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1.
World journal of gastroenterology ; 28(5):570-587, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood AIM We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis RESULTS A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation CONCLUSION Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient’s severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.

2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(5): 570-587, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient's severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Baltimore , Bilirubin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(1): 8-23, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073820

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19, previously known as 2019 nCoV) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan City, China, has spread rapidly around the world. Most patients from the first cluster had an epidemiological connection to the Wuhan's Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. Available evidence has shown that SARS-CoV-2 can be easily transmitted from person to person through close contact and respiratory droplets, posing a substantial challenge to public health. At present, the research on SARS-CoV-2 is still in the primary stages. However, dexa-methasone and remdesivir are appeared to be promising medical therapies. Still, there is no definite specific treatment, and the mainstay of treatment is still focused on supportive therapies. Currently, over 150 vaccines are under investigation. It is necessary to understand the nature of the virus and its clinical characteristics in order to find effectively manage the disease. The knowledge about this virus is rapidly evolving, and clinicians must update themselves regularly. The present review comprehensively summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and management of COVID-19 based on the current evidence.

5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(4): 815-830, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064595

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease which has had a rapid surge in cases and deaths since it is first documented in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. COVID-19 is caused by the Betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is highly expressed in the human lower respiratory tract but also in other tissues, as the cellular entry receptor. Thus, COVID-19 mainly affects the respiratory system but can cause damage to other body systems, including the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, renal, and central nervous systems. We review the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the infection, focusing on our current understanding of the disease mechanisms and their translation to clinical outcomes, as well as adverse effects on different body systems. We also discuss the epidemiology pathogenesis, clinical, and multi-organ consequences, and highlight some of the research gaps regarding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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