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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16019, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042336

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are major players in orchestrating inflammation, disease pathogenesis and severity during COVID-19 disease. However, the role of IL-19 in COVID-19 pathogenesis remains elusive. Herein, through the analysis of transcriptomic datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung cells, nasopharyngeal swabs, and lung autopsies of COVID-19 patients, we report that expression levels of IL-19 and its receptor, IL-20R2, were upregulated following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of 202 adult COVID-19 patients, IL-19 protein level was significantly higher in blood and saliva of asymptomatic patients compared to healthy controls when adjusted for patients' demographics (P < 0.001). Interestingly, high saliva IL-19 level was also associated with COVID-19 severity (P < 0.0001), need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.002), and/or death (P = 0.010) within 29 days of admission, after adjusting for patients' demographics, diabetes mellitus comorbidity, and COVID-19 serum markers of severity such as D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Moreover, patients who received interferon beta during their hospital stay had lower plasma IL-19 concentrations (24 pg mL-1) than those who received tocilizumab (39.2 pg mL-1) or corticosteroids (42.5 pg mL-1). Our findings indicate that high saliva IL-19 level was associated with COVID-19 infectivity and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Cytokines , Ferritins , Humans , Interferon-beta , Interleukins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Up-Regulation
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: T-helper 17 cell-mediated response and their effector IL-17 cytokine induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major cause of COVID-19 disease severity and death. Therefore, the study aimed to determine if IL-17 level in saliva mirrors its circulatory level and hence can be used as a non-invasive biomarker for disease severity. METHODS: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) level was evaluated by ELISA in saliva and blood of 201 adult COVID-19 patients with different levels of severity. The IL-17 saliva level was also associated with COVID-19 disease severity, and need for mechanical ventilation and/or death within 29 days after admission of severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We found that IL-17 level in saliva of COVID-19 patients reflected its circulatory level. High IL-17 level in saliva was associated with COVID-19 severity (P<0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.002), and/or death by 29 days (P = 0.002), after adjusting for patients' demographics, comorbidity, and COVID-19 serum severity markers such as D-Dimer, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. CONCLUSION: We propose that saliva IL-17 level could be used as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines , Ferritins , Humans , Interleukin-17 , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269204, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Environmental factors can influence the epidemiological dynamics of COVID-19. To estimate the true impact of these factors on COVID-19, climate and disease data should be monitored and analyzed over an extended period of time. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are particularly lacking in such studies. This ecological study investigates the association between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the GCC. METHODS: Data on temperature, wind-speed and humidity and COVID-19 cases and deaths from the six countries of the GCC were collected between 29/1/2020 and 30/3/2021. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, we examined associations between climate parameters and COVID-19 cases and deaths by month, over four different time periods. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct clusters of data using climate parameters and linear regression analysis to determine which climate parameters predicted COVID-19 new cases and deaths. RESULTS: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the highest cumulative number of COVID-19 cases while Bahrain had the highest prevalence rate per 100,000. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported the highest cumulative number of deaths while Oman recorded the highest death rate per 100,000. All GCC countries, except the UAE, reported a positive correlation between temperature and cases and deaths. Wind speed was positively correlated with cases in Qatar, but negatively correlated with cases in the UAE and deaths in KSA. Humidity was positively correlated with cases and deaths in Oman, negatively correlated in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and KSA but there was no correlation in the UAE. The most significant predictors in cluster analysis were temperature and humidity, while in the regression analysis, temperature, humidity and wind speed predicted new COVID-19 cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: This study provides comprehensive epidemiological information on COVID-19 and climate parameters and preliminary evidence that climate may play a key role in the transmission of the COVID-19 virus. This study will assist decision makers in translating findings into specific guidelines and policies for the prevention and elimination of COVID-19 transmission and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Kuwait/epidemiology , Oman/epidemiology , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913781

