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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317400

ABSTRACT

Possible mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy is still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Three perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded (two cases confirmed by PCR, the third one based on clinical findings). In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, or drug use during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants. Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as strongly support COVID19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412 Date of registration: November 18, 2020

2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 413-418, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345122

ABSTRACT

The risk and potential consequences of mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy are still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Two PCR-confirmed perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded. In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, drug use, or maternal disease during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants.Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as support COVID-19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412. Date of registration: November 18, 2020 What is Known: •Materno-fetal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy has rarely been reported so far, but was demonstrated in isolated cases. What is New: •In a study of complete households with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a cohort of pregnant women, we observed perinatal coronavirus transmission at a higher frequency than expected. •We also describe a newborn boy with an eye malformation reminiscent of rubella embryopathy but associated with early gestation SARS-CoV-2 infection of his mother. •A coronavirus-related embryopathy, reported here for the first time, is a finding that requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Monatsschr Kinderheilkd ; 169(5): 451-460, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening emergency in children and adolescents with manifestation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and often associated with delayed diagnosis or previous diagnostic errors. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown period in Germany, less patients presented at emergency departments and private practices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the DKA risk in children and adolescents with DM1 manifestation during the COVID-19 lockdown and associated risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frequency of DKA at DM1 onset in patients <18 years between 13 March and 13 May 2020 in pediatric diabetes centers was analyzed. The centers also documented their assessment, if the presentation was delayed or the diagnosis was not made on the first medical consultation. In order to analyze the influence of the risk factors on the frequency of DKA, the data from 2020 were compared with the same periods in 2018 and 2019 using multivariable linear and logistic regression. RESULTS: The data of 532 patients from 216 diabetes centers showed that the risk for DKA increased by 84.7% and the risk for severe DKA increased by 45.3% compared to the years 2018/2019. Children <6 years had the highest risk with an 141.6% increase for DKA and 97.0% for severe DKA compared to the previous years. Migration background was a risk factor independent of COVID-19. Of the patients 31% had either a delayed presentation or a missed diagnosis. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 lockdown the frequency of DKA and severe DKA at DM1 onset was significantly increased for children and adolescents in Germany. Age <6 years, migration background and delayed diagnosis were the main risk factors.

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