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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277883, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dissociative experiences are psychological manifestations characterized by a loss of connection and continuity between thoughts, emotions, environment, behavior, and identity. Lebanon has been facing indescribable events in the last few years, including the COVID-19 pandemic, the Beirut explosion, a crushing economic crisis with the highest inflation rate the country has known in over three decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress symptoms from the economic crisis, the Beirut blast, the COVID-19 pandemic, and other mental health issues in a sample of Lebanese university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 419 active university students (18-35 years) from all over Lebanon (May and August 2021). The respondents received the online soft copy of a survey by a snowball sampling technique through social media and messaging apps. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES-II), the PTSD Checklist Specific Version (PCL-S), the Financial Wellbeing Scale, the Beirut Distress Scale, the Lebanese Anxiety Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the DES fitted best according to CFI, RMSEA and χ2/df values, but modestly according to TLI. The two factors were absorption and amnesia/depersonalization. Higher stress (Beta = 0.95) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.29) and from the economic crisis (Beta = 0.23) were significantly associated with more absorption. A personal history of depression (Beta = 6.03), higher stress (Beta = 0.36) and more PTSD from the Beirut blast (Beta = 0.27) and from the COVID-19 pandemic (Beta = 0.16) were significantly associated with more amnesia/depersonalization. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of dissociative experiences and their sub-manifestations (amnesia/depersonalization and absorption) were found among Lebanese university students, with remarkable co-occurrence of a traumatic/stressful pattern, whether on an individual (history of PTSD) or a collective level (Post-traumatic manifestations from Beirut blast, COVID-19 pandemic and/or economic crisis), or whether correlated to an acute single event or to certain chronic stressors, or even to a personal history of depression. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration in the Lebanese national identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Explosions , Economic Recession , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Amnesia , Students/psychology
2.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(6)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119338

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between boredom proneness, loneliness, and smartphone addiction among Lebanese young adults and examine the mediating role of depression, anxiety, and stress in this association.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2020 during the lockdown period of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. An online survey was completed by 461 young adults aged 18 to 29 years.Results: The results showed that 66 of 134 males (49.3%, scores ≥ 31) and 143 of 327 females (43.7%, scores ≥ 33) had smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was significantly associated with higher boredom proneness (P < .001), anxiety (P = .012), and loneliness (P = .025). Anxiety mediated the association between boredom proneness and smartphone addiction and between loneliness and smartphone addiction, whereas depression and stress did not mediate the association between boredom/loneliness and smartphone addiction.Conclusions: Smartphone addiction is highly associated with psychological disorders, and screening strategies are needed to minimize addiction. This study emphasizes the importance of investigating the relation between smartphone addiction and psychological disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Male , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Boredom , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1982, 2022 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is the lack of access to nutritious healthy food due to economic and financial insufficiencies. Food insecurity is expected to be higher during these difficult times in Lebanon, which is facing many financial, political, economic and health debates. The present study aims to find the prevalence of food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic and its correlates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 4001 participants from all Lebanese governorates (March-April 2022). The Ministry of Education and Higher Education randomly disseminated the link to parents of children aged between 5 and 11 years from public and private schools. RESULTS: The results showed that 1505 (37.6%) and 1497 (37.4%) had moderate and severe food insecurity. A significantly higher percentage of families with severe food insecurity was reported by fathers compared to mothers. In addition, participants who reported a bad overall health status of their children had a severe food insecurity. Moreover, those with a severe food insecurity had their children's daily snacking habit between meals decreased, with a decreased quantity of meals, intake of vegetables/fruits, the intake of balanced diet, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverages, consumption of sweets/candies/chocolate, consumption of unhealthy food, intake of immunity-boosting food, intake of nutrition supplements, participation in the house chores, number of sleeping hours and sleep quality, as well as stress/anxiety decreased. Finally, a higher mean financial burden was seen in families with severe food insecurity compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: The current study found a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity among Lebanese children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Food insecurity should be seriously discussed in Lebanon due to its rapid development in the middle of all the crises facing the country in order to avoid short and long term consequences on human's health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Feeding Behavior , Food Insecurity , Educational Status
4.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 412-422, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092246