ABSTRACT

Sotrovimab, an anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 monoclonal antibody is being utilized to prevent progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, to understand its benefits, we have conducted a retrospective analysis of all non-hospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 who received a single infusion of sotrovimab and/or oral favipiravir at any Dubai COVID-19 related healthcare center between July 1, 2021, and October 31, 2021. The main outcome was to evaluate the risk of hospitalization for patients with COVID-19 or all-cause death within 28 days of treatment initiation. In this analysis, which included 10,882 patients (1,135 in the sotrovimab group, 2,653 in the sotrovimab/favipiravir group, and 7,094 in the favipiravir group), sotrovimab or sotrovimab/favipiravir reduced the risk of hospitalization (13 patients (1.5%) in the sotrovimab group and 71 patients (2.9%) in the sotrovimab/favipiravir group vs. 251 patients (4%) in the favipiravir group; hazard ratio (HR) for sotrovimab: 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.28, P < 0.001; and for sotrovimab/favipiravir, HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.32-0.56, P < 0.001), or death by day 28 from the start of treatment (no death in the sotrovimab group and 2 deaths in the the sotrovimab/favipiravir group vs. 10 deaths in the favipiravir group; odds ratio: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.81, P = 026). Safety was assessed in all the 3,788 patients in the sotrovimab and sotrovimab/favipiravir groups, and the reported adverse events were by 34 patients (<1%). In conclusion, sotrovimab was found to reduce the risk of progression of COVID-19 when administrated early to non-hospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19. No safety concern was detected.

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 865845, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834407

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence as a pandemic in March 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outcome has been explored via several predictive models, using specific clinical or biochemical parameters. In the current study, we developed an integrative non-linear predictive model of COVID-19 outcome, using clinical, biochemical, immunological, and radiological data of patients with different disease severities. Initially, the immunological signature of the disease was investigated through transcriptomics analysis of nasopharyngeal swab samples of patients with different COVID-19 severity versus control subjects (exploratory cohort, n=61), identifying significant differential expression of several cytokines. Accordingly, 24 cytokines were validated using a multiplex assay in the serum of COVID-19 patients and control subjects (validation cohort, n=77). Predictors of severity were Interleukin (IL)-10, Programmed Death-Ligand-1 (PDL-1), Tumor necrosis factors-α, absolute neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, and ferritin; with high predictive efficacy (AUC=0.93 and 0.98 using ROC analysis of the predictive capacity of cytokines and biochemical markers, respectively). Increased IL-6 and granzyme B were found to predict liver injury in COVID-19 patients, whereas interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-1 receptor-a (IL-1Ra) and PD-L1 were predictors of remarkable radiological findings. The model revealed consistent elevation of IL-15 and IL-10 in severe cases. Combining basic biochemical and radiological investigations with a limited number of curated cytokines will likely attain accurate predictive value in COVID-19. The model-derived cytokines highlight critical pathways in the pathophysiology of the COVID-19 with insight towards potential therapeutic targets. Our modeling methodology can be implemented using new datasets to identify key players and predict outcomes in new variants of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796094, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690446

ABSTRACT

It is still controversial whether chronic lung inflammation increases the risk for COVID-19. One of the risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 is the level of expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in lung tissue. It is, however, not clear how lung tissue inflammation affects expression levels of these receptors. We hence aimed to determine the level of SARS-CoV-2 receptors in lung tissue of asthmatic relative to age, gender, and asthma severity, and to investigate the factors regulating that. Therefore, gene expression data sets of well-known asthmatic cohorts (SARP and U-BIOPRED) were used to evaluate the association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with age, gender of the asthmatic patients, and also the type of the underlying lung tissue inflammatory cytokines. Notably, ACE2 and to less extent TMPRSS2 expression were upregulated in the lung tissue of asthmatics compared to healthy controls. Although a differential expression of ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was observed relative to age within the moderate and severe asthma groups, our data suggest that age may not be a key regulatory factor of its expression. The type of tissue inflammation, however, associated significantly with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels following adjusting with age, gender and oral corticosteroids use of the patient. Type I cytokine (IFN-γ), IL-8, and IL-19 were associated with increased expression, while Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) with lower expression of ACE2 in lung tissue (airway epithelium and/or lung biopsies) of moderate and severe asthmatic patients. Of note, IL-19 was associated with ACE2 expression while IL-17 was associated with TMPRSS2 expression in sputum of asthmatic subjects. In vitro treatment of bronchial fibroblasts with IL-17 and IL-19 cytokines confirmed the regulatory effect of these cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors. Our results suggest that the type of inflammation may regulate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the lung tissue of asthmatics and may hence affect susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324355

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the clinical presentation of the disease showed a great heterogeneity with a diverse impact between different subpopulations. Emerging evidence from different parts of the world showed significantly poor outcome among males compared to female patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this difference might be a fundamental step for a more effective and targeted response to the outbreak. For that reason, here we try to investigate the molecular basis of the gender variations in mortality rates related to COVID-19 infection. To achieve this, we used our in-house pipeline to process publicly available lung transcriptomic data from 141 females compared to 286 males. After excluding Y specific genes, our results showed a shortlist of 73 genes that are differentially expressed between the two groups. Our results showed downregulation of a group of genes that are involved in the regulation of hydrolase activity including (AGTR1, CHM, DDX3X, FGFR3, SFRP2, and NLRP2), which is also believed to be essential for lung immune response and antimicrobial activity in the lung tissues in males compared to females. In contrast, our results showed an upregulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays a role in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity modulation. Interestingly, recent reports and experimental animal models highlight an important role of this receptor in SARS-Coronavirus lung damage as well as pulmonary edema, suggesting a possible role of its blockers like losartan and olmesartan as potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 infection. Finally, our results also showed a differential expression of different genes that are involved in the immune response including the NLRP2 and PTGDR2, further supporting the notion of the sex-based immunological differences. Taken together, our results provide an initial evidence of the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in the differential outcomes observed between both genders during the COVID-19 outbreak. This might be essential for the discovery of new targets and more precise therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients from different clinical and epidemiological characteristics with the aim of improving their outcome.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320467

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have investigated the psychosocial impact of infectious disease outbreaks in adults;however, there is limited information on the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and the general UAE community. The aim of this study was to explore anxiety levels among parents, teachers and the general community amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the UAE, as well as to identify emotional and anxiety disorders in children. Methods: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey we collected data from 2,200 self-selected, assessed volunteers. Demographic information, knowledge and beliefs about COVID-19, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using the (GAD-7) scale , emotional problems in children using the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), worry and fear about COVID-19, coping mechanisms and general health information were collected. Results: The overall prevalence of GAD in the general population was 71% with younger people (59.8%) and females (51.7%) reporting highest levels of anxiety. Parents who were teachers reported the highest percentage of emotional problems in children (26.7%). Multivariate logistic regression for GAD-7 scores showed that being female, reporting high levels of worry associated with COVID-19, intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine and smoking were associated with higher levels of anxiety. Multivariate logistic regression for SDQ showed that parents with severe anxiety were seven times more likely to report emotional problems in their children than less anxious parents. Conclusions: This study is among the first to report the psychological impact of COVID-19 among adults and children in the UAE, and to highlight the significant association between parental and child anxiety. Findings suggest the urgency for policy makers to develop effective screening and coping strategies for parents and especially children.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 455-465, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676782

ABSTRACT

Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease encompassing different phenotypes and endotypes. Although patients with severe asthma constitute a small proportion of the total population with asthma, they largely account for the morbidity and mortality associated with asthma, indicating a clear unmet need. Being distinct from mild and moderate disease, new insights into the immunopathogenesis of severe asthma are needed. The disease endotypes have provided better insights into the immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying severe asthma. Current stratified approach of treating severe asthma based on phenotypes is met with shortcomings, necessitating unbiased multidimensional endotyping to cope with disease complexity. Therefore, in this review, we explore the distinct endotypes and their mechanistic pathways that characterize the heterogeneity observed in severe asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Airway Remodeling , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/therapy , Autophagy/physiology , Bronchial Thermoplasty , Humans , Mitochondria/physiology , Obesity/complications , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604369, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542390

