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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1849-1860, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612585

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) is poorly understood. To address this, we measured T-cell responses in 50 SOTRs with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell responses against spike (S), nucleocapsid, and membrane proteins; CD8+ T-cell responses were generated to a lesser extent. CD4+ T-cell responses correlated with antibody levels. Severity of disease and mycophenolate dose were moderately associated with lower proportions of antigen-specific T cells. Relative to nontransplant controls, SOTRs had perturbations in both total and antigen-specific T cells, including higher frequencies of total PD-1+ CD4+ T cells. Vaccinated SOTRs (n = 55) mounted significantly lower proportions of S-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cells after 2 doses, relative to unvaccinated SOTRs with prior coronavirus disease 2019. Together, these results suggest that SOTRs generate robust T-cell responses following natural infection that correlate with disease severity but generate comparatively lower T-cell responses following mRNA vaccination.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is more severe in transplant recipients. Variants of concern have supplanted wild-type virus. In transplant recipients, data are limited on 2-dose or 3-dose vaccine immunogenicity against variant viruses. OBJECTIVE: To assess neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in transplant recipients after 2 and 3 vaccine doses. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of a third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04885907). SETTING: Single-center transplant program. PATIENTS: Organ transplant recipients. INTERVENTION: Third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine versus placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Sera were analyzed for neutralization against wild-type virus and the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants using a surrogate virus neutralization assay and a spike-pseudotyped lentivirus assay. RESULTS: A total of 117 transplant recipients were analyzed (60 in the mRNA-1273 group and 57 in the placebo group). Sera were obtained before and 4 to 6 weeks after the third dose. After 2 doses, the proportion of patients with positive neutralization for all 3 variants was small compared with wild-type virus. After the third dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine, the proportion with a positive neutralization response versus placebo was improved for all 3 variants as measured by both assays. Based on the pseudovirus neutralization assay against the Delta variant, 33 of 60 (55%) patients were positive in the mRNA-1273 group versus 10 of 57 (18%) in the placebo group (difference, 37 [95% CI, 19 to 53] percentage points). The differences were 36 (CI, 17 to 51) percentage points for the Alpha variant and 31 (CI, 15 to 46) percentage points for the Beta variant. In the mRNA-1273 group, lower neutralization values were observed for variants compared with wild-type virus, especially the Beta variant. LIMITATIONS: There is no clear correlate of protection for neutralizing antibody. This was a secondary analysis. CONCLUSION: In organ transplant recipients, a third dose of mRNA vaccine increases neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with placebo. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ajmera Transplant Centre.

3.
Lancet ; 398(10318): 2209-2211, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577737

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294512

ABSTRACT

Hospital-based transmission played a dominant role in MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV epidemics but large-scale studies of its role in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are lacking. Such transmission risks spreading the virus to the most vulnerable individuals and can have wider-scale impacts through hospital-community interactions. Using data from acute hospitals in England we quantify within-hospital transmission, evaluate likely pathways of spread and factors associated with heightened transmission risk, and explore the wider dynamical consequences. We show that hospital transmission is likely to have been a major contributor to the burden of COVID-19 in England. We estimate that between June 2020 and March 2021 between 95,000 and 167,000 patients acquired SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals with nosocomially-infected patients likely to have been the main sources of transmission to other patients. Increased transmission to patients was associated with hospitals having fewer single rooms and lower heated volume per bed. Moreover, we show that reducing hospital transmission could substantially enhance the efficiency of punctuated lockdown measures in suppressing community transmission. These findings reveal the previously unrecognised scale of hospital transmission, have direct implications for targeting of hospital control measures, and highlight the need to design hospitals better-equipped to limit the transmission of future high consequence pathogens.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293307

