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2.
preprints.org; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202403.0246.v1

ABSTRACT

HIV early detection (CD4 counts ≥350 cells/μL) is correlated with higher life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Several factors including physical, cultural, structural, and financial barriers have contributed to HIV late detection. This is the first-of-its-kind study on the regional differences in early detection of HIV within Tajikistan and any country in the Central Asia region. Utilizing Tajikistan Ministry of Health's national HIV data (N=10,700) spanning 2010 to 2023, we developed median regression models with median CD4 cell count as the outcome and as predictors: time (years), region, age, gender, and area (urban/rural status). Individuals younger than 19 years old are more likely to be detected early for HIV, whereas those older than 39 years are more prone to late detection. Given their active engagement in age-related and sexual activities, those older than 39 years face a higher risk of HIV transmission to others if diagnosed late. Therefore, they require further attention and targeted interventions. Females are detected earlier compared to their male counterparts, regardless of region of residence. Rural populations are detected earlier in most years compared to their urban counterparts. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated HIV early detection in 2021 but most regions have returned to near pre-pandemic levels of detection in 2022 and 2023. These fluctuations in early detection may signify a shift in attention and resource allocation, potentially affecting efforts to address access gaps during the initial year of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are significant health inequities among different demographic and geographic groups which warrant further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections
3.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2311.15227v1

ABSTRACT

The main goal of this paper is to model the epidemic and flattening the infection curve of the social networks. Flattening the infection curve implies slowing down the spread of the disease and reducing the infection rate via social-distancing, isolation (quarantine) and vaccination. The nan-pharmaceutical methods are a much simpler and efficient way to control the spread of epidemic and infection rate. By specifying a target group with high centrality for isolation and quarantine one can reach a much flatter infection curve (related to Corona for example) without adding extra costs to health services. The aim of this research is, first, modeling the epidemic and, then, giving strategies and structural algorithms for targeted vaccination or targeted non-pharmaceutical methods for reducing the peak of the viral disease and flattening the infection curve. These methods are more efficient for nan-pharmaceutical interventions as finding the target quarantine group flattens the infection curve much easier. For this purpose, a few number of particular nodes with high centrality are isolated and the infection curve is analyzed. Our research shows meaningful results for flattening the infection curve only by isolating a few number of targeted nodes in the social network. The proposed methods are independent of the type of the disease and are effective for any viral disease, e.g., Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
4.
Jurnal Pengurusan ; 67, 2023.
Article in Malay | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20236488

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has opened up the landscape for the advantages of work from home (WFH) and adapting oneself in performing tasks. Leadership style and work autonomy also have the potential to assist employees to adapt the flexible work environment. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to examine the effect of WFH, work autonomy and humble leadership on adaptive performance as well as its moderating effect. Self-determination theory is referred to as an underlying theory to identify the extent to which work autonomy and humble leadership may assist employees to be more motivated in performing work from home. The Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to test the hypothesized relationships among variables using the 200 responded data. The results of this study indicated that the WFH, job autonomy and humble leadership influenced adaptive performance and employees with high job autonomy and perceived high humble leadership strengthen the relationship between WFH and adaptive performance. The study sheds new light on the theoretical contribution that the extensive of work autonomy and the influence of a humble leadership style has improved adaptive performance even when working from home. Whereas in practice, organizations need to equip supervisors with a humble leadership style and expand work autonomy to strengthen employee performance regardless of where they work. © 2023 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.

5.
Collection Management ; : 1-15, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2315670

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research was to examine changes in the usage patterns of public library collections during the COVID pandemic. Usage data for e-loans (e-books and e-audio books) and physical loans from two library networks in Sydney (Australia) for 2019–2021 was analyzed. While the use of physical collections dropped to less than half, the use of electronic collections increased by almost as much. E-loans peaked, and physical loans plummeted during lockdowns. However, the increase of e-loans was very small in terms of absolute volume (about a 44 k increase) compared to the decline in physical loans (about half a million decrease), and the use of physical collections did not reach pre-pandemic levels during the period studied. The analysis of subjects and genres of loaned items indicates that users were generally keen to continue reading the sorts of material they had been reading prior to the pandemic, even if this meant switching format, although there were some changes in genre and subject preferences during the lockdowns, which might have been influenced by the circumstances of the individual users. Readers appeared to show particular interest in various nonfiction topics in the initial lockdown (early 2020), with more practical considerations holding sway at this stage of the pandemic, whereas, by the time of the second lockdown (mid-2021), these considerations had been resolved to some extent, and been overtaken by a more "escapist,” or at least a more recreational, attitude on the part of the average user. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Collection Management is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Soc Netw Anal Min ; 13(1): 60, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294391