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Providing medical care during a global pandemic exposes healthcare workers (HCW) to a high level of risk, causing anxiety and stress. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and psychological distress among HCWs during COVID-19. Methods: We invited HCWs from 3 hospitals across the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to participate in an anonymous online survey between April 19-May 3, 2020. The GAD-7 and K10 measures were used to assess anxiety and psychological distress. Logistic regression models assessed associations between knowledge, attitude, worry, and levels of anxiety and psychological distress. Results: A total of 481 HCWs participated in this study. The majority of HCWs were female (73.6%) and aged 25-34 years (52.6%). More than half were nurses (55.7%) and had good knowledge of COVID-19 (86.3%). Over a third (37%) of HCWs reported moderate/severe psychological distress in the K10 measure and moderate/severe anxiety (32.3%) in the GAD-7, with frontline workers significantly reporting higher levels of anxiety (36%). Knowledge of COVID-19 did not predict anxiety and psychological distress, however, HCWs who believed COVID-19 was difficult to treat and those who perceived they were at high risk of infection had worse mental health outcomes. Worry about spreading COVID-19 to family, being isolated, contracting COVID-19 and feeling stigmatized had 1.8- to 2.5-fold increased odds of symptoms of mental health problems. Additionally, HCWs who felt the need for psychological support through their workplace showed increased odds of psychological distress. Conclusion: HCWs in the UAE reported a high prevalence of psychological distress and anxiety while responding to the challenges of COVID-19. The findings from this study emphasize the public, emotional and mental health burden of COVID-19 and highlight the importance for health systems to implement, monitor, and update preventive policies to protect HCWs from contracting the virus while also providing psychological support in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1-9, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506743

ABSTRACT

Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among health-care workers (HCWs) is crucial for controlling the pandemic and ensuring HCW and patient safety. Information on the acceptance of different COVID-19 vaccines is lacking. Despite the United Arab Emirates (UAE) having vaccinated most of its population, vaccine acceptance still raises concerns. This study explores COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, vaccine choice, and associated factors among HCWs in the UAE. An online national cross-sectional study was conducted among 517 HCWs. Acceptance and choice of COVID-19 vaccines were assessed, and logistic regression analysis identified predictors for vaccine acceptance. More than half (58%) of HCWs were willing to take the vaccine and give it to their family. Reasons for taking the vaccine were concerns for families contracting COVID-19 (67%) and social responsibility (64%). Reasons for refusals included concerns with side-effects (61%). Most HCWs knew of the Pfizer (79%) and Sinopharm (57%) vaccines; however, acceptance was higher for Pfizer (35%) and AstraZeneca (21%) vaccines. Being male and being influenza vaccinated predicted willingness to take the vaccine (aOR: 2.34; 95% CI:1.34-4.08; p ≤ 0.001) and (aOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.29-3.51; p ≤ 0.001), respectively. HCWs who expressed concerns with inadequate safety data were less likely to take the vaccine (aOR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.10-0.30; p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, side effects, perception of risk, and level of trust of company and country of manufacture predicted acceptance and choice of vaccines. Effective vaccine policy campaigns to improve acceptance should target HCW's knowledge and awareness of perceived risks of COVID-19, safety data, social responsibility, and individual preferences for vaccine choice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Male , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 631879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488443

