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1.
Med (New York, NY) ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2272796

ABSTRACT

Background Both infection and vaccination, alone or in combination, generate antibody and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. However, the maintenance of such responses – and hence protection from disease – requires careful characterisation. In a large prospective study of UK healthcare workers (Protective immunity from T cells in Healthcare workers (PITCH), within the larger SARS-CoV-2 immunity & reinfection evaluation (SIREN) study) we previously observed that prior infection impacted strongly on subsequent cellular and humoral immunity induced after long and short dosing intervals of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccination. Methods Here, we report longer follow up of 684 HCWs in this cohort over 6-9 months following two doses of BNT162b2 or AZD1222 (Oxford/AstraZeneca) vaccination and up to 6 months following a subsequent mRNA booster vaccination. Findings We make three observations: Firstly, the dynamics of humoral and cellular responses differ;binding and neutralising antibodies declined whereas T and memory B cell responses were maintained after the second vaccine dose. Secondly, vaccine boosting restored IgG levels, broadened neutralising activity against variants of concern including omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5, and boosted T cell responses above the 6-month level post dose 2. Thirdly, prior infection maintained its impact driving larger and broader T cell responses compared with never-infected people – a feature maintained until 6 months after the third dose. Conclusions Broadly cross-reactive T cell responses are well maintained over time – especially in those with combined vaccine and infection-induced immunity ("hybrid” immunity) – and may contribute to continued protection against severe disease. Funding Department for Health and Social Care, Medical Research Council Graphical abstract Moore et al. studied antibody and cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccines before and after dose 3. Antibody responses waned, but T cell responses were well maintained. T cells recognised Omicron variants better and for longer than antibodies. Differences due to vaccine regimen and previous infection evened out over time.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 22(8): 2089-2093, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256740

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus Omicron variant has now supplanted wild-type virus as the dominant circulating strain globally. Three doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine are recommended for transplant recipients as their primary vaccine series. However, the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines as they specifically relate to the Omicron variant are not well studied. We analyzed Omicron-specific neutralization in transplant recipients after three-doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Neutralization was determined using a SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus assay with constructs for Omicron and Delta variants. A total of 60 transplant patients (kidney, kidney-pancreas, lung, heart, liver) were analyzed 1 month and 3 months after completion of three doses of mRNA-1273. At 1 month, 11/60 (18.3%) patients had detectable neutralizing antibody responses to Omicron (log10 ID50 of 2.38 [range 1.34-3.57]). At 3 months, 8/51 (15.7%) were positive (median log10 ID50 [1.68; range 1.12-3.61; approximate fivefold reduction over time]). The proportion of positive patients was lower for Omicron versus wild-type, and Omicron vs. Delta (p < .001). No demographic variables were found to be significantly associated with Omicron response. Many patients with a positive anti-RBD response still had undetectable Omicron-specific neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, three doses of mRNA vaccine results in poor neutralizing responses against the Omicron variant in transplant patients.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Transplant Recipients , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, the primary vaccination series against COVID-19 is three doses followed by boosters. We determined whether a fourth dose booster induced Omicron BA.4/5 neutralizing antibodies and T-cells in a large multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Serum was collected 4-6 weeks post third and fourth dose of mRNA vaccine in 222 SOT recipients. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were measured using a pseudovirus neutralization assay targeting the Omicron BA.4/5 spike protein. A subset underwent T-cell testing. RESULTS: Median age of the cohort was 63 years (IQR 50-68) with 61.7% men. BA.4/5 nAb detection increased from 26.6%(59/222) post third dose to 53.6%(119/222) post fourth dose (p<0.0001). In patients with breakthrough infection prior to fourth dose (n=27), nAb were detected in 77.8% and median nAb titers were significantly higher compared to those with four vaccine doses alone (p<0.0001). Factors associated with a low BA.4/5 neutralization response after fourth dose were older age (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.94-0.99), mycophenolate use (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.20-0.77) and prednisone use (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.18-0.63), and vaccine type (OR 0.72, 95%CI 0.51-0.99) while breakthrough infection prior to fourth dose (OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.3-9.9) was associated with a greater nAb response. Polyfunctional BA.4/5-specific CD4+ T-cells significantly increased after four doses and were identified in 76.9% of patients at a median frequency of 213 per 106 cells (IQR 98-650). CONCLUSION: In summary, a booster significantly increases BA.4/5-specific neutralization and polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses, suggesting protection from severe disease even with new Omicron variants. However, SOT recipients that are older, on mycophenolate and prednisone need further preventative strategies.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230070

ABSTRACT

Since June 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation (SIREN) study has conducted routine PCR testing in UK healthcare workers and sequenced PCR-positive samples. SIREN detected increases in infections and reinfections during Omicron subvariant waves contemporaneous with national surveillance. SIREN's sentinel surveillance methods can be used for variant surveillance.