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess whether fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with depression, anxiety, and psychosis and to evaluate if these variables are correlated with the interaction between spirituality and fear of COVID-19. METHODS: Between September and November 2020, this cross-sectional study enrolled 118 chronic schizophrenia patients. The interview with patients included Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Lebanese Anxiety Scale-10, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-12. The results were analyzed by using linear regressions (Enter method), with anxiety, depression, total PANSS score, positive PANSS, negative PANSS, and general psychopathology PANSS subscales as dependent variables. Spirituality, fear of COVID-19, and the interaction of spirituality with fear of COVID-19 were independents variables. RESULTS: Fear of COVID-19 was positively correlated with increased total PANSS scores (Beta=0.90, P=0.030). Higher spirituality was significantly associated with lower anxiety (Beta=-0.14, P=0.009), lower depression (Beta=-0.21, P=0.001), lower total PANSS score (Beta=-0.90, P=0.004), lower negative PANSS score (Beta=-0.23, P=0.009), and lower general psychopathology PANSS score (Beta=-0.61, P=0.001). In patients with high fear of COVID-19, having low spirituality was significantly associated with higher anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a positive correlation between fear of COVID-19 and higher psychosis among inpatients with schizophrenia. The interaction of spirituality with fear of COVID-19 was correlated with reduced anxiety, depression, and psychosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Humans , Spirituality , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety , Fear
5.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 15(1): 63, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Upon the authorization of COVID-19 vaccines worldwide, national and international standards were developed to help integrate mass COVID-19 immunization campaigns into the healthcare network. The primary objective is to evaluate the overall COVID-19 vaccination process through on-site visits to vaccination centers all over Lebanon to assess whether these are abiding by the national and international requirements for both Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca vaccines. The secondary objective is to explore whether the type of the facility, private versus governmental, and educational versus non-education, affects the vaccination process in these centers. METHODS: A convenient sample of 33 vaccination centers was selected from a list of all COVID-19 vaccination centers operating in Lebanon. Data were collected using a structured checklist developed following an extensive literature review of the national and international standards for Pfizer-BioNTech and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines. A scoring system for the overall vaccination process was developed. RESULTS: Quality deficiencies were identified in several steps of the immunization process; however, the international standards were followed in most vaccination centers visited despite their limited resources. It was noticed that there were no significant differences between private and governmental, between educational and non-educational, and between Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccination centers; the 33 vaccination centers visited have scored above 75 on the entire process immunization against COVID-19 with P-values above 0.05 in all steps evaluated. CONCLUSION: An optimization of the immunization process should be performed to ensure that the practice is within international standards. This can be done by conducting periodic vaccination center visits, implementing clear guidelines, training staff involved in the vaccination process, and ensuring continuous support of the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health.

6.
Future Cardiol ; 18(11): 843-847, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054824

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. Indeed, in the context of this still ongoing pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field - to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We gathered that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac/cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity/utility within these specialties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Heart Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 532, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness that develops in some people after they have experienced a stunning, scary, or dangerous incident. Due to major disasters like as the Economic Crisis and the Beirut Blast, Lebanese people are struggling with a variety of mental health issues. The study objectives were to find the rate of PTSD and its association with stress, anxiety, depression, financial well-being and coping strategies among university students in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between May and August 2021, which enrolled 419 university students from all districts of Lebanon. The PTSD Checklist-Specific Version (PCL-S) was used to evaluate manifestation of PSTD. RESULTS: The results showed that 132 (31.5%), 109 (26.0%) and 169 (40.3%) had PTSD from COVID, Beirut blast and economic crisis respectively. More avoidant coping (Beta = 0.52) and more anxiety (Beta = 0.62) were significantly associated with more PTSD from the Beirut Blast. More avoidant coping (Beta = 0.56), depression (Beta = 0.40) and anxiety (Beta = 0.49) were significantly associated with more PTSD from the economic crisis, whereas more financial wellbeing (Beta = - 0.31) was significantly associated with less PTSD from the economic crisis. CONCLUSION: Significant rates of PTSD were found in our sample of Lebanese university students, whether from the Beirut blast, or from the current economic crisis. Significant correlations of these PTSD rates were found with factors such as avoidant coping, depression, anxiety and financial wellbeing. Such findings must raise the attention to serious mental and psychosocial alteration endured by Lebanese youth that are still under fatal cumulative traumatic events, that were and even may be, intergenerationally and unintentionally transmissible, therefore, affecting not only the present, but also the future of a whole nation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Economic Recession , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities
8.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(13-14): NP12284-NP12309, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002030