ABSTRACT

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway regulate many cellular processes and are essential for immune cells function. Their activity is controlled by dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). A comprehensive analysis of publicly available gene expression data sets of human airway epithelial cells (AECs) infected with SARS-CoV-2 identified DUSP1 and DUSP5 among the lowest induced transcripts within these pathways. These proteins are known to downregulate MAPK and NF-κB pathways; and their lower expression was associated with increased activity of MAPK and NF-κB signaling and enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α. Infection with other coronaviruses did not have a similar effect on these genes. Interestingly, treatment with chloroquine and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs counteracted the SARS-CoV-2 induced reduction of DUSP1 and DUSP5 genes expression. Therapeutically, impeding this evasion mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 may help control the exaggerated activation of these immune regulatory pathways during a COVID-19 infection.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258643, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is one of the most widely recommended and used medications for COVID-19 treatment. However, different outcomes have been reported for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir. Specifically, the effect of the timing of remdesivir initiation (from patient's symptom onset) on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients has not been investigated. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and treated with or without remdisivir. The primary outcome was patient's recovery rate, defined as clinical improvement and patient's discharge by day 14 of symptom onset. The secondary outcome was the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality within 28 days of patient's symptom onset. RESULTS: Out of 323 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, 107 (33.1%) received no remdesivir during their hospital stay, 107 (33.1%) received remdesivir early within 7 days of the symptom onset, and 109 (33.7%) received it at 8 days or later of symptom onset. At day 14 following symptom onset, higher proportion of patients recovered in the early remdesivir compared to the late remdesivir cohort, or patients who did not receive remdesivir (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 5.35). Moreover, early administration of remdesivir was associated with lower admission to intensive care unit (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.64), less need for mechanical ventilation (aHR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.51), and lower mortality at 28 days (aHR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.53), as compared to the late remdesivir cohort or patients who did not receive remdesivir. CONCLUSION: Early administration of remdesivir within 7 days of symptom onset is associated with less need for mechanical ventilation and lower 28-days mortality.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Brain Communications Vol 3(3), 2021, ArtID fcab195 ; 3(3), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1481579

ABSTRACT

Reports an error in "Clinical characteristics of headache after vaccination against COVID-19 (coronavirus SARS-CoV-2) with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine: A multicentre observational cohort study" by Carl H. Gobel, Axel Heinze, Sarah Karstedt, Mascha Morscheck, Lilian Tashiro, Anna Cirkel, Qutayba Hamid, Rabih Halwani, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Malte Ziemann, Siegfried Gorg, Thomas Munte and Hartmut Gobel (Brain Communications, 2021[Jul][23], Vol 3[3][fcab169]). In the originally published version of this manuscript, the video abstract was missing. The video abstract is now available online. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2021-82839-001). The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes the infectious disease COVID-19. Newly developed mRNA vaccines can prevent the spread of the virus. Headache is the most common neurological symptom in over 50% of those vaccinated. Detailed information about the clinical characteristics of this form of headache has not yet been described. The aim of the study is to examine in detail the clinical characteristics of headaches occurring after vaccination against COVID-19 with the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine for the first time. In a multicentre observational cohort study, data on the clinical features and corresponding variables were recorded using a standardized online questionnaire. The questionnaire was circulated to 12 000 residential care homes of the elderly as well as tertiary university hospitals in Germany and the United Arab Emirates. The primary outcomes of this study are the clinical features of headache after vaccination. Comorbidities, treatment with medication and sociodemographic variables are also analysed. A total of 2349 participants reported headaches after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Headaches occur an average of 18.0 +/- 27.0 h after vaccination and last an average duration of 14.2 +/- 21.3 h. Only 9.7% of those affected also report headaches resulting from previous vaccinations. In 66.6% of the participants, headache occurs as a single episode. A bilateral location is indicated by 73.1% of the participants. This is most often found on the forehead (38.0%) and temples (32.1%). A pressing pain character is indicated by 49.2% and 40.7% report a dull pain character. The pain intensity is most often moderate (46.2%), severe (32.1%) or very severe (8.2%). The most common accompanying symptoms are fatigue (38.8%), exhaustion (25.7%) and muscle pain (23.4%). Headaches after COVID-19 vaccination show an extensive complex of symptoms. The constellation of accompanying symptoms together with the temporal and spatial headache characteristics delimit a distinctive headache phenotype. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 728409, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450825