5.
CMAJ ; 194(46): E1578-E1586, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197233

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: La forme grave de COVID-19 semble affecter de manière disproportionnée les gens immunovulnérables, même si les données canadiennes dans ce contexte sont limitées. Nous avons voulu déterminer quels facteurs sont associés aux paramètres de la forme grave de COVID-19 chez les receveurs de transplantations au Canada. MÉTHODES: Nous avons procédé à une étude de cohorte multicentrique prospective regroupant tous les receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein ayant reçu un diagnostic de COVID-19 suivis dans 9 programmes de transplantation au Canada entre mars 2020 et novembre 2021. Les données ont été analysées afin de dégager les facteurs de risque à l'égard du recours à l'oxygénothérapie et autres critères de la gravité de la maladie. Nous avons comparé les paramètres selon le type d'organe transplanté et suivi l'évolution des paramètres au fil du temps. Nous avons procédé à une analyse multivariée pour déterminer quelles variables sont associées au recours à l'oxygénothérapie. RÉSULTATS: En tout, 509 patients ayant reçu une transplantation d'organe plein ont contracté la COVID-19 durant la période de l'étude. Les facteurs de risque associés au recours à l'oxygénothérapie (n = 190) ou non (n = 319) incluaient l'âge (âge médian 62,6 ans, intervalle interquartile [II] 52,5­69,5 ans c. âge médian 55,5 ans, II 47,5­66,5; p < 0,001) et le nombre de comorbidités (nombre médian 3, II 2­3 c. nombre médian 2, II 1­3; p < 0,001), de même que les paramètres concernant l'immunosuppression. Les receveurs d'une transplantation pulmonaire (n = 48) étaient plus susceptibles de souffrir d'une forme grave de la maladie, avec un taux de mortalité élevé (n = 15, 31,3 %) comparativement aux receveurs d'autres organes, y compris le rein (n = 48, 14,8 %), le cœur (n = 1, 4,4 %), le foie (n = 9, 11,4 %) et le rein­pancréas (n = 3, 12,0 %) (p = 0,02). Les facteurs protecteurs contre le recours à l'oxygénothérapie incluaient le fait d'avoir subi une transplantation hépatique et de recevoir de l'azathioprine. Le fait d'avoir reçu 2 doses de vaccin anti-SRAS-CoV-2 n'a pas eu d'influence appréciable sur le recours à l'oxygénothérapie. L'analyse multivariée a montré que l'âge avancé (rapport des cotes [RC] 1,04, intervalle de confiance [IC] de 95 % 1,02­1,07) et le nombre de comorbidités (RC 1,63, IC de 95 % 1,30­2,04), entre autres facteurs, étaient associés au recours à l'oxygénothérapie. La gravité de la maladie n'a pas considérablement diminué au fil du temps. INTERPRÉTATION : Malgré les progrès thérapeutiques et la vaccination des receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein, les signes de gravité accrue de la COVID-19, en particulier chez les receveurs d'une transplantation pulmonaire, justifient le maintien des mesures de santé publique pour protéger ces personnes à risque, et l'utilisation hâtive de traitements contre la COVID-19 chez les receveurs d'une transplantation d'organe plein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Prospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Canada
7.
CMAJ ; 194(33): E1155-E1163, 2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 appears to disproportionately affect people who are immunocompromised, although Canadian data in this context are limited. We sought to determine factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes among recipients of organ transplants across Canada. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, prospective cohort study of all recipients of solid organ transplants from 9 transplant programs in Canada who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 2020 to November 2021. Data were analyzed to determine risk factors for oxygen requirement and other metrics of disease severity. We compared outcomes by organ transplant type and examined changes in outcomes over time. We performed a multivariable analysis to determine variables associated with need for supplemental oxygen. RESULTS: A total of 509 patients with solid organ transplants had confirmed COVID-19 during the study period. Risk factors associated with needing (n = 190), compared with not needing (n = 319), supplemental oxygen included age (median 62.6 yr, interquartile range [IQR] 52.5-69.5 yr v. median 55.5 yr, IQR 47.5-66.5; p < 0.001) and number of comorbidities (median 3, IQR 2-3 v. median 2, IQR 1-3; p < 0.001), as well as parameters associated with immunosuppression. Recipients of lung transplants (n = 48) were more likely to have severe disease with a high mortality rate (n = 15, 31.3%) compared with recipients of other organ transplants, including kidney (n = 48, 14.8%), heart (n = 1, 4.4%), liver (n = 9, 11.4%) and kidney-pancreas (n = 3, 12.0%) transplants (p = 0.02). Protective factors against needing supplemental oxygen included having had a liver transplant and receiving azathioprine. Having had 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine did not have an appreciable influence on oxygen requirement. Multivariable analysis showed that older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.07) and number of comorbidities (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.30-2.04), among other factors, were associated with the need for supplemental oxygen. Over time, disease severity did not decline significantly. INTERPRETATION: Despite therapeutic advances and vaccination of recipients of solid organ transplants, evidence of increased severity of COVID-19, in particular among those with lung transplants, supports ongoing public health measures to protect these at-risk people, and early use of COVID-19 therapies for recipients of solid organ transplants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Canada/epidemiology , Oxygen
8.
J Infect ; 85(5): 545-556, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate serological differences between SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases and contemporary controls, to identify antibody correlates of protection against reinfection. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, comparing reinfection cases with singly infected individuals pre-vaccination, matched by gender, age, region and timing of first infection. Serum samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S), anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (anti-N), live virus microneutralisation (LV-N) and pseudovirus microneutralisation (PV-N). Results were analysed using fixed effect linear regression and fitted into conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified 23 cases and 92 controls. First infections occurred before November 2020; reinfections occurred before February 2021, pre-vaccination. Anti-S levels, LV-N and PV-N titres were significantly lower among cases; no difference was found for anti-N levels. Increasing anti-S levels were associated with reduced risk of reinfection (OR 0·63, CI 0·47-0·85), but no association for anti-N levels (OR 0·88, CI 0·73-1·05). Titres >40 were correlated with protection against reinfection for LV-N Wuhan (OR 0·02, CI 0·001-0·31) and LV-N Alpha (OR 0·07, CI 0·009-0·62). For PV-N, titres >100 were associated with protection against Wuhan (OR 0·14, CI 0·03-0·64) and Alpha (0·06, CI 0·008-0·40). CONCLUSIONS: Before vaccination, protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was directly correlated with anti-S levels, PV-N and LV-N titres, but not with anti-N levels. Detectable LV-N titres were sufficient for protection, whilst PV-N titres >100 were required for a protective effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11041050.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Reinfection/prevention & control , Vaccination
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4489, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972605

