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Front Immunol ; 13: 1075423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234854


Introduction: We investigated humoral and T-cell responses within 12 months after first BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and controls who had received at least three vaccine doses. Furthermore, we compared the immune response in participants with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: We included adult liver, lung, and kidney transplant recipients, and controls were selected from a parallel cohort of healthcare workers. Results: At 12th-month, the IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) (P<0.001), IgA GMCs (P=0.003), and median IFN-γ (P<0.001) were lower in SOT recipients than in controls. However, in SOT recipients and controls with previous infection, the neutralizing index was 99%, and the IgG, and IgA responses were comparable. After adjustment, female-sex (aOR: 3.6, P<0.009), kidney (aOR: 7.0, P= 0.008) or lung transplantation (aOR: 7.5, P= 0.014), and use of mycophenolate (aOR: 5.2, P=0.03) were associated with low IgG non response. Age (OR:1.4, P=0.038), time from transplantation to first vaccine (OR: 0.45, P<0.035), and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 0.14, P<0.001), were associated with low IgA non response. Diabetes (OR:2.4, P=0.044) was associated with T-cell non response. Conclusion: In conclusion, humoral and T-cell responses were inferior in SOT recipients without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection but comparable to controls in SOT recipients with previous infection.

BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Cellular
Br J Dermatol ; 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212727


BACKGROUND: mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines have short and long-term efficacy in healthy individuals, but their efficacy in patients with psoriasis receiving immunomodulatory therapy is less studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term immunity after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with psoriasis receiving immunomodulatory therapy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study including patients (n = 123) with psoriasis receiving methotrexate (MTX) or biologics and controls (n = 226). Only mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines administered with standard intervals between doses were investigated. Markers of immunity included SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein specific IgG and IgA, neutralizing capacity, and interferon-gamma release from T-cells stimulated with peptides of the SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein. RESULTS: The proportion of IgG responders was lower 6 months after vaccination in patients receiving anti-TNF compared to controls. Anti-TNF treatment was associated with lower IgG levels (ß=-0.82, 95% CI -1.38 to -0.25: P = 0.001). The median neutralizing index was lower in the anti-TNF group, 50% inhibition (IQR 37-89) compared to controls, 98% inhibition (IQR 96-99), P < 0.001. Cellular responses were numerically lowest in anti-TNF group. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anti-TNF has an impact on the immunity elicited by mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in patients with psoriasis, resulting in a faster waning of humoral and cellular markers of immunity, however, the clinical implications are unknown.

BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923269


INTRODUCTION: Responses to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases are poorly characterised. We aimed to describe humoral responses following two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and identify risk factors for impaired responses. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including adults with chronic pulmonary diseases and healthcare personnel as controls (1:1). Blood was sampled at inclusion, 3 weeks, 2 and 6 months after first vaccination. We reported antibody concentrations as geometric means with 95% CI of receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG and neutralising antibody index of inhibition of ACE-2/RBD interaction (%). A low responder was defined as neutralising index in the lowest quartile (primary outcome) or RBD-IgG <225 AU/mL plus neutralising index <25% (secondary outcome), measured at 2 months. We tested associations using Poisson regression. RESULTS: We included 593 patients and 593 controls, 75% of all had neutralising index ≥97% at 2 months. For the primary outcome, 34.7% of patients (n=157/453) and 12.9% of controls (n=46/359) were low responders (p<0.0001). For the secondary outcome, 8.6% of patients (n=39/453) and 1.4% of controls (n=5/359) were low responders (p<0.001). Risk factors associated with low responder included increasing age (per decade, adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.32), Charlson Comorbidity Index (per point) (aRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.26), use of prednisolone (aRR 2.08, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.77) and other immunosuppressives (aRR 2.21, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.97). DISCUSSION: Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases established functional humoral responses to vaccination, however lower than controls. Age, comorbidities and immunosuppression were associated with poor immunological responses.

COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Adult , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vaccination