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the clinical presentation of the disease showed a great heterogeneity with a diverse impact among different subpopulations. Emerging evidence from different parts of the world showed that male patients usually had a longer disease course as well as worse outcome compared to female patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this difference might be a fundamental step for more effective and personalized response to this disease outbreak. For that reason, here we investigate the molecular basis of gender variations in mortality rates related to COVID-19 infection. To achieve this, we used publicly available lung transcriptomic data from 141 females and compare it to 286 male lung tissues. After excluding Y specific genes, our results showed a shortlist of 73 genes that are differentially expressed between the two groups. Further analysis using pathway enrichment analysis revealed downregulation of a group of genes that are involved in the regulation of hydrolase activity including (CHM, DDX3X, FGFR3, SFRP2, and NLRP2) in males lungs compared to females. This pathway is believed to be essential for immune response and antimicrobial activity in the lung tissues. In contrast, our results showed an increased upregulation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays a role in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity modulation in male lungs compared to females. Finally, our results showed a differential expression of genes involved in the immune response including the NLRP2 and PTGDR2 in lung tissues of both genders, further supporting the notion of the sex-based immunological differences. Taken together, our results provide an initial evidence of the molecular mechanisms that might be involved in the differential outcomes observed in both genders during the COVID-19 outbreak. This maybe essential for the discovery of new targets and more precise therapeutic options to treat COVID-19 patients from different clinical and epidemiological characteristics with the aim of improving their outcome.

16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 908: 174374, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322083

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of corticosteroids and its use for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections is controversial. In this study, using data sets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung tissues and nasopharyngeal swabs, as well as in vitro experiments, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly downregulates DUSP1 expression. This downregulation of DUSP1 could be the mechanism regulating the enhanced activation of MAPK pathway as well as the reported steroid resistance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, chloroquine, an off labeled COVID-19 drug is able to induce DUSP1 and attenuate MAPK pathway; and is expected to improve sensitivity to steroid treatment. However, further mechanistic studies are required to confirm this effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/genetics , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Datasets as Topic , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance/genetics , Drug Synergism , Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1/metabolism , Fibroblasts , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Off-Label Use , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 686462, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317225

ABSTRACT

Immune homeostasis is disturbed during severe viral infections, which can lead to loss of tolerance to self-peptides and result in short- or long-term autoimmunity. Using publicly available transcriptomic datasets, we conducted an in-silico analyses to evaluate the expression levels of 52 autoantigens, known to be associated with 24 autoimmune diseases, during SAR-CoV-2 infection. Seven autoantigens (MPO, PRTN3, PADI4, IFIH1, TRIM21, PTPRN2, and TSHR) were upregulated in whole blood samples. MPO and TSHR were overexpressed in both lung autopsies and whole blood tissue and were associated with more severe COVID-19. Neutrophil activation derived autoantigens (MPO, PRTN3, and PADI4) were prominently increased in blood of both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 viral infections, while TSHR and PTPRN2 autoantigens were specifically increased in SARS-CoV-2. Using single-cell dataset from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we observed an upregulation of MPO, PRTN3, and PADI4 autoantigens within the low-density neutrophil subset. To validate our in-silico analysis, we measured plasma protein levels of two autoantigens, MPO and PRTN3, in severe and asymptomatic COVID-19. The protein levels of these two autoantigens were significantly upregulated in more severe COVID-19 infections. In conclusion, the immunopathology and severity of COVID-19 could result in transient autoimmune activation. Longitudinal follow-up studies of confirmed cases of COVID-19 could determine the enduring effects of viral infection including development of autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Autoantigens/genetics , Autoimmunity/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcriptome , Asymptomatic Diseases , Autoantigens/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Lung/pathology , Myeloblastin/blood , Myeloblastin/genetics , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/immunology , Peroxidase/blood , Peroxidase/genetics , RNA-Seq , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation/genetics
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 686029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317224