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to correlate several factors - including depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem levels in both men and women - with the occurrence of domestic violence against women (VAW) during quarantine. This cross-sectional study was carried out in April 2020, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdown procedures were implemented; 86 married couples participated in this study amounting to 172 responses in total. A different questionnaire was set for women and men; the couple filled out their respective questionnaire simultaneously, but privately where one did not see the answers of the other. Inclusion criteria included married couples of all ages that are living together during the lockdown of COVID-19. The results of this study showed that a higher total abuse score was found in 39 females (45.3%; CI: 0.34 - 0.56). Being a Muslim female (Beta =24.80) and females having higher anxiety (Beta=0.97) were significantly associated with higher total abuse scores, whereas higher stress score in female (Beta=-0.61) was significantly associated with lower total abuse scores. In conclusion, this study focuses on VAW as a serious problem while demonstrating its further emergence during quarantine. This study also focused on the effects brought on by lockdown policies, including social and economic factors, and their implications in the increase of VAW during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine
9.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-13, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943146

ABSTRACT

The main objectives were to associate between social media news consumption during these unstable times and depression, as well as suicidal ideation among a sample of Lebanese adults, in addition to associate between fear of Covid-19, depression and suicidal ideation. Secondary objectives aimed to check the mediating effect of depression in the association between time spent on social media to get the news and the presence of suicidal ideation. This is a cross-sectional study executed between April and May 2021. It involved 402 Lebanese citizens aged 18 years and above, selected randomly from all Lebanese districts. Having cancer (Beta = 0.20) or lung disease (Beta = 0.27), more fear of COVID-19 (Beta = 0.16), a higher time spent on social media for news (Beta = 0.13) and a higher household crowding index (Beta = 0.29) were significantly associated with more depression, whereas having a pet in the house (Beta = -0.13) and working in the medical field (Beta = -0.17) were significantly associated with less depression. Higher depression (aOR = 1.19) was significantly associated with higher odds of having suicidal ideation, whereas more fear of COVID-19 (aOR = 0.84) and older age (aOR = 0.96) were significantly associated with less odds of having suicidal ideation. Depression did not mediate the association between time spent on social media to get the news and suicidal ideation. This study showed that more time spent on social media reading the news is associated with higher depression but not suicidal ideation. Fear of Covid-19 is associated with more depression, but less suicidal ideation. Further studies are needed to identify the causality between social media news consumption, depression and suicidal ideation. Moreover, awareness campaigns should be organized to teach people how to consume social media news in a responsible way, without letting it affect their emotions directly, which may cause psychological disorders.

10.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-12, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943140

ABSTRACT

Mobile phones use has not been without several social and psychological problems, specifically during the fast spread of the COVID-19 infection, which imposed strict restrictions and isolation. This research principal aims were to (1) confirm the validity of the Generic Scale of Phubbing in Arabic (GSP), and (2) evaluate the association between phubbing and mental health (depression, anxiety and stress). A first cross-sectional study enrolled 203 participants to confirm the factor structure of the phubbing scale among Lebanese young adults. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out on the whole sample using SPSS AMOS v.24 to confirm the four-factor structure of the GSP. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) statistic, the comparative fit index (CFI) and the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the model. RMSEA values ≤0.08 and ≤ 0.10 indicate a good and acceptable fit respectively. CFI and TLI values ≥0.90 indicate good model fit. A second cross-sectional study enrolled 461 respondents (18-29 years old) to conduct the multivariable analysis. The fit indices values were as follows: χ2/df = 181.74/84 = 2.16, TLI = .92, CFI = .94 and RMSEA = .076 [95% CI .061-.091] respectively, indicating an excellent fit of the model. The results of the multiple linear regression using the ENTER model, when taking the phubbing score as the dependent variable, showed that female gender (ß = 0.11; t(454) = 2.50; p = .013), more stress (ß = 0.27; t(454) = 3.94; p < .001), more anxiety (ß = 0.30; t(454) = 4.24; p < .001), and older age (ß = 0.28; t(454) = 6.12; p < .001) were positively correlated with higher phubbing, or higher household crowding index (ß = -0.15; t(454) = -3.62; p < .001) was significantly correlated with less phubbing. The results of this study were able to confirm the validity of the Arabic version of the GSP scale. This will allow Lebanese clinicians to use this validated tool to screen for the presence of the phubbing phenomenon within this age group. We propose finding possible correlation between phubbing and others factors (such as obsession and loneliness) and validating this scale in other Arabic-speaking countries.

11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 880437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887135

ABSTRACT

Background: People say it is hard to stay truly positive in Lebanon. Studies showed that 63% of Lebanese young adults are highly dissatisfied with their country. In fact, young adults are the most vulnerable population to stressors in Lebanon since their future is at stake and it is their time to shape their lives in a country that cripples them. This study aimed to assess factors (flourishing, religious coping, experiences in life, and the economic burden) associated with positivity among a sample of Lebanese university students despite the various stressors they are facing on top of the economic collapse and the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2021. A total of 333 participants (219 females and 114 males; mean age = 22.95 ± 4.79 years) was recruited through convenience sampling and snowball technique through several areas in Lebanon's governorates. A linear regression taking the positivity score as the dependent variable was adopted and all variables that showed a correlation > │0.24│ in absolute value were entered in the final model as independent. Results: A linear regression taking the positivity score as the dependent variable showed that more positive experiences in life (Beta = 0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.62), more flourishing (Beta = 0.10; 95% CI 0.05-0.14), living in rural area compared to urban (Beta = 3.06; 95% CI 2.02-4.11), and female gender (Beta = 1.56; 95% CI 0.50-2.61) were significantly associated with more positivity (Nagelkerke R 2 of the model = 45.8%). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the youth's positivity is strongly affected by age, gender, residency, and the country they live in that will both directly and indirectly shape their life experiences and their ability to flourish and prosper. Along with all the efforts done to help during this collapse and alleviate the stress that young adults are enduring, follow-up studies are still needed to determine accurate coping techniques that pushes these young adults to think positively in a country where negativity reigns and all else fails.

12.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(3): e654, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881411

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Identification of factors responsible for severe illness related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could help in the early management of patients with high risk, especially in developing countries with poor medical care systems. To date, no data have been published concerning the factors associated with COVID-19 severity in Lebanon. In this study, we aimed at investigating the relation between sociodemographic variables, health status, and the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a sample of Lebanese adults. Methods: In our cross-sectional study, 1052 patients (563 male and 489 female, with the median age of 42.83 ± 17.88 years), tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) between January and March 2021, were recruited from a hospital in Byblos, Lebanon. Basic demographic data, medical history, clinical data, and selfreported symptoms related to COVID-19 were collected. Clinical classification of COVID-19 severity was carried out according to the WHO interim guidance on May 27, 2020. Multi and bivariate regression analysis were performed. Results: When comparing patients with moderate symptoms versus mild, the results showed that older age (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06) and having dyslipidemia (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01-3.49) were significantly associated with higher odds of having moderate symptoms. When comparing patients with severe symptoms versus mild, older age (aOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.06-1.10), higher body mass index (aOR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15) and having respiratory diseases (aOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.03-6.36) were significantly associated with higher odds of having severe symptoms, whereas female gender (aOR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32-0.98) was significantly associated with lower odds of having severe symptoms compared to males. Finally, when comparing patients with severe symptoms versus moderate, older age (aOR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) was found to be significantly associated with higher odds of having severe symptoms. Conclusion: Identification of risk factors may contribute to a better understanding of the COVID-19 pathogenesis and provide clinical reference for early prognosis and management of patients.