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the duration and effectiveness of infection and vaccine-acquired SARS-CoV-2 immunity is essential to inform pandemic policy interventions, including the timing of vaccine-boosters. We investigated this in our large prospective cohort of UK healthcare workers undergoing routine asymptomatic PCR testing. Methods We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) (up to 10-months after first dose) and infection-acquired immunity by comparing time to PCR-confirmed infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals using a Cox regression-model, adjusted by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection status, vaccine-manufacturer/dosing-interval, demographics and workplace exposures. Results Of 35,768 participants, 27% (n=9,488) had a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccine coverage was high: 97% had two-doses (79% BNT162b2 long-interval, 8% BNT162b2 short-interval, 8% ChAdOx1). There were 2,747 primary infections and 210 reinfections between 07/12/2020 and 21/09/2021. Adjusted VE (aVE) decreased from 81% (95% CI 68%-89%) 14-73 days after dose-2 to 46% (95% CI 22%-63%) >6-months;with no significant difference for short-interval BNT162b2 but significantly lower aVE (50% (95% CI 18%-70%) 14-73 days after dose-2 from ChAdOx1. Protection from infection-acquired immunity showed evidence of waning in unvaccinated follow-up but remained consistently over 90% in those who received two doses of vaccine, even in those infected over 15-months ago. Conclusion Two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination induce high short-term protection to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which wanes significantly after six months. Infection-acquired immunity boosted with vaccination remains high over a year after infection. Boosters will be essential to maintain protection in vaccinees who have not had primary infection to reduce infection and transmission in this population. Trial registration number ISRCTN11041050

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293262

ABSTRACT

Hospital-based transmission played a dominant role in MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV epidemics but large-scale studies of its role in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are lacking. Such transmission risks spreading the virus to the most vulnerable individuals and can have wider-scale impacts through hospital-community interactions. Using data from acute hospitals in England we quantify within-hospital transmission, evaluate likely pathways of spread and factors associated with heightened transmission risk, and explore the wider dynamical consequences. We show that hospital transmission is likely to have been a major contributor to the burden of COVID-19 in England. We estimate that between June 2020 and March 2021 between 95,000 and 167,000 patients acquired SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals with nosocomially-infected patients likely to have been the main sources of transmission to other patients. Increased transmission to patients was associated with hospitals having fewer single rooms and lower heated volume per bed. Moreover, we show that reducing hospital transmission could substantially enhance the efficiency of punctuated lockdown measures in suppressing community transmission. These findings reveal the previously unrecognised scale of hospital transmission, have direct implications for targeting of hospital control measures, and highlight the need to design hospitals better-equipped to limit the transmission of future high consequence pathogens.

7.
Lancet Microbe ; 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510521

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. Methods: We sampled health-care workers enrolled in the PITCH study across four hospital sites in the UK (Oxford, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Sheffield). All health-care workers aged 18 years or older consenting to participate in this prospective cohort study were included, with no exclusion criteria applied. Blood samples were collected where possible before vaccination and 28 (±7) days following one or two doses (given 3-4 weeks apart) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Previous infection was determined by a documented SARS-CoV-2-positive RT-PCR result or the presence of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. We measured spike-specific IgG antibodies and quantified T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay in all participants where samples were available at the time of analysis, comparing SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals to those with previous infection. Findings: Between Dec 9, 2020, and Feb 9, 2021, 119 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 145 previously infected health-care workers received one dose, and 25 SARS-CoV-2-naive health-care workers received two doses, of the BNT162b2 vaccine. In previously infected health-care workers, the median time from previous infection to vaccination was 268 days (IQR 232-285). At 28 days (IQR 27-33) after a single dose, the spike-specific T-cell response measured in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was higher in previously infected (n=76) than in infection-naive (n=45) health-care workers (median 284 [IQR 150-461] vs 55 [IQR 24-132] spot-forming units [SFUs] per 106 PBMCs; p<0·0001). With cryopreserved PBMCs, the T-cell response in previously infected individuals (n=52) after one vaccine dose was equivalent to that of infection-naive individuals (n=19) after receiving two vaccine doses (median 152 [IQR 119-275] vs 162 [104-258] SFUs/106 PBMCs; p=1·00). Anti-spike IgG antibody responses following a single dose in 142 previously infected health-care workers (median 270 373 [IQR 203 461-535 188] antibody units [AU] per mL) were higher than in 111 infection-naive health-care workers following one dose (35 001 [17 099-55 341] AU/mL; p<0·0001) and higher than in 25 infection-naive individuals given two doses (180 904 [108 221-242 467] AU/mL; p<0·0001). Interpretation: A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine is likely to provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, than in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, including against variants of concern. Future studies should determine the additional benefit of a second dose on the magnitude and durability of immune responses in individuals vaccinated following infection, alongside evaluation of the impact of extending the interval between vaccine doses. Funding: UK Department of Health and Social Care, and UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1849-1860, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503934

