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1.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(8): 352-358, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eye health has garnered increased attention since the COVID-19 pandemic. This Round Table explored the impact mask wearing, delays in eye examinations, and increased screen time have on vision and ultimately the worker. METHODS: Leading experts in the areas of occupational health, risk management, eye health, and communication were identified and invited to participate in a Round Table discussion. Questions posed to experts were based on literature that addressed eye health, such as mask wearing, communication and managing expectations when accessing professional eye health appointments, and increased screen time. FINDINGS: Experts agreed that eye health considerations must be in place. These considerations should address not only clinical care of the patient but ways to protect workers from occupational injury associated with the eye. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: The occupational health professional is a key resource for assessment and training that pertains to eye health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Interior Design and Furnishings/standards , Occupational Health/standards , Occupational Injuries/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): e140-e143, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067991

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Without universal access to point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 testing, many hospitals rely on clinical judgement alone for identifying cases of COVID-19 early. METHODS: Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust introduced a 'traffic light' clinical judgement aid to the COVID-19 admissions unit in mid-March 2020. Ability to accurately predict COVID-19 was audited retrospectively across different stages of the epidemic. RESULTS: One SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patient (1/41, 2%) was misallocated to a 'green' (non-COVID-19) area during the first period of observation, and no patients (0/32, 0%) were mislabelled 'green' during the second period. 33 of 62 (53%) labelled 'red' (high risk) tested SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive during the first period, while 5 of 22 (23%) 'red' patients were PCR positive in the second. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 clinical risk stratification on initial assessment effectively identifies non-COVID-19 patients. However, diagnosing COVID-19 is challenging and risk of overcalling COVID-19 should be recognised, especially when background prevalence is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Risk Assessment , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Trials ; 21(1): 690, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specific intervention reduces the composite of progression of patients with COVID-19-related disease to organ failure or death as measured by time to incidence of any one of the following: death, invasive mechanical ventilation, ECMO, cardiovascular organ support (inotropes or balloon pump), or renal failure (estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance <15ml/min). TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, parallel arm, open-label, adaptive platform Phase 2/3 trial of potential disease modifying therapies in patients with late stage 1/stage 2 COVID-19-related disease, with a diagnosis based either on a positive assay or high suspicion of COVID-19 infection by clinical, laboratory and radiological assessment. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 and over, with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of COVID-19-related disease (with/without a positive COVID-19 test) AND a risk count (as defined below) >3 OR ≥3 if risk count includes "Radiographic severity score >3". A risk count is calculated by the following features on admission (1 point for each): radiographic severity score >3, male gender, non-white ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, neutrophils >8.0 x109/L, age >40 years and CRP >40 mg/L. Patients should be considered an appropriate subject for intervention with immunomodulatory or other disease modifying agents in the opinion of the investigator and are able to swallow capsules or tablets. The complete inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the Additional file 1 should be fulfilled. Drug specific inclusion and exclusion criteria will also be applied to the active arms. Patients will be enrolled prior to the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, cardiac or renal support. Participants will be recruited across multiple centres in the UK including initially at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and St George's University NHS Foundation Trust. Other centres will be approached internationally in view of the evolving pandemic. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There is increasing evidence of the role of immunomodulation in altering the course of COVID-19. Additionally, various groups have demonstrated the presence of pulmonary shunting in patients with COVID-19 as well as other cardiovascular complications. TACTIC-E will assess the efficacy of the novel immunomodulatory agent EDP1815 versus the approved cardio-pulmonary drugs, Dapagliflozin in combination with Ambrisentan versus the prevailing standard of care. EDP1815 will be given as 2 capsules twice daily (1.6 x 1011 cells) for up to 7 days with the option to extend up to 14 days at the discretion of the principal investigator or their delegate, if the patient is felt to be clinically responding to treatment, is tolerating treatment, and is judged to be likely to benefit from a longer treatment course. Ambrisentan 5mg and Dapagliflozin 10mg will be given in combination once daily orally for up to maximum of 14 days. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio across treatments. Each active arm will be compared with standard of care alone. Additional arms may be added as the trial progresses. No comparisons will be made between active arms in this platform trial. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the incidence (from baseline up to Day 14) to the occurrence of the any one of the following events: death, invasive mechanical ventilation, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiovascular organ support (inotropes or balloon pump), or renal failure (estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance <15ml/min). RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be randomised using a central web-based randomisation service (Sealed Envelope) in a 1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site to one of the treatment arms or standard of care. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial. Data analysis will not be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There is no fixed sample size for this study. There will be an early biomarker-based futility analysis performed at a point during the study. If this biomarker futility analysis is not conclusive, then a second futility analysis based on clinical endpoints will be performed after approximately 125 patients have been recruited per arm. Provisionally, further analyses of clinical endpoints will be performed after 229 patients per active arm and later 469 patients per arm have been recruited. Further additional analyses may be triggered by the independent data monitoring committee. TRIAL STATUS: TACTIC-E Protocol version number 1.0 date May 27th, 2020. Recruitment starts on the 3rd of July 2020. The end trial date will be 18 months after the last patient's last visit and cannot be accurately predicted at this time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2020-002229-27 registered: 9 June 2020. The trial was also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04393246) on 19 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucosides/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenylpropionates/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyridazines/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 626, 2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specific immunomodulatory intervention reduces progression of COVID-19-related disease to organ failure or death, compared to standard of care (SoC). TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, parallel 3-arm (1:1:1 ratio), open-label, Phase IV platform trial of immunomodulatory therapies in patients with late stage 1 or stage 2 COVID-19-related disease, with a diagnosis based either on a positive assay or high suspicion of COVID-19 infection by clinical and/or radiological assessment. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 and over, with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of COVID-19-related disease (with/without a positive COVID-19 test) AND a Risk count (as defined below) >3 OR ≥3 if risk count includes "Radiographic severity score >3". A risk count is calculated by the following features on admission (1 point for each): radiographic severity score >3, male gender, non-white ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, neutrophils >8.0 x109/L, age >40 years and CRP >40 mg/L. Patients should be considered an appropriate subject for intervention with immunomodulatory therapies in the opinion of the investigator and be able to be maintained on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis during the inpatient dosing period, according to local guidelines. The complete inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the additional file 1 should be fulfilled. Patients will be enrolled prior to the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, cardiac or renal support. Participants will be recruited across multiple centres including initially at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, University Hospital of Wales, Gloucestershire Royal Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Each active comparator arm will be compared against standard of care (SoC). The immunomodulatory drugs were selected from a panel of licenced candidates by a drug evaluation committee, which considered potential efficacy, potential toxicity, scalability and novelty of each strategy. The initial active arms comprise baricitinib and ravulizumab. Baricitinib will be given 4 mg orally (once daily (OD)) on days 1-14 or until day of discharge. The dose will be reduced to 2 mg OD for patients aged > 75 years and those with an estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance of 30-60 ml/min. Ravulizumab will be administered intravenously once according to the licensed weight-based dosing regimen (see Additional file 1). Each active arm will be compared with standard of care alone. No comparisons will be made between active arms in this platform trial. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the incidence (from baseline up to Day 14) of any one of the events (whichever comes first): death, invasive mechanical ventilation, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiovascular organ support (inotropes or balloon pump), or renal failure (estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance <15ml/min). RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be randomised using a central web-based randomisation service (Sealed Envelope) in a 1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site to one of the treatment arms or SoC. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial. Data analysis will not be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There is no fixed sample size for this study. Serial interim analyses will be triggered by an Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC), including analysis after 125 patients are recruited to each arm, 375 in total assuming 3 arms. Additional interim analyses are projected after 229 patients per arm, and potentially then after 469 per arm, but additional analyses may be triggered by the IDMC. TRIAL STATUS: TACTIC-R Protocol version number 2.0 date May 20, 2020, recruitment began May 7, 2020 and the end trial will be the date 18 months after the last patient's last visit. The recruitment end date cannot yet be accurately predicted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2020-001354-22 Registered: 6 May 2020 It was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04390464 ) and on ISRCTN (ISRCTN11188345) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/adverse effects , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
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