13.
Health Science Reports ; 5(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857155

ABSTRACT

Background and AimsIdentification of factors responsible for severe illness related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) could help in the early management of patients with high risk, especially in developing countries with poor medical care systems. To date, no data have been published concerning the factors associated with COVID‐19 severity in Lebanon. In this study, we aimed at investigating the relation between sociodemographic variables, health status, and the clinical outcomes of COVID‐19 in a sample of Lebanese adults.MethodsIn our cross‐sectional study, 1052 patients (563 male and 489 female, with the median age of 42.83 ± 17.88 years), tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) between January and March 2021, were recruited from a hospital in Byblos, Lebanon. Basic demographic data, medical history, clinical data, and selfreported symptoms related to COVID‐19 were collected. Clinical classification of COVID‐19 severity was carried out according to the WHO interim guidance on May 27, 2020. Multi and bivariate regression analysis were performed.ResultsWhen comparing patients with moderate symptoms versus mild, the results showed that older age (aOR = 1.05;95% CI: 1.03–1.06) and having dyslipidemia (aOR = 1.89;95% CI: 1.01–3.49) were significantly associated with higher odds of having moderate symptoms. When comparing patients with severe symptoms versus mild, older age (aOR = 1.08;95% CI: 1.06–1.10), higher body mass index (aOR = 1.09;95% CI: 1.04–1.15) and having respiratory diseases (aOR = 2.57;95% CI: 1.03–6.36) were significantly associated with higher odds of having severe symptoms, whereas female gender (aOR = 0.56;95% CI: 0.32–0.98) was significantly associated with lower odds of having severe symptoms compared to males. Finally, when comparing patients with severe symptoms versus moderate, older age (aOR = 1.03;95% CI: 1.01–1.05) was found to be significantly associated with higher odds of having severe symptoms.ConclusionIdentification of risk factors may contribute to a better understanding of the COVID‐19 pathogenesis and provide clinical reference for early prognosis and management of patients.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 292, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Work fatigue is a work-related condition that affects physicians' health, work attitude safety and performance. Work fatigue affects not only medical workers but can also leave a negative impact on patients. With the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the economic crisis Lebanese doctors have been facing in the last 2 years, the aim of our study was to validate the 3D-Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI) among Lebanese physicians and assess the rate and correlates of work fatigue (physical, mental and emotional). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire between October 2020 and January 2021. The SPSS AMOS software v.24 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To validate the 3D-WFI, multiple indices of goodness-of-fit were described: the Relative Chi-square (χ2/df) (cut-off values:< 2-5), the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (close and acceptable fit are considered for values < 0.05 and < 0.11 respectively), the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (acceptable values are ≥0.90). RESULTS: A total of 401 responses was collected; 66.1, 64.8 and 65.1% respondents had an intermediate to high level of emotional, mental and physical work fatigue respectively. The fit indices obtained in the CFA of the 3D-WFI items fitted well: CFI =0.98, TLI =0.98, RMSEA = 0.05; 95% CI 0.046-0.063; pclose = 0.20) and χ2(136) = 295.76. The correlation coefficients between the three factors (Factor 1 = Physical work fatigue, Factor 2 = Mental work fatigue, Factor 3 = Emotional work fatigue) were adequate as well: Factor 1-Factor 2 (r = 0.70), Factor 1-Factor 3 (r = 0.52) and Factor 2-Factor 3 (r = 0.65). In addition, feeling pressured by long working hours during the pandemic, having more hours of night duty per month, more stressful events in life, and higher depression were significantly associated with more physical and mental work fatigue. Higher depression and having more stressful events in life were significantly associated with more emotional work fatigue. CONCLUSION: Work fatigue in Lebanese physicians seems to be associated with higher level of everyday stress, high work load and