ABSTRACT

T-cell immunity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) is poorly understood. To address this, we measured T-cell responses in 50 SOTRs with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell responses against spike (S), nucleocapsid, and membrane proteins; CD8+ T-cell responses were generated to a lesser extent. CD4+ T-cell responses correlated with antibody levels. Severity of disease and mycophenolate dose were moderately associated with lower proportions of antigen-specific T cells. Relative to nontransplant controls, SOTRs had perturbations in both total and antigen-specific T cells, including higher frequencies of total PD-1+ CD4+ T cells. Vaccinated SOTRs (n = 55) mounted significantly lower proportions of S-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cells after 2 doses, relative to unvaccinated SOTRs with prior coronavirus disease 2019. Together, these results suggest that SOTRs generate robust T-cell responses following natural infection that correlate with disease severity but generate comparatively lower T-cell responses following mRNA vaccination.

9.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13743, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476358

ABSTRACT

The optimal management of immunosuppression in transplant patients infected with COVID-19 is unknown. We performed an in vitro study to determine the effect of individual immunosuppressive agents on SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell cytokine expression. Convalescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells from eleven non-immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19 were preincubated with clinically relevant concentrations of immunosuppressive drugs (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, sirolimus, prednisone) and then stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool. Supernatants were analyzed by 14-plex high sensitivity T-cell cytokine array. With increasing concentrations of tacrolimus, there was a trend to reduction in the release of IL-2 (p = .0137), and IFN-γ (p = .0147) in response to peptide stimulation. There was also a subsequent trend toward a Th2 phenotype, indicated by lower IFN-γ:IL-13 ratio (p = .0663) and IFNγ:IL-4 ratio (p = .0176). Sirolimus appeared to be associated with a proinflammatory cytokine release, including TNF-α (p = .0027) and IL-1ß (p = .0016), in response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. In contrast, mycophenolate and prednisone did not influence the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine response. These are preliminary findings only, with larger studies required to inform clinical recommendations.

10.
Cell ; 184(23): 5699-5714.e11, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466093

ABSTRACT

Extension of the interval between vaccine doses for the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in the United Kingdom to accelerate population coverage with a single dose. At this time, trial data were lacking, and we addressed this in a study of United Kingdom healthcare workers. The first vaccine dose induced protection from infection from the circulating alpha (B.1.1.7) variant over several weeks. In a substudy of 589 individuals, we show that this single dose induces severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses and a sustained B and T cell response to the spike protein. NAb levels were higher after the extended dosing interval (6-14 weeks) compared with the conventional 3- to 4-week regimen, accompanied by enrichment of CD4+ T cells expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2). Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection amplified and accelerated the response. These data on dynamic cellular and humoral responses indicate that extension of the dosing interval is an effective immunogenic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Priming/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1658-1665, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of bacterial/fungal infections on the morbidity and mortality of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We have investigated the incidence and impact of key bacterial/fungal infections in persons with COVID-19 in England. METHODS: We extracted laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (1st January 2020 to 2nd June 2020) and blood and lower-respiratory specimens positive for 24 genera/species of clinical relevance (1st January 2020 to 30th June 2020) from Public Health England's national laboratory surveillance system. We defined coinfection and secondary infection as a culture-positive key organism isolated within 1 day or 2-27 days, respectively, of the SARS-CoV-2-positive date. We described the incidence and timing of bacterial/fungal infections and compared characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without bacterial/fungal infection. RESULTS: 1% of persons with COVID-19 (2279/223413) in England had coinfection/secondary infection, of which >65% were bloodstream infections. The most common causative organisms were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cases with coinfection/secondary infections were older than those without (median 70 years (IQR 58-81) versus 55 years (IQR 38-77)), and a higher percentage of cases with secondary infection were of Black or Asian ethnicity than cases without (6.7% versus 4.1%, and 9.9% versus 8.2%, respectively, p < 0.001). Age-sex-adjusted case fatality rates were higher in COVID-19 cases with a coinfection (23.0% (95%CI 18.8-27.6%)) or secondary infection (26.5% (95%CI 14.5-39.4%)) than in those without (7.6% (95%CI 7.5-7.7%)) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection/secondary bacterial/fungal infections were rare in non-hospitalized and hospitalized persons with COVID-19, varied by ethnicity and age, and were associated with higher mortality. However, the inclusion of non-hospitalized persons with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 likely underestimated the rate of secondary bacterial/fungal infections. This should inform diagnostic testing and antibiotic prescribing strategy.