ABSTRACT

Recent studies in network science and control have shown a meaningful relationship between the epidemic processes (e.g., COVID-19 spread) and some network properties. This paper studies how such network properties, namely clustering coefficient and centrality measures (or node influence metrics), affect the spread of viruses and the growth of epidemics over scale-free networks. The results can be used to target individuals (the nodes in the network) to flatten the infection curve. This so-called flattening of the infection curve is to reduce the health service costs and burden to the authorities/governments. Our Monte-Carlo simulation results show that clustered networks are, in general, easier to flatten the infection curve, i.e., with the same connectivity and the same number of isolated individuals they result in more flattened curves. Moreover, distance-based centrality measures, which target the nodes based on their average network distance to other nodes (and not the node degrees), are better choices for targeting individuals for isolation/vaccination.

7.
Asian Journal of University Education ; 19(1):53-71, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2265317

ABSTRACT

The Graduates Statistics 2020 data from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) reported a 4.4 per cent increase of graduates from 5.13 million in 2019 to 5.36 million students in 2020. However, in the same year, the Ministry of Higher Education revealed that the marketability of Malaysian graduates had declined from 86.2 per cent in 2019 to 84.4 per cent in 2020, due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Aligned with the issues, the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education has endorsed entrepreneurship education in all higher education institutions as an initiative to encourage students to enrol in entrepreneurship courses and activities. This prompted the current study, which sought to determine the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap), higher education institutions (HEIs), and entrepreneurial intention (EI) among Malaysian hospitality students. In the first phase of the current study, a quantitative study employing the sequential explanatory mixed method design was conducted via an online survey at five (5) public HEIs in Malaysia, yielding a total sample size of 297 participants. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) software was used to analyse the study's data structuring obtained via probability sampling. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted in the second phase of the current study to get in-depth view of the relevant skills of successful entrepreneurs. The data were analyses using NVIVO 12. The study has successfully purposed a model for entrepreneurship education, the Inspirational Hospitality Entrepreneurship Model (IHEM), which highlights the eight relevant skills to being a successful hospitality entrepreneur. Overall, the current study discovers that PsyCap has an impact on students' attitudes towards entrepreneurship. This study perhaps could benefits to stakeholders, specifically those in higher institutions, by validating the emerging need for hospitality students to be equipped with high spirit, high creativity, and a wealth of new ideas to produce more young hospitality entrepreneurs for Malaysia to be resilient in the future. © 2023,International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Social Network Analysis and Mining ; 13(1), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2257501

ABSTRACT

Recent studies in network science and control have shown a meaningful relationship between the epidemic processes (e.g., COVID-19 spread) and some network properties. This paper studies how such network properties, namely clustering coefficient and centrality measures (or node influence metrics), affect the spread of viruses and the growth of epidemics over scale-free networks. The results can be used to target individuals (the nodes in the network) to flatten the infection curve. This so-called flattening of the infection curve is to reduce the health service costs and burden to the authorities/governments. Our Monte-Carlo simulation results show that clustered networks are, in general, easier to flatten the infection curve, i.e., with the same connectivity and the same number of isolated individuals they result in more flattened curves. Moreover, distance-based centrality measures, which target the nodes based on their average network distance to other nodes (and not the node degrees), are better choices for targeting individuals for isolation/vaccination.

9.
6th International Conference on Digital Technology in Education, ICDTE 2022 ; : 219-224, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2254556

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to develop a model that clarifies the role of personality traits, motivation, and lifelong learning in the context of distance learning. Specifically, the current study hypothesis that personality traits of extroversion, agreeableness, consciousness, neuroticism, and openness correlate significantly with individuals' attitudinal-behavioral disposition of motivation, which would also impact lifelong learning. Due to the dynamic process of learning foreign languages and the belief that fluency in other languages offers economic benefits and practical applications, foreign language learning provides a suitable context for the present study. Therefore, we hypothesize that individuals who learn foreign languages are also the most likely to engage in lifelong learning. In addition, the data is collected by the fully online learning system as a result of the Covid 19 disease's spread. This makes the study even more meaningful to the study of online learning and distance education. In the present study, seven latent variables are developed and tested, totaling 45 measurement items. The survey is conducted to 200 undergraduates from east Malaysia, and only students currently enrolled in foreign language courses will be chosen as respondents. The PLS-SEM will be used to analyzing the data, and we employ two-stage approach for data analysis: (i) measurement model and (ii) analysis of the structural model. The work will provide critical information and practical contributions in line with the Malaysia National Higher Education Strategic Plan—promoting the culture of lifelong learning in on-line context. © 2022 Association for Computing Machinery.

10.
Coronaviruses ; 2(8) (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2288325

ABSTRACT

Background: The new public health emergency of COVID-19 caused by a novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019, evolved into a pandemic in no time and is still in progression. The novel virus mainly targets the lower respiratory system, leading to viral pneumonia, with other associated complications of multi organ failure. Discussion(s): The bats, in particular Rhinolophus affinis, is a natural host of SARS-CoV-2 and the virus is considered to have spread to humans through yet controversial intermediate host pangolins. The incubation period ranges from 2-14 days and mode of person-to-person transmission is primari-ly via the direct contact with the infected person or through the droplets generated by the infected person during coughing or sneezing. The initiation of the infection process by SARS-CoV-2 virus is the invasion of lung type II alveolar cells via a receptor protein called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) present on the cell membrane with glycosylated spike (S) viral protein that medi-ates host cell invasion. The main diagnostic tools employed are molecular methods based on nucleic acid detection engaging real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and a new immunoassays based on antibodies IgM/IgG. Conclusion(s): Due to the lack of specific clinically approved anticovid-19 drugs or vaccines that could be used for its prevention or treatment, the current management approach is essentially sup-portive and symptomatic. The precautionary measures like, social distancing, cleaning hands with soap or sanitizers, using disinfectant solutions to decontaminate the surfaces of things and proper ventilation, wearing masks and other protective gears to curb transmission. The knowledge regard-ing COVID-19 therapies is still evolving and collaborative efforts are being put in to discover definitive therapies on different themes in the form of vaccines, repurposing drugs, RNA interfer-ence, docking studies, etc.Copyright © 2021 Bentham Science Publishers.

11.
Public Library Quarterly ; 42(2):190-219, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2262851

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic provided a unique opportunity to gauge how much, and why, people value visiting public libraries by asking them about the impact of the library closures. A questionnaire survey was administered to users of four library networks in New South Wales, Australia. About 19% of 1,295 respondents missed their library "a great deal," another 28% "quite a lot." Most commonly respondents missed browsing the shelves, taking children for visits, studying, reading, and socializing there. They also missed the quiet, relaxing, and friendly environment, and the resources provided. For many, the closures impacted their lives in a critical way. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Public Library Quarterly is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1102940, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251215

