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1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(12): 1612-1620, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453495

ABSTRACT

Importance: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at risk for venous and arterial thromboembolism and death. Optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing in high-risk patients is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs institutional standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose heparins for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The HEP-COVID multicenter randomized clinical trial recruited hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 with D-dimer levels more than 4 times the upper limit of normal or sepsis-induced coagulopathy score of 4 or greater from May 8, 2020, through May 14, 2021, at 12 academic centers in the US. Interventions: Patients were randomized to institutional standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg subcutaneous, twice daily if creatinine clearance was 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater (0.5 mg/kg twice daily if creatinine clearance was 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) throughout hospitalization. Patients were stratified at the time of randomization based on intensive care unit (ICU) or non-ICU status. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), or death from any cause, and the principal safety outcome was major bleeding at 30 ± 2 days. Data were collected and adjudicated locally by blinded investigators via imaging, laboratory, and health record data. Results: Of 257 patients randomized, 253 were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 66.7 [14.0] years; men, 136 [53.8%]; women, 117 [46.2%]); 249 patients (98.4%) met inclusion criteria based on D-dimer elevation and 83 patients (32.8%) were stratified as ICU-level care. There were 124 patients (49%) in the standard-dose vs 129 patients (51%) in the therapeutic-dose group. The primary efficacy outcome was met in 52 of 124 patients (41.9%) (28.2% VTE, 3.2% ATE, 25.0% death) with standard-dose heparins vs 37 of 129 patients (28.7%) (11.7% VTE, 3.2% ATE, 19.4% death) with therapeutic-dose LMWH (relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.96; P = .03), including a reduction in thromboembolism (29.0% vs 10.9%; RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.21-0.66; P < .001). The incidence of major bleeding was 1.6% with standard-dose vs 4.7% with therapeutic-dose heparins (RR, 2.88; 95% CI, 0.59-14.02; P = .17). The primary efficacy outcome was reduced in non-ICU patients (36.1% vs 16.7%; RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81; P = .004) but not ICU patients (55.3% vs 51.1%; RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.39; P = .71). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, therapeutic-dose LMWH reduced major thromboembolism and death compared with institutional standard heparin thromboprophylaxis among inpatients with COVID-19 with very elevated D-dimer levels. The treatment effect was not seen in ICU patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04401293.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , Inpatients , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml; p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%; p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(12): 1684-1695, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with significant risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality particularly among hospitalized patients with critical illness and elevated D-dimer (Dd) levels. Conflicting data have yet to elucidate optimal thromboprophylaxis dosing. HEP-COVID (NCT04401293) is a phase 3, multicenter, pragmatic, prospective, randomized, pseudo-blinded, active control trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus prophylactic-/intermediate-dose LMWH or unfractionated heparin (UFH) for prevention of a primary efficacy composite outcome of VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality 30 ± 2 days post-enrollment. Eligible patients have COVID-19 diagnosis by nasal swab or serologic testing, requirement for supplemental oxygen per investigator judgment, and Dd >4 × upper limit of normal (ULN) or sepsis-induced coagulopathy score ≥4. Subjects are randomized to enoxaparin 1 mg/kg subcutaneous (SQ)/two times a day (BID) (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 30 mL/min) or 0.5 mg/kg (CrCl 15-30 mL/min) versus local institutional prophylactic regimens including (1) UFH up to 22,500 IU (international unit) daily (divided BID or three times a day), (2) enoxaparin 30 and 40 mg SQ QD (once daily) or BID, or (3) dalteparin 2,500 IU or 5,000 IU QD. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. Events are adjudicated locally. Based on expected 40% relative risk reduction with treatment-dose compared with prophylactic-dose prophylaxis, 308 subjects will be enrolled (assuming 20% drop-out) to achieve 80% power. Distinguishing design features include an enriched population for the composite endpoint anchored on Dd >4 × ULN, stratification by intensive care unit (ICU) versus non-ICU, and the ability to capture asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis via screening ultrasonography prior to discharge.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Humans , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
6.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008920, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop cardiac injury are reported to experience higher rates of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. However, little is known about these arrhythmias-their frequency, the underlying mechanisms, and their impact on mortality. METHODS: We extracted data from a registry (NCT04358029) regarding consecutive inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 who were receiving continuous telemetric ECG monitoring and had a definitive disposition of hospital discharge or death. Between patients who died versus discharged, we compared a primary composite end point of cardiac arrest from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or bradyarrhythmias such as atrioventricular block. RESULTS: Among 800 patients with COVID-19 at Mount Sinai Hospital with definitive dispositions, 140 patients had telemetric monitoring, and either died (52) or were discharged (88). The median (interquartile range) age was 61 years (48-74); 73% men; and ethnicity was White in 34%. Comorbidities included hypertension in 61%, coronary artery disease in 25%, ventricular arrhythmia history in 1.4%, and no significant comorbidities in 16%. Compared with discharged patients, those who died had elevated peak troponin I levels (0.27 versus 0.02 ng/mL) and more primary end point events (17% versus 4%, P=0.01)-a difference driven by tachyarrhythmias. Fatal tachyarrhythmias invariably occurred in the presence of severe metabolic imbalance, while atrioventricular block was largely an independent primary event. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who die experience malignant cardiac arrhythmias more often than those surviving to discharge. However, these events represent a minority of cardiovascular deaths, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are mainly associated with severe metabolic derangement. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04358029.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 10(4): 479-489, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937997