13.
Am J Transplant ; 21(12): 3980-3989, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341238

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of severe disease from COVID-19. We assessed the immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 vaccine using a combination of antibody testing, surrogate neutralization assays, and T cell assays. Patients were immunized with two doses of vaccine and immunogenicity assessed after each dose using the above tests. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were assessed in a subset using flow-cytometry. A total of 127 patients were enrolled of which 110 provided serum at all time points. A positive anti-RBD antibody was seen in 5.0% after one dose and 34.5% after two doses. Neutralizing antibody was present in 26.9%. Of note, 28.5% of patients with anti-RBD did not have neutralizing antibody. T cell responses in a sub-cohort of 48 patients showed a positive CD4+ T cell response in 47.9%. Of note, in this sub-cohort, 46.2% of patients with a negative anti-RBD, still had a positive CD4+ T cell response. The vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. In summary, immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine was modest, but a subset of patients still develop neutralizing antibody and CD4+T- cell responses. Importantly polyfunctional CD4+T cell responses were observed in a significant portion who were antibody negative, further highlighting the importance of vaccination in this patient population. IRB Statement: This study was approved by the University Health Network Research Ethics Board (CAPCR ID 20-6069).

14.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1725-1735, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BNT162b2 mRNA and ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 adenoviral vector vaccines have been rapidly rolled out in the UK from December, 2020. We aimed to determine the factors associated with vaccine coverage for both vaccines and documented the vaccine effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in a cohort of health-care workers undergoing regular asymptomatic testing. METHODS: The SIREN study is a prospective cohort study among staff (aged ≥18 years) working in publicly-funded hospitals in the UK. Participants were assigned into either the positive cohort (antibody positive or history of infection [indicated by previous positivity of antibody or PCR tests]) or the negative cohort (antibody negative with no previous positive test) at the beginning of the follow-up period. Baseline risk factors were collected at enrolment, symptom status was collected every 2 weeks, and vaccination status was collected through linkage to the National Immunisations Management System and questionnaires. Participants had fortnightly asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing and monthly antibody testing, and all tests (including symptomatic testing) outside SIREN were captured. Data cutoff for this analysis was Feb 5, 2021. The follow-up period was Dec 7, 2020, to Feb 5, 2021. The primary outcomes were vaccinated participants (binary ever vacinated variable; indicated by at least one vaccine dose recorded by at least one of the two vaccination data sources) for the vaccine coverage analysis and SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a PCR test for the vaccine effectiveness analysis. We did a mixed-effect logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with vaccine coverage. We used a piecewise exponential hazard mixed-effects model (shared frailty-type model) using a Poisson distribution to calculate hazard ratios to compare time-to-infection in unvaccinated and vaccinated participants and estimate the impact of the BNT162b2 vaccine on all PCR-positive infections (asymptomatic and symptomatic). This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11041050, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: 23 324 participants from 104 sites (all in England) met the inclusion criteria for this analysis and were enrolled. Included participants had a median age of 46·1 years (IQR 36·0-54·1) and 19 692 (84%) were female; 8203 (35%) were assigned to the positive cohort at the start of the analysis period, and 15 121 (65%) assigned to the negative cohort. Total follow-up time was 2 calendar months and 1 106 905 person-days (396 318 vaccinated and 710 587 unvaccinated). Vaccine coverage was 89% on Feb 5, 2021, 94% of whom had BNT162b2 vaccine. Significantly lower coverage was associated with previous infection, gender, age, ethnicity, job role, and Index of Multiple Deprivation score. During follow-up, there were 977 new infections in the unvaccinated cohort, an incidence density of 14 infections per 10 000 person-days; the vaccinated cohort had 71 new infections 21 days or more after their first dose (incidence density of eight infections per 10 000 person-days) and nine infections 7 days after the second dose (incidence density four infections per 10 000 person-days). In the unvaccinated cohort, 543 (56%) participants had typical COVID-19 symptoms and 140 (14%) were asymptomatic on or 14 days before their PCR positive test date, compared with 29 (36%) with typical COVID-19 symptoms and 15 (19%) asymptomatic in the vaccinated cohort. A single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine showed vaccine effectiveness of 70% (95% CI 55-85) 21 days after first dose and 85% (74-96) 7 days after two doses in the study population. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that the BNT162b2 vaccine can prevent both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection in working-age adults. This cohort was vaccinated when the dominant variant in circulation was B1.1.7 and shows effectiveness against this variant. FUNDING: Public Health England, UK Department of Health and Social Care, and the National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