ABSTRACT

Background: As February 2023, SARS-CoV-2 is still infecting people and children worldwide. Cough and dyspnea are annoying symptoms almost present in a large proportion of COVID-19 outpatients, and the duration of these symptoms might be long enough to affect the patients' quality of life. Studies have shown positive effects for noscapine plus licorice in the previous COVID-19 trials. This study aimed to assess the effects of the combination of noscapine and licorice-for relieving cough in outpatients with COVID-19. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 124 patients at the Dr. Masih Daneshvari Hospital. Participants over 18 years of age with confirmed COVID-19 and cough were allowed to enter the study if the onset of symptoms was less than 5 days. The primary outcome was to assess the response to treatment over 5 days using the visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included the assessment of cough severity after 5 days using Cough Symptom Score, as well as the cough-related quality of life and dyspnea relieving. Patients in the noscapine plus licorice group received Noscough® syrup 20 mL every 6 h for 5 days. The control group received diphenhydramine elixir 7 mL every 8 h. Results: By day five, 53 (85.48%) patients in the Noscough® group and 49 (79.03%) patients in the diphenhydramine group had response to treatment. This difference was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.34). The presence of dyspnea was significantly lower in the Noscough® group versus diphenhydramine at day five (1.61% in the Noscough® group vs. 12.9% in the diphenhydramine group; p-value = 0.03). The cough-related quality of life and severity also significantly favored Noscough® syrup (p-values <0.001). Conclusion: Noscapine plus licorice syrup was slightly superior to diphenhydramine in relieving cough symptoms and dyspnea in the COVID-19 outpatients. The severity of cough and cough-related quality of life were also significantly better in the noscapine plus licorice syrup. Noscapine plus licorice may be a valuable treatment in relieving cough in COVID-19 outpatients.

13.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 85: 104044, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280018

ABSTRACT

During a pandemic, various resources, including personal protective equipment (PPE), are required to protect people and healthcare workers from getting infected. Due to the high demand and limited supply chain, countries experience a shortage in PPE products. This global crisis imposes a decline in the international trade of PPE supplies. In fact, most governments implement a localization strategy motivating domestic manufacturers to pivot their operations to respond to PPE demands. An oligopolistic market cannot reach the socially optimal coverage without government subsidies. On the other hand, the government subsidy pays the proportion of production costs to reach the socially optimal coverage, while the government's budget is limited. Therefore, the government collaborates with manufacturers via procurement contracts to increase the supply of PPE products. We propose the first supply chain model of PPE products that investigates manufacturer costs and government expenditure. We consider how different behavioral aspects of manufacturers and government can self-organize towards a system optimum. Additionally, we integrate the consumer surplus, producer surplus, and societal surplus into the game model to maximize social benefit. A cost-sharing contract under the system optimum between government and manufacturers is designed to increase the production of PPEs and hence, helps in reducing the number of infected individuals. We conducted our computational study on real data generated from the mask usage during the Covid-19 pandemic in Los Angeles (LA) County to respond to the reported PPE shortage. Under the socially optimal strategy, the PPE coverage increases by up to 33%, and the number of infected individuals reduces by up to 30% compared to other strategies.

14.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2303.09173v1

ABSTRACT

Recent studies in network science and control have shown a meaningful relationship between the epidemic processes (e.g., COVID-19 spread) and some network properties. This paper studies how such network properties, namely clustering coefficient and centrality measures (or node influence metrics), affect the spread of viruses and the growth of epidemics over scale-free networks. The results can be used to target individuals (the nodes in the network) to \textit{flatten the infection curve}. This so-called flattening of the infection curve is to reduce the health service costs and burden to the authorities/governments. Our Monte-Carlo simulation results show that clustered networks are, in general, easier to flatten the infection curve, i.e., with the same connectivity and the same number of isolated individuals they result in more flattened curves. Moreover, distance-based centrality measures, which target the nodes based on their average network distance to other nodes (and not the node degrees), are better choices for targeting individuals for isolation/vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
15.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281058, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As part of the Harbnger-2 project, this study aimed to discover the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on junior researchers' work-life, career prospects, research and publishing practices and networking. METHODS: An online international survey of 800 early career researchers (ECRs) was conducted in 2022. A questionnaire was developed based on three rounds of interviews and distributed using multiple channels including publishers, social media, and direct email to ECRs. RESULTS: The impact of the pandemic on career prospects, morale, job security, productivity, ability to network and collaborate, and quality and speed of peer review has on the whole been more negative than positive. A quarter of ECRs shifted their research focus to pandemic-related topics and half of those who did, benefited largely due to increased productivity and impact. The majority worked remotely/from home and more than two-thirds of those who did so benefitted from it. While virtual or hybrid conferences have been embraced by the majority of ECRs, around a third still preferred face-to-face only conferences. The use of library online platforms, Sci-Hub, ResearchGate, Google Scholar and smartphone to search and access full-text papers increased. ECRs prioritised journals with fast submission procedures for the publishing of their papers and spent more time on increasing the visibility of their research. Fees were a problem for publishing open access. CONCLUSION: Although, generally, the pandemic negatively impacted many aspects of ECRs' work-life, certain research areas and individuals benefited from being more appreciated and valued, and, in some cases, resulted in increased resources, better productivity and greater impact. Changes, such as the use of digital technologies and remote working created new opportunities for some ECRs. While continuing work flexibility and hybrid conferences might benefit some ECRs, institutions should also take measures to help those ECRs whose career and productivity have been adversely impacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Publishing , Research Personnel , Peer Review
16.
Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal ; 7(21):263-269, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082797