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are predisposed to severe COVID-19. Here we compare homotypic and heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses to Omicron BA.1 in organ transplant patients across a diverse clinical spectrum. We perform variant-specific pseudovirus neutralization assays for D614G, and Omicron-BA.1, -BA.2, and Delta variants. We also measure poly-and monofunctional T-cell responses to BA.1 and ancestral SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools. We identify that partially or fully-vaccinated transplant recipients after infection with Omicron BA.1 have the greatest BA.1 neutralizing antibody and BA.1-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, with potent cross-neutralization against BA.2. In these patients, the magnitude of the BA.1-directed response is comparable to immunocompetent triple-vaccinated controls. A subset of patients with pre-Omicron infection have heterotypic responses to BA.1 and BA.2, whereas uninfected transplant patients with three doses of vaccine demonstrate the weakest comparative responses. These results have implications for risk of infection, re-infection, and disease severity among immune compromised hosts with Omicron infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ ; 378: e070379, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of, risk factors for, and impact of vaccines on primary SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second wave of the covid-19 pandemic in susceptible hospital healthcare workers in England. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: National Health Service secondary care health organisations (trusts) in England between 1 September 2020 and 30 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Clinical, support, and administrative staff enrolled in the SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation (SIREN) study with no evidence of previous infection. Vaccination status was obtained from national covid-19 vaccination registries and self-reported. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Mixed effects logistic regression was conducted to determine demographic and occupational risk factors for infection, and an individual based mathematical model was used to predict how large the burden could have been if vaccines had not been available from 8 December 2020 . RESULTS: During England's second wave, 12.9% (2353/18 284) of susceptible SIREN participants became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Infections peaked in late December 2020 and decreased from January 2021, concurrent with the cohort's rapid vaccination coverage and a national lockdown. In multivariable analysis, factors increasing the likelihood of infection in the second wave were being under 25 years old (20.3% (132/651); adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.69), living in a large household (15.8% (282/1781); 1.54, 1.23 to 1.94, for participants from households of five or more people), having frequent exposure to patients with covid-19 (19.2% (723/3762); 1.79, 1.56 to 2.06, for participants with exposure every shift), working in an emergency department or inpatient ward setting (20.8% (386/1855); 1.76, 1.45 to 2.14), and being a healthcare assistant (18.1% (267/1479); 1.43, 1.16 to 1.77). Time to first vaccination emerged as being strongly associated with infection (P<0.001), with each additional day multiplying a participant's adjusted odds ratio by 1.02. Mathematical model simulations indicated that an additional 9.9% of all patient facing hospital healthcare workers would have been infected were it not for the rapid vaccination coverage. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid covid-19 vaccine rollout from December 2020 averted infection in a large proportion of hospital healthcare workers in England: without vaccines, second wave infections could have been 69% higher. With booster vaccinations being needed for adequate protection from the omicron variant, and perhaps the need for further boosters for future variants, ensuring equitable delivery to healthcare workers is essential. The findings also highlight occupational risk factors that persisted in healthcare workers despite vaccine rollout; a greater understanding of the transmission dynamics responsible for these is needed to help to optimise the infection prevention and control policies that protect healthcare workers from infection and therefore to support staffing levels and maintain healthcare provision. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN11041050.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Health Personnel , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
12.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e21-e31, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. METHODS: We sampled health-care workers enrolled in the PITCH study across four hospital sites in the UK (Oxford, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Sheffield). All health-care workers aged 18 years or older consenting to participate in this prospective cohort study were included, with no exclusion criteria applied. Blood samples were collected where possible before vaccination and 28 (±7) days following one or two doses (given 3-4 weeks apart) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Previous infection was determined by a documented SARS-CoV-2-positive RT-PCR result or the presence of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. We measured spike-specific IgG antibodies and quantified T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay in all participants where samples were available at the time of analysis, comparing SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals to those with previous infection. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2020, and Feb 9, 2021, 119 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 145 previously infected health-care workers received one dose, and 25 SARS-CoV-2-naive health-care workers received two doses, of the BNT162b2 vaccine. In previously infected health-care workers, the median time from previous infection to vaccination was 268 days (IQR 232-285). At 28 days (IQR 27-33) after a single dose, the spike-specific T-cell response measured in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was higher in previously infected (n=76) than in infection-naive (n=45) health-care workers (median 284 [IQR 150-461] vs 55 [IQR 24-132] spot-forming units [SFUs] per 106 PBMCs; p<0·0001). With cryopreserved PBMCs, the T-cell response in previously infected individuals (n=52) after one vaccine dose was equivalent to that of infection-naive individuals (n=19) after receiving two vaccine doses (median 152 [IQR 119-275] vs 162 [104-258] SFUs/106 PBMCs; p=1·00). Anti-spike IgG antibody responses following a single dose in 142 previously infected health-care workers (median 270 373 [IQR 203 461-535 188] antibody units [AU] per mL) were higher than in 111 infection-naive health-care workers following one dose (35 001 [17 099-55 341] AU/mL; p<0·0001) and higher than in 25 infection-naive individuals given two doses (180 904 [108 221-242 467] AU/mL; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine is likely to provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, than in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, including against variants of concern. Future studies should determine the additional benefit of a second dose on the magnitude and durability of immune responses in individuals vaccinated following infection, alongside evaluation of the impact of extending the interval between vaccine doses. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, and UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054336, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909750