depression. Hospitals and local health authorities can use these results for early interventions that aim to reduce work fatigue and ensure the wellbeing of Lebanese physicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 32, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research revealed an absence of any previous studies reporting the impact that pandemics may have on psychotic symptomology, nor on the physical health of people with psychosis in response to the epidemics of the COVID-19. The direction of the impact of the COVID-19 on schizophrenia is unknown, as the risk of infection could vary from patients to patients according to clinical comorbidities, cognitive impairment, acute symptoms, and family support. To the best of our knowledge, no study has provided details on the variation of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia during the quarantine of COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, the primary objective of the study is to investigate the variation of psychotic symptoms, depression, obsession and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia before and after 5 months of quarantine and evaluate factors associated with these variations during the quarantine period. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 190 chronic patients institutionalized for schizophrenia for more than 1 year at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross. The baseline assessment was done in December 2019; the second assessment was done in August 2020 (5 months after the lockdown). RESULTS: Getting updates about the coronavirus minimally, some and most of the times were significantly associated with a decrease in positive psychotic and psychopathologic symptoms 5 months after quarantine compared to before it. Practicing religiosity some and all the time versus not was significantly associated with a decrease in negative, psychopathology symptoms and total PANSS score after 5 months of quarantine compared to before it. Finally, female gender (B = 1.77) was significantly associated with an increase in the WHO Domain 3 score (better social relations) after 5 months of quarantine compared to before it. CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia fare better symptomatically after 5 months of quarantine if they receive constant updates about COVID-19 and if they tended to practice religiosity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obsessive Behavior , Quality of Life , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 18, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the DSM-5, gambling disorder is recognized as the only behavioral addiction. The number of people with mental health disorders is increasing in Lebanon, especially since the economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the most used tool in the world in terms of pathological gambling, has never been translated to Arabic, culturally adapted in a way that suits the Lebanese population and validated. This study's objectives were to validate an Arabic-language version of the SOGS and assess factors associated with probable pathological gambling among Lebanese adults. METHODS: This study was carried out between February and April 2021, during the lockdown period imposed by the Lebanese government. A total of 601 individuals participated in this study by filling the online questionnaire. RESULTS: A factor analysis, using the principal component analysis, was performed on the SOGS scale items. The SOGS items were able to explain 73.35% of the variance, with an internal reliability of KR20 = 0.947 for the total scale. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the results of the factor analysis. More problematic alcohol use (aOR = 1.17), and more depression (aOR = 1.13) were significantly associated with higher odds of probable pathological gambling, whereas females (aOR = 0.27) had significantly lower odds of probable pathological gambling compared to males. CONCLUSION: Our study validated an Arabic-language version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) for use in Lebanon, and showed some factors associated with probable pathological gambling (male gender, alcohol use disorder and depression). This reliable and valid version will hopefully contribute towards better screening for gambling disorder in Lebanon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gambling , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Gambling/diagnosis , Gambling/epidemiology , Humans , Language , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616255