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has a significant impact on the hotel's operations. The reopening process has begun, especially on the hotel website. Therefore, the hotel industry must understand the need to influence customers' choices through advanced I.T. This study is intended to explore the effect of t e-service quality on customer engagement behaviors via the SEM method with the PLS estimation technique with 247 respondents. The findings indicate that system availability is the most significant influence influencing customer engagement behaviors, followed by system efficiency, system privacy/security, and system fulfillment. This finding will help the hotel's manager boost customer engagement.

17.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 8(1): e12348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047953

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused >3.5 million deaths worldwide and affected >160 million people. At least twice as many have been infected but remained asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. COVID-19 includes central nervous system manifestations mediated by inflammation and cerebrovascular, anoxic, and/or viral neurotoxicity mechanisms. More than one third of patients with COVID-19 develop neurologic problems during the acute phase of the illness, including loss of sense of smell or taste, seizures, and stroke. Damage or functional changes to the brain may result in chronic sequelae. The risk of incident cognitive and neuropsychiatric complications appears independent from the severity of the original pulmonary illness. It behooves the scientific and medical community to attempt to understand the molecular and/or systemic factors linking COVID-19 to neurologic illness, both short and long term. Methods: This article describes what is known so far in terms of links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias. We focus on risk factors and possible molecular, inflammatory, and viral mechanisms underlying neurological injury. We also provide a comprehensive description of the Alzheimer's Association Consortium on Chronic Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (CNS SC2) harmonized methodology to address these questions using a worldwide network of researchers and institutions. Results: Successful harmonization of designs and methods was achieved through a consensus process initially fragmented by specific interest groups (epidemiology, clinical assessments, cognitive evaluation, biomarkers, and neuroimaging). Conclusions from subcommittees were presented to the whole group and discussed extensively. Presently data collection is ongoing at 19 sites in 12 countries representing Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Discussion: The Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium harmonized methodology is proposed as a model to study long-term neurocognitive sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key Points: The following review describes what is known so far in terms of molecular and epidemiological links among COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and AD and related dementias (ADRD)The primary objective of this large-scale collaboration is to clarify the pathogenesis of ADRD and to advance our understanding of the impact of a neurotropic virus on the long-term risk of cognitive decline and other CNS sequelae. No available evidence supports the notion that cognitive impairment after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a form of dementia (ADRD or otherwise). The longitudinal methodologies espoused by the consortium are intended to provide data to answer this question as clearly as possible controlling for possible confounders. Our specific hypothesis is that SARS-CoV-2 triggers ADRD-like pathology following the extended olfactory cortical network (EOCN) in older individuals with specific genetic susceptibility.The proposed harmonization strategies and flexible study designs offer the possibility to include large samples of under-represented racial and ethnic groups, creating a rich set of harmonized cohorts for future studies of the pathophysiology, determinants, long-term consequences, and trends in cognitive aging, ADRD, and vascular disease.We provide a framework for current and future studies to be carried out within the Consortium. and offers a "green paper" to the research community with a very broad, global base of support, on tools suitable for low- and middle-income countries aimed to compare and combine future longitudinal data on the topic.The Consortium proposes a combination of design and statistical methods as a means of approaching causal inference of the COVID-19 neuropsychiatric sequelae. We expect that deep phenotyping of neuropsychiatric sequelae may provide a series of candidate syndromes with phenomenological and biological characterization that can be further explored. By generating high-quality harmonized data across sites we aim to capture both descriptive and, where possible, causal associations.

