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Cell Rep ; 39(5): 110757, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850799


Although the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination has been studied extensively at the polyclonal level using immune sera, little has been reported on the antibody response at the monoclonal level. Here, we isolate a panel of 44 anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from an individual who received two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine at a 12-week interval. We show that, despite a relatively low serum neutralization titer, Spike-reactive IgG+ B cells are still detectable 9 months post-boost. Furthermore, mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against the current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Delta, and Omicron) are present. The vaccine-elicited neutralizing mAbs form eight distinct competition groups and bind epitopes overlapping with neutralizing mAbs elicited following SARS-CoV-2 infection. AZD1222-elicited mAbs are more mutated than mAbs isolated from convalescent donors 1-2 months post-infection. These findings provide molecular insights into the AZD1222 vaccine-elicited antibody response.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
Nat Microbiol ; 6(11): 1433-1442, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469971


COVID-19 vaccine design and vaccination rollout need to take into account a detailed understanding of antibody durability and cross-neutralizing potential against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants of concern (VOCs). Analyses of convalescent sera provide unique insights into antibody longevity and cross-neutralizing activity induced by variant spike proteins, which are putative vaccine candidates. Using sera from 38 individuals infected in wave 1, we show that cross-neutralizing activity can be detected up to 305 days pos onset of symptoms, although sera were less potent against B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B1.351 (Beta). Over time, despite a reduction in overall neutralization activity, differences in sera neutralization potency against SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha and Beta variants decreased, which suggests that continued antibody maturation improves tolerance to spike mutations. We also compared the cross-neutralizing activity of wave 1 sera with sera from individuals infected with the Alpha, the Beta or the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variants up to 79 days post onset of symptoms. While these sera neutralize the infecting VOC and parental virus to similar levels, cross-neutralization of different SARS-CoV-2 VOC lineages is reduced. These findings will inform the optimization of vaccines to protect against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult