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1.
J Gene Med ; : e3415, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669502

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy has emerged as a promising tool for treating different intractable diseases, particularly cancer or even viral diseases such as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). In this context, various non-viral gene carriers are being explored to transfer DNA or RNA sequences into target cells. Here, we review the applications of the naturally occurring amino acid histidine in the delivery of nucleic acids into cells. The biocompatibility of histidine-enhanced gene delivery systems has encouraged their wider use in gene therapy. Histidine-based gene carriers can involve the modification of peptides, dendrimers, lipids or nanocomposites. Several linear polymers, such as polyethylenimine, poly-l-lysine (synthetic) or dextran and chitosan (natural), have been conjugated with histidine residues to form complexes with nucleic acids for intracellular delivery. The challenges, opportunities and future research trends of histidine-based gene deliveries are investigated.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112517, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561313

ABSTRACT

Rapid changes in the viral genome allow viruses to evade threats posed by the host immune response or antiviral drugs, and can lead to viral persistence in the host cells. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an essential enzyme in RNA viruses, which is involved in RNA synthesis through the formation of phosphodiester bonds. Therefore, in RNA viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, RdRp could be a crucial therapeutic target. The present review discusses the promising application of RdRp inhibitors, previously approved or currently being tested in human clinical trials, in the treatment of RNA virus infections. Nucleoside inhibitors (NIs) bind to the active site of RdRp, while nonnucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) bind to allosteric sites. Given the absence of highly effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, the discovery of an efficient treatment for this pandemic is an urgent concern for researchers around the world. We review the evidence for molnupiravir (MK-4482, EIDD-2801), an antiviral drug originally designed for Alphavirus infections, as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for the management of COVID-19. At the beginning of this pandemic, molnupiravir was in preclinical development for seasonal influenza. When COVID-19 spread dramatically, the timeline for development was accelerated to focus on the treatment of this pandemic. Real time consultation with regulators took place to expedite this program. We summarize the therapeutic potential of RdRp inhibitors, and highlight molnupiravir as a new small molecule drug for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism
4.
J Control Release ; 336: 354-374, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281448

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in early 2020 soon led to the global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, the clinical and scientific communities have been closely collaborating to develop effective strategies for controlling the ongoing pandemic. The game-changing fields of recent years, nanotechnology and nanomedicine have the potential to not only design new approaches, but also to improve existing methods for the fight against COVID-19. Nanomaterials can be used in the development of highly efficient, reusable personal protective equipment, and antiviral nano-coatings in public settings could prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Smart nanocarriers have accelerated the design of several therapeutic, prophylactic, or immune-mediated approaches against COVID-19. Some nanovaccines have even entered Phase IΙ/IIΙ clinical trials. Several rapid and cost-effective COVID-19 diagnostic techniques have also been devised based on nanobiosensors, lab-on-a-chip systems, or nanopore technology. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging role of nanotechnology in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunization , Nanotechnology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 143: 116342, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240635

ABSTRACT

There have been many efforts to synthesize advanced materials that are capable of real-time specific recognition of a molecular target, and allow the quantification of a variety of biomolecules. Scaffold materials have a porous structure, with a high surface area and their intrinsic nanocavities can accommodate cells and macromolecules. The three-dimensional structure (3D) of scaffolds serves not only as a fibrous structure for cell adhesion and growth in tissue engineering, but can also provide the controlled release of drugs and other molecules for biomedical applications. There has been a limited number of reports on the use of scaffold materials in biomedical sensing applications. This review highlights the potential of scaffold materials in the improvement of sensing platforms and summarizes the progress in the application of novel scaffold-based materials as sensor, and discusses their advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the influence of the scaffold materials on the monitoring of infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and bacterial infections, was reviewed.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 923-936, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222755

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a significant concern worldwide. The pandemic has demonstrated that public health issues are not merely a health concern but also affect society as a whole. In this chapter, we address the importance of bringing together the world's scientists to find appropriate solutions for controlling and managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Interdisciplinary cooperation, through modern scientific methods, could help to handle the consequences of the pandemic and to avoid the recurrence of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 517-547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222733

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked the world by its spread and contagiousness. There is no approved vaccine and no proven treatment for this infection. Some potential treatments that have already been associated with antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is a photon-based therapy that uses light to mediate a variety of metabolic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a branch of photodynamic therapy based on the reaction between a photosensitizing agent and a light source in the presence of oxygen, which can produce oxidative and free radical agents to damage the viral structures such as proteins and nucleic acids. This chapter aims to discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of PBMT and aPDT in the context of the novel coronavirus. Studies indicate that PBMT and aPDT could be useful in many viral and bacterial pulmonary complications like influenza, SARS-CoV, and MERS, but we found no direct study on SARS-CoV-2. With a combination of PBMT and aPDT, we may be able to combat COVID-19 with minimal interference with pharmaceutical agents. It might improve the efficacy of PBMT and aPDT by using monoclonal antibodies and preparing new photosensitizers at the nanoscale that target the lung tissue specifically. More animal and human studies would need to take place to reach an effective protocol. This chapter would encourage other scientists to work on this new platform.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pathol Res Pract ; 221: 153443, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209884

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the control of virus spread has remained challenging given the pitfalls of the current diagnostic tests. Nevertheless, RNA amplification techniques have been the gold standard among other diagnostic methods for monitoring clinical samples for the presence of the virus. In the current paper, we review the shortcomings and strengths of RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) techniques for diagnosis of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. We address the repercussions of false-negative and false-positive rates encountered in the test, summarize approaches to improve the overall sensitivity of this method. We discuss the barriers to the widespread use of the RT-PCR test, and some technical advances, such as RT-LAMP (reverse-transcriptase-loop mediated isothermal amplification). We also address how other molecular techniques, such as immunodiagnostic tests can be used to avoid incorrect interpretation of RT-PCR tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans
9.
Sustain Chem Pharm ; 21: 100415, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117694

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has rapidly spread around the world since December 2019. Various techniques have been applied in identification of SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infection including computed tomography imaging, whole genome sequencing, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This review article discusses the diagnostic methods currently being deployed for the SARS-CoV-2 identification including optical biosensors and point-of-care diagnostics that are on the horizon. These innovative technologies may provide a more accurate, sensitive and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to manage the present novel coronavirus outbreak, and could be beneficial in preventing any future epidemics. Furthermore, the use of green synthesized nanomaterials in the optical biosensor devices could leads to sustainable and environmentally-friendly approaches for addressing this crisis.

10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 357-360, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051416

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the coronavirus family, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The phenotype of the disease varies from asymptomatic, to a mild phenotype, through to the severe form of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which often leads to death, especially in those with underlying diseases. It has been reported that those who suffer from cancer (especially lung cancer and hematological malignancies) are at higher risk of serious complications and death from COVID-19. Some cancer treatments such as CAR T cell therapy can produce a cytokine storm, which is also a hallmark of severe COVID-19. Therefore, patients receiving CAR T cells are at higher risk if they become infected with COVID-19, and could be treated with anti-cytokine approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
12.
Cytokine ; 137: 155312, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, as a newly-emerged viral infection has now spread all over the world after originating in Wuhan, China. Pneumonia is the hallmark of the disease, with dyspnea in half of the patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in up to one -third of the cases. Pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine release are the pathologic signs of this disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of the photobiomodulation (PBM) has been confirmed in many previous studies. Therefore, this review study was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of PBM on the acute lung inflammation or ARDS and also accelerating the regeneration of the damaged tissues. The indirect effects of PBM on modulation of the immune system, increasing the blood flow and oxygenation in other tissues were also considered. METHODOLOGY: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched to find the relevant studies. Keywords included the PBM and related terms, lung inflammation, and COVID-19 -related signs. Studies were categorized with respect to the target tissue, laser parameters, and their results. RESULTS: Seventeen related papers were included in this review. All of them were in animal models. They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that the PBM could be helpful in reducing the lung inflammation and promoting the regeneration of the damaged tissue. PBM can increase the oxygenation indirectly in order to rehabilitate the affected organs. Thus, the infra-red lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are recommended in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Lung/radiation effects , Pneumonia/radiotherapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , PubMed , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/radiotherapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/radiotherapy
13.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 31(3): 81-93, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999892