ABSTRACT

General well-being is best described as the state of mind that gives people happiness and satisfaction in life. This concept is influenced by behaviors and attitudes that individuals do on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to understand how general well-being is correlated with other factors such as emotional intelligence, Covid-19-induced fear, healthy lifestyle, and coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2020 and January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdown restrictions were implemented at different instances. A total of 470 individuals participated. The results of a linear regression, taking the general well-being schedule score as the dependent variable, showed that more avoidance coping (B = 1.05, t(459) =8.44, p < 0.001), higher healthy lifestyle scores (B = 0.45, t(459) = 5.45, p < 0.001), and more approach coping (B = 0.42, t(459) = 4.03, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher GWB schedule scores. Moreover, having more fear of COVID-19 (B = -0.62, t(459) = -5.09, p < 0.001) and female gender (B = -6.80, t(459) = -4.34, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with lower GWB schedule scores. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Lebanon to evaluate GWB and factors that predict it among the general population. Nevertheless, more comprehensive future studies with longitudinal designs, more diverse socio-demographic backgrounds of sampled population recruited via probability sampling, and more reliable and valid instruments utilized are warranted to confirm our findings and draw a more certain conclusion.

18.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610440

ABSTRACT

General well-being is best described as the state of mind that gives people happiness and satisfaction in life. This concept is influenced by behaviors and attitudes that individuals do on a daily basis. The purpose of this study was to understand how general well-being is correlated with other factors such as emotional intelligence, Covid-19-induced fear, healthy lifestyle, and coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2020 and January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic when lockdown restrictions were implemented at different instances. A total of 470 individuals participated. The results of a linear regression, taking the general well-being schedule score as the dependent variable, showed that more avoidance coping (B = 1.05, t(459) =8.44, p < 0.001), higher healthy lifestyle scores (B = 0.45, t(459) = 5.45, p < 0.001), and more approach coping (B = 0.42, t(459) = 4.03, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher GWB schedule scores. Moreover, having more fear of COVID-19 (B = -0.62, t(459) = −5.09, p < 0.001) and female gender (B = -6.80, t(459) = −4.34, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with lower GWB schedule scores. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Lebanon to evaluate GWB and factors that predict it among the general population. Nevertheless, more comprehensive future studies with longitudinal designs, more diverse socio-demographic backgrounds of sampled population recruited via probability sampling, and more reliable and valid instruments utilized are warranted to confirm our findings and draw a more certain conclusion.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 548, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a cyclic sequence of physical and behavioral symptoms that arise in the second half of the menstrual cycle. The extreme type of PMS is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The current study aims at examining 1) the effects of childhood maltreatment and current life's stressful events on PMDD, and 2) the mediating role of depression in these associations among Lebanese university female students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lebanese students were recruited using a snowball technique from all national universities in Lebanon via an auto-administrated online survey. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the structural relationship between childhood maltreatment and life's stressful events, depression and PMDD. RESULTS: Higher life's stressful events (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), physical (Beta = 0.19; p < 0.001), sexual (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001) and psychological (Beta = 0.33; p < 0.001) abuse were significantly associated with higher depression. Moreover, higher sexual (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.021) and psychological (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.040) abuse and higher depression (Beta = 0.37; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher PMDD. The indirect relationships between psychological abuse/sexual abuse, depression and PMDD showed that depression mediated the association between both psychological (Beta = 0.22; p = 0.001) and sexual (Beta = 0.38; p = 0.004) abuse and PMDD. CONCLUSION: This work presents a unique analysis using the structural equation model that enlightens the effect of childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual and psychological abuse on PMMD symptoms, with depression playing the role of a mediating factor. It would be interesting to test, in future studies, whether there are other mediating factors besides depression that could be indirect indicators of PMDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
20.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 169, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study highlights the significant association between cyberchondria and quality of life among the Lebanese population in the time of COVID-19. The aim was to assess the association between cyberchondria and quality of life (QOL) of Lebanese community during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess the mediating effect of fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in this association. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2020 and January 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 449 persons participated in this study by filling the online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine the structural relationship between cyberchondria severity, the mediator (anxiety, stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and fear of COVID-19) and physical/mental QOL. RESULTS: Having a university level of education and older age were significantly associated with higher physical QOL scores, whereas higher obsession-compulsion disorder, higher stress and higher anxiety were significantly associated with lower physical QOL scores. Higher anxiety was significantly associated with lower mental QOL scores. The results of the SEM showed that stress, fear of COVID-19 and to a lesser limit OCD, mediated the association between cyberchondria severity and physical QOL, whereas anxiety, stress and fear of COVID-19 mediated the association between cyberchondria severity and mental QOL. CONCLUSION: This research reported interesting results encouraging more exploration of cyberchondria and its association with quality of life during this unique period of the pandemic. However, this virus has altered the lives of individuals all across the world, and the consequences will last for a long time. Along with all of the steps done to stop the development of COVID-19 and improve physical outcomes, mental health requires immediate care. More research is needed to determine the coping techniques people are employing to deal with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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