ABSTRACT

More than one year since its emergence, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still looming large with a paucity of treatment options. To add to this burden, a sizeable subset of patients who have recovered from acute COVID-19 infection have reported lingering symptoms, leading to significant disability and impairment of their daily life activities. These patients are considered to suffer from what has been termed as "chronic" or "long" COVID-19 or a form of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, and patients experiencing this syndrome have been termed COVID-19 long-haulers. Despite recovery from infection, the persistence of atypical chronic symptoms, including extreme fatigue, shortness of breath, joint pains, brain fogs, anxiety and depression, that could last for months implies an underlying disease pathology that persist beyond the acute presentation of the disease. As opposed to the direct effects of the virus itself, the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to be largely responsible for the appearance of these lasting symptoms, possibly through facilitating an ongoing inflammatory process. In this review, we hypothesize potential immunological mechanisms underlying these persistent and prolonged effects, and describe the multi-organ long-term manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anxiety/etiology , Arthralgia/etiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology
19.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314719

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has mandated the instant (re)search for potential drug candidates. In response to the unprecedented situation, it was recognized early that repurposing of available drugs in the market could timely save lives, by skipping the lengthy phases of preclinical and initial safety studies. BenevolentAI's large knowledge graph repository of structured medical information suggested baricitinib, a Janus-associated kinase inhibitor, as a potential repurposed medicine with a dual mechanism; hindering SARS-CoV2 entry and combatting the cytokine storm; the leading cause of mortality in COVID-19. However, the recently-published Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial-2 (ACTT-2) positioned baricitinib only in combination with remdesivir for treatment of a specific category of COVID-19 patients, whereas the drug is not recommended to be used alone except in clinical trials. The increased pace of data output in all life sciences fields has changed our understanding of data processing and manipulation. For the purpose of drug design, development, or repurposing, the integration of different disciplines of life sciences is highly recommended to achieve the ultimate benefit of using new technologies to mine BIG data, however, the final say remains to be concluded after the drug is used in clinical practice. This review demonstrates different bioinformatics, chemical, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of baricitinib to highlight the repurposing journey of the drug and evaluates its placement in the current guidelines for COVID-19 treatment.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 595150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311373

ABSTRACT

As one of the current global health conundrums, COVID-19 pandemic caused a dramatic increase of cases exceeding 79 million and 1.7 million deaths worldwide. Severe presentation of COVID-19 is characterized by cytokine storm and chronic inflammation resulting in multi-organ dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether extrapulmonary tissues contribute to the cytokine storm mediated-disease exacerbation. In this study, we applied systems immunology analysis to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung, liver, kidney, and heart tissues and the potential contribution of these tissues to cytokines production. Notably, genes associated with neutrophil-mediated immune response (e.g. CXCL1) were particularly upregulated in lung, whereas genes associated with eosinophil-mediated immune response (e.g. CCL11) were particularly upregulated in heart tissue. In contrast, immune responses mediated by monocytes, dendritic cells, T-cells and B-cells were almost similarly dysregulated in all tissue types. Focused analysis of 14 cytokines classically upregulated in COVID-19 patients revealed that only some of these cytokines are dysregulated in lung tissue, whereas the other cytokines are upregulated in extrapulmonary tissues (e.g. IL6 and IL2RA). Investigations of potential mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 modulates the immune response and cytokine production revealed a marked dysregulation of NF-κB signaling particularly CBM complex and the NF-κB inhibitor BCL3. Moreover, overexpression of mucin family genes (e.g. MUC3A, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16, and MUC17) and HSP90AB1 suggest that the exacerbated inflammation activated pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues remodeling. In addition, we identified multiple sets of immune response associated genes upregulated in a tissue-specific manner (DCLRE1C, CHI3L1, and PARP14 in lung; APOA4, NFASC, WIPF3, and CD34 in liver; LILRA5, ISG20, S100A12, and HLX in kidney; and ASS1 and PTPN1 in heart). Altogether, these findings suggest that the cytokines storm triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection is potentially the result of dysregulated cytokine production by inflamed pulmonary and extrapulmonary (e.g. liver, kidney, and heart) tissues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney/immunology , Liver/immunology , Lung/immunology , Myocardium/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation/genetics
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