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the effectiveness and durability of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection conferred by previous infection and COVID-19 is essential to inform ongoing management of the pandemic. This study aims to determine whether prior SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination in healthcare workers protects against future infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective cohort study design in staff members working in hospitals in the UK. At enrolment, participants are allocated into cohorts, positive or naïve, dependent on their prior SARS-CoV-2 infection status, as measured by standardised SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing on all baseline serum samples and previous SARS-CoV-2 test results. Participants undergo monthly antibody testing and fortnightly viral RNA testing during follow-up and based on these results may move between cohorts. Any results from testing undertaken for other reasons (eg, symptoms, contact tracing) or prior to study entry will also be captured. Individuals complete enrolment and fortnightly questionnaires on exposures, symptoms and vaccination. Follow-up is 12 months from study entry, with an option to extend follow-up to 24 months.The primary outcome of interest is infection with SARS-CoV-2 after previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination during the study period. Secondary outcomes include incidence and prevalence (both RNA and antibody) of SARS-CoV-2, viral genomics, viral culture, symptom history and antibody/neutralising antibody titres. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Berkshire Research Ethics Committee, Health Research Authority (IRAS ID 284460, REC reference 20/SC/0230) on 22 May 2020; the vaccine amendment was approved on 12 January 2021. Participants gave informed consent before taking part in the study.Regular reports to national and international expert advisory groups and peer-reviewed publications ensure timely dissemination of findings to inform decision making. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11041050.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination
14.
Transplantation ; 106(8): 1622-1628, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk for complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination may mitigate this risk; however, immunogenicity appears to be significantly impaired, with reports of increased risk of breakthrough infection. It is unknown if vaccine breakthrough infections are milder or as severe as infections in unvaccinated patients. METHODS: We performed a multicenter matched cohort study between March 2020 and September 2021 to assess influence of COVID-19 vaccination on outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Treatment characteristics and disease severity outcomes were compared on the basis of vaccine status; breakthrough infections versus unvaccinated infections. Variable ratio propensity score matching based on age, sex, transplant type, and number of comorbidities, was used to develop the analytic cohort. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of vaccination status on the selected outcomes. RESULTS: From a cohort of 511 SOT patients with COVID-19, we matched 77 partially or fully vaccinated patients with 220 unvaccinated patients. Treatment characteristics including use of dexamethasone, remdesivir, and antibiotics did not differ. Vaccinated participants were more likely to receive tocilizumab, 15 of 77 (19.5%) versus 5 of 220 (2.3%), P < 0.001. Disease severity outcomes including oxygen requirement, mechanical ventilation, and mortality were similar among medically attended vaccine breakthroughs compared with unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSIONS: SOT recipients who develop medically attended COVID-19 following 1- or 2-dose vaccination seem to have similar disease severity to unvaccinated patients who develop infection. This is consistent with the requirement that SOT recipients need 3 or more vaccine doses and emphasizes the importance of alternate strategies for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Organ Transplantation , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
15.
N Engl J Med ; 386(13): 1207-1220, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration and effectiveness of immunity from infection with and vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are relevant to pandemic policy interventions, including the timing of vaccine boosters. METHODS: We investigated the duration and effectiveness of immunity in a prospective cohort of asymptomatic health care workers in the United Kingdom who underwent routine polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) testing. Vaccine effectiveness (≤10 months after the first dose of vaccine) and infection-acquired immunity were assessed by comparing the time to PCR-confirmed infection in vaccinated persons with that in unvaccinated persons, stratified according to previous infection status. We used a Cox regression model with adjustment for previous SARS-CoV-2 infection status, vaccine type and dosing interval, demographic characteristics, and workplace exposure to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 35,768 participants, 27% (9488) had a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccine coverage was high: 95% of the participants had received two doses (78% had received BNT162b2 vaccine [Pfizer-BioNTech] with a long interval between doses, 9% BNT162b2 vaccine with a short interval between doses, and 8% ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine [AstraZeneca]). Between December 7, 2020, and September 21, 2021, a total of 2747 primary infections and 210 reinfections were observed. Among previously uninfected participants who received long-interval BNT162b2 vaccine, adjusted vaccine effectiveness decreased from 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72 to 92) 14 to 73 days after the second dose to 51% (95% CI, 22 to 69) at a median of 201 days (interquartile range, 197 to 205) after the second dose; this effectiveness did not differ significantly between the long-interval and short-interval BNT162b2 vaccine recipients. At 14 to 73 days after the second dose, adjusted vaccine effectiveness among ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine recipients was 58% (95% CI, 23 to 77) - considerably lower than that among BNT162b2 vaccine recipients. Infection-acquired immunity waned after 1 year in unvaccinated participants but remained consistently higher than 90% in those who were subsequently vaccinated, even in persons infected more than 18 months previously. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were associated with high short-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection; this protection waned considerably after 6 months. Infection-acquired immunity boosted with vaccination remained high more than 1 year after infection. (Funded by the U.K. Health Security Agency and others; ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN11041050.).


