning province) after the COVID-19 outbreak. Participants' psychiatric status and sleep quality were measured with the Symptom CheckList-90 (SCL-90) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. A total of 494 FHWs was assessed at baseline and 462 at follow-up assessments. The prevalence of poor psychiatric status was 10.5% at baseline and increased to 14.9% at the follow-up assessment (P = 0.04). The corresponding figures of poor sleep quality at baseline and follow-up assessment were 16.4% and 27.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that severe fatigue (p = 0.003, OR = 1.266, 95% CI = 1.081-1.483), poor sleep quality (p < 0.001, OR = 1.283, 95% CI = 1.171-1.405), and history of pre-existing psychiatric disorders (p < 0.001, OR = 5.085, 95% CI = 2.144-12.06) were independently associated with higher odds of poor psychiatric status among the FHWs. Poor psychiatric status and sleep quality were common among FHWs during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the prevalence increased following their volunteer experiences. This suggests a critical need for longer-term psychological support for this subpopulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Sleep , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
16.
PeerJ ; 9: e11154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, all teaching activities in nursing schools were suspended in China, and many nursing students were summoned to work in hospitals to compensate for the shortage of manpower. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with quality of life (QOL) among nursing students during the post-COVID-19 era in China. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Nursing students in five Chinese universities were invited to participate. Fatigue, depressive and anxiety symptoms, pain and QOL were measured using standardized instruments. RESULTS: A total of 1,070 nursing students participated. The prevalence of fatigue was 67.3% (95% CI [64.4-70.0]). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (P = 0.003, OR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.20-2.49]), and being a senior nursing student (second year: OR = 2.20, 95% CI [1.46-3.33], P < 0.001; third year: OR = 3.53, 95% CI [2.31-5.41], P < 0.001; and fourth year OR = 3.59, 95% CI [2.39-5.40], P < 0.001) were significantly associated with more severe fatigue. In addition, moderate economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.08-3.33], P < 0.015; compared to low loss), participants with more severe depressive (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.22-1.78], P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.05-1.20], P = 0.001), and more severe pain (OR = 1.67, 95%CI [1.46-1.91], P < 0.001) were significantly associated with reported more severe fatigue. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with fatigue had a lower overall QOL score compared to those without (F (1, 1070) = 31.4, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fatigue was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of fatigue on QOL and daily functioning, routine physical and mental health screening should be conducted for nursing students. Effective stress-reduction measures should be enforced to assist this subpopulation to combat fatigue and restore optimal health.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e048012, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health systems globally. With the increase of global migration, quantifying the health needs and key correlates of these outcomes is a global health priority. This study assessed migration characteristics, COVID-19 attitudes and the postmigration social environment as key correlates of depression, quality of life and alcohol misuse among international migrants in China. DESIGN: A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 17 February and 1 March 2020. SETTING: Links to the online survey were disseminated by migrant-focused community-based organisations through WeChat. PARTICIPANTS: English speaking international migrants who met the inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria were being born in a country outside of China, aged 18 years or over, cumulatively living in China for 1 month or more and staying in China between December 2019 and February 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression, quality of life and alcohol misuse. RESULTS: Regression models indicated that planning or considering leaving China due to COVID-19, lacking the confidence to protect themselves and not being confident that the epidemic would end soon was associated with greater depression, lower quality of life and greater levels of alcohol misuse. Worry about contracting COVID-19 and feeling helpless to prevent infection were associated with greater depression and lower quality of life. General perceived social support, and trust in Chinese people, institutions and systems were protective factors for depression and associated with higher reported quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies key correlates that, if adequately addressed through public health outreach, may safeguard migrant well-being during a public health emergency. Trust in people and systems within the postmigration environment is an important consideration for future public health planning efforts.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Quality of Life , Transients and Migrants , Alcoholism/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(3): 683-688, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120711

ABSTRACT

This was a national survey that determined the prevalence of depressive symptoms (depression thereafter) and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) in frontline clinicians working in psychiatric hospitals in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression and QOL were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire nine items (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses and analysis of covariance were used. A total of 10,516 frontline clinicians participated in this study, of which, 28.52% (n=2,999) met screening criteria for depression. Compared to those without depression, clinicians with depression had a lower quality of life (F (1, 10515) =2874.66, P<0.001). Higher educational level (OR=1.225, P=0.014), if the number of COVID-19 patients in the hospital catchment area surpassed 500 (OR=1.146, P=0.032), having family/friends/colleagues who were infected (OR=1.695, P<0.001), being a current smoker (OR=1.533, P<0.001), and longer working hours (OR=1.020, P=0.022) were independently associated with higher risk of depression. Living with family members (OR=0.786, P<0.001), and being junior clinicians (OR=0.851, P=0.011) were independently associated with lower odds of depression. The results showed that depression was common in frontline psychiatric clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely assessment and effective interventions of depression for frontline clinicians in psychiatric hospitals were warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatry , Quality of Life , Adult , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(15): 2895-2905, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832723

ABSTRACT

Background: There are more than 258 million international migrants worldwide and the majority reside in countries with ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic outbreaks. International migrants may not receive adequate and timely disease information during epidemics, increasing vulnerability to disease transmission. This is one of very limited studies focusing on international migrants' COVID-19 prevention knowledge and attitudes during the epidemic. Methods: A national cross-sectional online survey was conducted across 100 cities and 26 regions in China from February 17 and March 1, 2020. The sample included 1,426 international migrants representing 77 countries and 6 continents. Knowledge was defined as the number of correct responses to questions about COVID-19. Attitudes included worries, expectations, and general preparedness. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions evaluated correlates of knowledge and attitudes including information channels and preferences, and trust in Chinese institutions and groups. Results: Just half of the sample, 730/1426 (51.2%) had a good level of knowledge and 656/1426 (46.0%) had a positive attitude towards the COVID-19 epidemic. Knowledge was associated with receiving information through social media (aOR: 2.0, 95%CI: 1.2-3.2), the Internet (aOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.2-1.8), the community (aOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.2-1.8), and encountering language barriers when receiving medical services (aOR: 0.8, 95%CI: 0.7-1.0). Positive attitude was associated with the level of trust in various Chinese institutions and groups. Conclusions: Roughly half of the sample reported inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes toward prevention and control of COVID-19. Tailored public health campaigns are needed to ensure that international migrants possess adequate knowledge to protect their health during future epidemics and disasters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity , Female , Humans , Internationality , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Young Adult
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