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia cases associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) first occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The disease, later named Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO), was caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and on January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the outbreak of COVID-19 to be a public health emergency. COVID-19 is now a global pandemic impacting more than 43,438,043 patients with 1,158,596 deaths globally as of August 26th, 2020. COVID-19 is highly contagious and has caused more deaths than SARS in 2002-2003 or the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012-2013 combined and represents an unprecedented human affliction not seen since the influenza pandemic of 1918. COVID-19 has been associated with several cardiac complications, including hypercoagulability, acute myocardial injury and myocarditis, arrhythmias, and acute coronary syndromes. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are at the highest risk for myocardial injury and mortality among infected patients. The mechanism by which COVID-infected patients develop cardiac complications remains unclear, though it may be mediated by increased ACE-2 gene expression. Despite initial concerns, there is no evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy increases risk for myocardial injury among those infected with COVID-19. In the current report, we summarize the peer-reviewed and preprint literature on cardiovascular risks and complications associated with COVID-19, as well as provide insights into its pathogenesis and management.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 2011-2023, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872170

ABSTRACT

The cardiovascular system is affected broadly by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Both direct viral infection and indirect injury resulting from inflammation, endothelial activation, and microvascular thrombosis occur in the context of coronavirus disease 2019. What determines the extent of cardiovascular injury is the amount of viral inoculum, the magnitude of the host immune response, and the presence of co-morbidities. Myocardial injury occurs in approximately one-quarter of hospitalized patients and is associated with a greater need for mechanical ventilator support and higher hospital mortality. The central pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular injury is the interplay between virus binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and the impact this action has on the renin-angiotensin system, the body's innate immune response, and the vascular response to cytokine production. The purpose of this review was to describe the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular injury, including that of thromboembolic disease and arrhythmia, and to discuss their clinical sequelae.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(17): 1999-2010, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872169

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a new coronavirus disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) has raised global concerns regarding the health and safety of a vulnerable population. Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) incites a profound inflammatory response leading to tissue injury and organ failure. COVID-19 is characterized by the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and thrombosis. The clinical syndrome is propelled by inflammation producing acute lung injury, large-vessel thrombosis, and in situ microthrombi that may contribute to organ failure. Myocardial injury is common, but true myocarditis is rare. Elderly patients, those with established cardiovascular disease, and mechanically ventilated patients face the highest mortality risk. Therapies for COVID-19 are evolving. The antiviral drug remdesivir, dexamethasone, transfusion of convalescent plasma, and use of antithrombotic therapy are promising. Most require additional prospective studies. Although most patients recover, those who survive severe illness may experience persistent physical and psychological disabilities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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