15.
Lancet ; 397(10283): 1459-1469, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased understanding of whether individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 are protected from future SARS-CoV-2 infection is an urgent requirement. We aimed to investigate whether antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection. METHODS: A large, multicentre, prospective cohort study was done, with participants recruited from publicly funded hospitals in all regions of England. All health-care workers, support staff, and administrative staff working at hospitals who could remain engaged in follow-up for 12 months were eligible to join The SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation study. Participants were excluded if they had no PCR tests after enrolment, enrolled after Dec 31, 2020, or had insufficient PCR and antibody data for cohort assignment. Participants attended regular SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing (every 2-4 weeks) and completed questionnaires every 2 weeks on symptoms and exposures. At enrolment, participants were assigned to either the positive cohort (antibody positive, or previous positive PCR or antibody test) or negative cohort (antibody negative, no previous positive PCR or antibody test). The primary outcome was a reinfection in the positive cohort or a primary infection in the negative cohort, determined by PCR tests. Potential reinfections were clinically reviewed and classified according to case definitions (confirmed, probable, or possible) and symptom-status, depending on the hierarchy of evidence. Primary infections in the negative cohort were defined as a first positive PCR test and seroconversions were excluded when not associated with a positive PCR test. A proportional hazards frailty model using a Poisson distribution was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) to compare infection rates in the two cohorts. FINDINGS: From June 18, 2020, to Dec 31, 2020, 30 625 participants were enrolled into the study. 51 participants withdrew from the study, 4913 were excluded, and 25 661 participants (with linked data on antibody and PCR testing) were included in the analysis. Data were extracted from all sources on Feb 5, 2021, and include data up to and including Jan 11, 2021. 155 infections were detected in the baseline positive cohort of 8278 participants, collectively contributing 2 047 113 person-days of follow-up. This compares with 1704 new PCR positive infections in the negative cohort of 17 383 participants, contributing 2 971 436 person-days of follow-up. The incidence density was 7·6 reinfections per 100 000 person-days in the positive cohort, compared with 57·3 primary infections per 100 000 person-days in the negative cohort, between June, 2020, and January, 2021. The adjusted IRR was 0·159 for all reinfections (95% CI 0·13-0·19) compared with PCR-confirmed primary infections. The median interval between primary infection and reinfection was more than 200 days. INTERPRETATION: A previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an 84% lower risk of infection, with median protective effect observed 7 months following primary infection. This time period is the minimum probable effect because seroconversions were not included. This study shows that previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces effective immunity to future infections in most individuals. FUNDING: Department of Health and Social Care of the UK Government, Public Health England, The National Institute for Health Research, with contributions from the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish governments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , England , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reinfection , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Med J Aust ; 213(6): 276-279, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To design and evaluate 3D-printed nasal swabs for collection of samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: An iterative design process was employed. Laboratory evaluation included in vitro assessment of mock nasopharyngeal samples spiked with two different concentrations of gamma-irradiated SARS-CoV-2. A prospective clinical study compared SARS-CoV-2 and human cellular material recovery by 3D-printed swabs and standard nasopharyngeal swabs. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Royal Melbourne Hospital, May 2020. Participants in the clinical evaluation were 50 hospital staff members attending a COVID-19 screening clinic and two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTION: In the clinical evaluation, a flocked nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected with the Copan ESwab and a mid-nasal sample from the other nostril was collected with the 3D-printed swab. RESULTS: In the laboratory evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in mock samples collected with 3D-printed swabs and two standard swabs was complete. In the clinical evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to RNase P detection (a surrogate measure of adequate collection of human cellular material) in samples collected from 50 hospital staff members with standard and 3D-printed swabs was complete. Qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in three pairs of 3D-printed mid-nasal and standard swab samples from two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was also complete. CONCLUSIONS: Using 3D-printed swabs to collect nasal samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing is feasible, acceptable to patients and health carers, and convenient.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/instrumentation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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