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Asymptomatic Diseases , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine Efficacy
16.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 380-385, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671602

ABSTRACT

Delayed dosing intervals are a strategy to immunize a greater proportion of the population. In an observational study, we compared humoral and cellular responses in health care workers receiving two doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine at standard (3- to 6-week) and delayed (8- to 16-week) intervals. In the delayed-interval group, anti-receptor-binding domain antibody titers were significantly enhanced compared to the standard-interval group. The 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) and PRNT90 titers against wild-type (ancestral) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Alpha, Beta and Delta variants were higher in the delayed-interval group. Spike-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were comparable between the two groups. Here, we show that the strategy of delaying second doses of mRNA vaccination may lead to enhanced humoral immune responses, including improved virus neutralization against wild-type and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses. This finding has potentially important implications as vaccine implementation continues across a greater proportion of the global population.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1849-1860, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612585

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) is poorly understood. To address this, we measured T-cell responses in 50 SOTRs with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell responses against spike (S), nucleocapsid, and membrane proteins; CD8+ T-cell responses were generated to a lesser extent. CD4+ T-cell responses correlated with antibody levels. Severity of disease and mycophenolate dose were moderately associated with lower proportions of antigen-specific T cells. Relative to nontransplant controls, SOTRs had perturbations in both total and antigen-specific T cells, including higher frequencies of total PD-1+ CD4+ T cells. Vaccinated SOTRs (n = 55) mounted significantly lower proportions of S-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cells after 2 doses, relative to unvaccinated SOTRs with prior coronavirus disease 2019. Together, these results suggest that SOTRs generate robust T-cell responses following natural infection that correlate with disease severity but generate comparatively lower T-cell responses following mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Organ Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Lancet ; 398(10318): 2209-2211, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577737

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): 226-233, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is more severe in transplant recipients. Variants of concern have supplanted wild-type virus. In transplant recipients, data are limited on 2-dose or 3-dose vaccine immunogenicity against variant viruses. OBJECTIVE: To assess neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in transplant recipients after 2 and 3 vaccine doses. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of a third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04885907). SETTING: Single-center transplant program. PATIENTS: Organ transplant recipients. INTERVENTION: Third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Sera were analyzed for neutralization against wild-type virus and the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants using a surrogate virus neutralization assay and a spike-pseudotyped lentivirus assay. RESULTS: A total of 117 transplant recipients were analyzed (60 in the mRNA-1273 group and 57 in the placebo group). Sera were obtained before and 4 to 6 weeks after the third dose. After 2 doses, the proportion of patients with positive neutralization for all 3 variants was small compared with wild-type virus. After the third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine, the proportion with a positive neutralization response versus placebo was improved for all 3 variants as measured by both assays. Based on the pseudovirus neutralization assay against the Delta variant, 33 of 60 (55%) patients were positive in the mRNA-1273 group versus 10 of 57 (18%) in the placebo group (difference, 37 [95% CI, 19 to 53] percentage points). The differences were 36 (CI, 17 to 51) percentage points for the Alpha variant and 31 (CI, 15 to 46) percentage points for the Beta variant. In the mRNA-1273 group, lower neutralization values were observed for variants compared with wild-type virus, especially the Beta variant. LIMITATIONS: There is no clear correlate of protection for neutralizing antibody. This was a secondary analysis. CONCLUSION: In organ transplant recipients, a third dose of mRNA vaccine increases neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with placebo. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ajmera Transplant Centre.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Organ Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(6): e13743, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476358

ABSTRACT

The optimal management of immunosuppression in transplant patients infected with COVID-19 is unknown. We performed an in vitro study to determine the effect of individual immunosuppressive agents on SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell cytokine expression. Convalescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eleven non-immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19 were preincubated with clinically relevant concentrations of immunosuppressive drugs (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, sirolimus, prednisone) and then stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool. Supernatants were analyzed by 14-plex high sensitivity T-cell cytokine array. With increasing concentrations of tacrolimus, there was a trend to reduction in the release of IL-2 (p = .0137), and IFN-γ (p = .0147) in response to peptide stimulation. There was also a subsequent trend toward a Th2 phenotype, indicated by lower IFN-γ:IL-13 ratio (p = .0663) and IFNγ:IL-4 ratio (p = .0176). Sirolimus appeared to be associated with a proinflammatory cytokine release, including TNF-α (p = .0027) and IL-1ß (p = .0016), in response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. In contrast, mycophenolate and prednisone did not influence the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine response. These are preliminary findings only, with larger studies required to inform clinical recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Immunosuppression Therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mycophenolic Acid , Prednisone , Sirolimus , Tacrolimus
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