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reached pandemic proportions at the beginning of 2020 and continues to be a worldwide concern. End organ damage and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the leading causes of death in severely or critically ill patients. The elevated cytokine levels in severe patients in comparison with mildly affected patients suggest that cytokine release syndrome (CRS) occurs in the severe form of the disease. In this paper, the significant role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and their mechanism of action in the CRS cascade is explained. Potential therapeutic approaches involving anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to fight COVID-19 and reduce mortality rate in severe cases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
15.
Nano Today ; 35: 100962, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747855

ABSTRACT

The high transmission rate and serious consequences of the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic make it challenging and urgent to identify viral pathogens and understand their intrinsic resistance mechanisms, to pave the way for new approaches to combat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Multivalent interactions are responsible for performing a broad range of biological functions in normal cells, such as cell-cell communication and adhesion. Multivalency underlies the reversibility of ligand-receptor interactions during infections. Previous studies into multivalent nanomedicines used against viruses, have revealed their ability, not only to probe the molecular processes of viral infections, but also to target pathogen-host cell binding with minimal collateral damage to normal cells. Nanomedicines are comparable in size to viruses and to cell receptor complexes (that mediate viral uptake), and can function as safe and accurate armoured vehicles to facilitate the transport of anti-viral drugs. Multivalent nanomedicines can be designed to avoid binding to extracellular serum proteins, and ultimately lead to destruction of the viruses. This brief perspective highlights the potential of innovative smart and safe multivalent nanomedicines that could target multiple viral factors involved in infections at cellular levels. For instance it is possible to target viral spike protein mediated entry pathways, as well as viral replication and cell lysis. Nanomedicine-based approaches could open new opportunities for anti-coronavirus therapies.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(10): 2363-2365, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730558

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm following sepsis has been proven to be an important mechanism for triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a fatal uncontrolled systemic inflammation characterized by high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, secreted by immune effector cells. The cytokine storm also occurs in the recently emerged novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, cytokines which usually help the immune system to fight infections are potentially harmful in the course of COVID-19 infections. Therefore, avoiding or mitigating the cytokine storm may be a key treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokine Receptor gp130/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 212: 111999, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720629

ABSTRACT

The global dissemination of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has accelerated the need for the implementation of effective antimicrobial strategies to target the causative agent SARS-CoV-2. Light-based technologies have a demonstrable broad range of activity over standard chemotherapeutic antimicrobials and conventional disinfectants, negligible emergence of resistance, and the capability to modulate the host immune response. This perspective article identifies the benefits, challenges, and pitfalls of repurposing light-based strategies to combat the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Light , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infrared Rays/therapeutic use , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Low-Level Light Therapy , Pandemics , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays
18.
Life Sci ; 256: 117900, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459105

ABSTRACT

AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel highly contagious infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has been became a global public health challenge. The pathogenesis of this virus is not yet clearly understood, but there is evidence of a hyper-inflammatory immune response in critically ill patients, which leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify relevant articles on COVID-19 published up to April 30, 2020. The search resulted in 361 total articles. After reviewing the titles and abstracts for inclusion, some irrelevant papers were excluded. Additional relevant articles were identified from a review of citations referenced. KEY FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2, directly and indirectly, affects the immune system and avoids being eliminated in early stages. On the other hand, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines creates critical conditions that lead to multi-organ failure. SIGNIFICANCE: The immune system which is affected by the virus tries to respond via a cytokine storm and hyperinflammation, which itself leads to further multi-organ damage and even death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Immune System/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 254-266, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-448122

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a global challenge. Despite intense research efforts worldwide, an effective vaccine and viable treatment options have eluded investigators. Therefore, infection prevention, early viral detection and identification of successful treatment protocols provide the best approach in controlling disease spread. In this review, current therapeutic options, preventive methods and transmission routes of COVID-19 are discussed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
20.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 205, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306010

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become the leading societal concern. The pandemic has shown that the public health concern is not only a medical problem, but also affects society as a whole; so, it has also become the leading scientific concern. We discuss in this treatise the importance of bringing the world's scientists together to find effective solutions for controlling the pandemic. By applying novel research frameworks, interdisciplinary collaboration promises to manage the pandemic's consequences and prevent recurrences of similar pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Emergencies , Health Services Needs and Demand , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Interdisciplinary Studies , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health/history , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2
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