18.
Kesmas-National Public Health Journal ; 17(1):39-43, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2006649

ABSTRACT

Intense stress resulting from major life events can affect women's menstrual cycle. The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, impacting various sectors, is considered a major form of stress. During May-November 2020, some women in Iraq have experienced menstrual disruptions, which can happen whether they get infected with the COVID-19 or simply deals with pandemic-induced stress. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic-induced stress on menstrual cycle regularity of reproductive-age women. This study used an observational cross-sectional design con-ducted in Iraq from May to November 2020. A sample of 500 reproductive-age women filled out an online questionnaire about their menstrual records and psychological stress levels using a Perceived Stress Scale-10 for three months during the pandemic. A comparison between menstrual cycle irregularity and stress levels before and during the pandemic was done with a p-value of <0.05 and statistically significant. It was found that 47.72% of women had irregular menstrual cycles and high perceived stress scales during the pandemic compared to 20.94% with irregular cycles and high-stress levels before the pandemic. In brief, the high-stress level induced by the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with the irregular menstrual cycle in the sampled reproductive-age women.

19.
Appl Soft Comput ; 126: 109289, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000258

ABSTRACT

When an outbreak starts spreading, policymakers have to make decisions that affect the health of their citizens and the economy. Some might induce harsh measures, such as a lockdown. Following a long, harsh lockdown, the recession forces policymakers to rethink reopening. To provide an effective strategy, here we propose a control strategy model. Our model assesses the trade-off between social performance and limited medical resources by determining individuals' propensities. The proposed strategy also helps decision-makers to find optimal lockdown and exit strategies for each region. Moreover, the financial loss is minimized. We use the public sentiment information during the pandemic to determine the percentage of individuals with high-risk behavior and the percentage of individuals with low-risk behavior. Hence, we propose an online platform using fear-sentiment information to estimate the personal protective equipment (PPE) burn rate overtime for the entire population. In addition, a study of a COVID-19 dataset for Los Angeles County is performed to validate our model and its results. The total social cost reduces by 18% compared with a control strategy where susceptible individuals are assumed to be homogeneous. We also reduce the total social costs by 26% and 22% compared to other strategies that consider the health-care cost or the social performance cost, respectively.

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057846, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Few studies reported COVID-19 cases in schools during the 2020/21 academic year in a setting of uninterrupted in-person schooling. The main objective was to determine the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among school staff in Vancouver public schools. DESIGN: Cumulative incident COVID-19 cases among all students and school staff based on public health data, with an embedded cross-sectional serosurvey among a school staff sample that was compared to period, age, sex and geographical location-weighted data from blood donors. SETTING: Vancouver School District (British Columbia, Canada) from kindergarten to grade 12. PARTICIPANTS: Active school staff enrolled from 3 February to 23 April 2021 with serology testing from 10 February to 15 May 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among school staff, based on spike (S)-based (unvaccinated staff) or N-based serology testing (vaccinated staff). RESULTS: Public health data showed the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 among students attending in-person was 9.8 per 1000 students (n=47 280), and 13 per 1000 among school staff (n=7071). In a representative sample of 1689 school staff, 78.2% had classroom responsibilities, and spent a median of 17.6 hours in class per week (IQR: 5.0-25 hours). Although 21.5% (363/1686) of surveyed staff self-reported close contact with a COVID-19 case outside of their household (16.5% contacts were school-based), 5 cases likely acquired the infection at school based on viral testing. Sensitivity/Specificity-adjusted seroprevalence in 1556/1689 staff (92.1%) was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.6% to 3.2%), comparable to a sex, age, date and residency area-weighted seroprevalence of 2.6% (95% CI: 2.2% to 3.1%) among 5417 blood donors. CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence among staff was comparable to a reference group of blood donors from the same community. These data show that in-person schooling could be safely maintained during the 2020/21 school year with mitigation measures, in a large school district in Vancouver, Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , British Columbia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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