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1.
European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education ; 12(8):1082-1107, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987696

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has impacted mental health and affected education due to the shift to remote learning. The purpose of the current study was to assess the mental health of pharmacy students one year following the onset of the pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to pharmacy students. The severity of depression, anxiety, and stress was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), and resilience was assessed by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). COVID-19-related economic, educational, and health stressors, and students' vaccine attitudes were surveyed. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analysis were used, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. A total of 561 students participated;37% had mild-to-moderate depression, 37% had severe-to-extremely-severe anxiety, and 52% demonstrated normal stress levels. Severe depression, anxiety, and stress were associated with smoking and feeling isolated due to COVID-19. Around 40% of students had low resilience, associated with smoking, being in the third or fourth year of pharmacy study, and the consumption of caffeinated beverages. The mean score of satisfaction with online learning was 60.3 ±21.3%. Only 5% of participants were vaccinated, of which 87% trusted the benefits of vaccines and their role in controlling the pandemic. One year after the onset of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress, and low resilience were observed among pharmacy students;the investigation of the long-term mental effects of the pandemic on university students is warranted.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953779

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oils, Volatile , Thymus Plant , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Thymol/pharmacology , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Vitamins
3.
Nutrients ; 14(10):2104, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857240

ABSTRACT

A perennial wild shrub from the Lamiaceae family and native to the Mediterranean region, thyme is considered an important wild edible plant studied for centuries for its unique importance in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry. Thyme is loaded with phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins. It is pungent in taste, yet rich in moisture, proteins, crude fiber, minerals and vitamins. Its chemical composition may vary with geographical location but is mainly composed of flavonoids and antioxidants. Previous studies have illustrated the therapeutic effects of thyme and its essential oils, especially thymol and carvacrol, against various diseases. This is attributed to its multi-pharmacological properties that include, but are not limited to, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic actions. Moreover, thyme has long been known for its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiseptic activities, in addition to remarkable disruption of microbial biofilms. In the COVID-19 era, some thyme constituents were investigated for their potential in viral binding. As such, thyme presents a wide range of functional possibilities in food, drugs, and other fields and prominent interest as a nutraceutical. The aims of the current review are to present botanical and nutritive values of this herb, elaborate its major constituents, and review available literature on its dietetic and biological activities.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 823626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775645

ABSTRACT

The serious challenge of antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten public health and lingers in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared pandemic by the World Health Organization. While the pandemic has triggered the importance of infection control practices and preventive measures such as physical distancing, hand hygiene, travel reduction and quarantine, the ongoing alarm of antimicrobial resistance seems to accompany the pandemic too. Antimicrobial resistance has been fostered during COVID-19, possibly due to high rate of empirical antibiotic utilization in COVID-19 patients, increased use of biocides, and the disruption of proper healthcare for other conditions. Specifically, carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria have shown to cause secondary bacterial infections in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Clinical and microbiological evidence of such infections is accumulating in different parts of the world. With the resilient nature of carbapenemases, their association with mortality, and the limited treatment options available, concerns regarding this group of antibiotic-hydrolyzing enzymes during the pandemic are expected to upsurge. While the additional burden carbapenemases exert on healthcare is worrisome, it remains hidden or abandoned among the various health consequences of the pandemic. The purpose of this minireview is to shed a light on carbapenemase-associated infections during such unprecedented time of COVID-19. A focused insight shall be made into carbapenemases, their implications for COVID-19 patients, and the features and consequences of co-infection, with a review of available evidence from pertinent literature. The importance of increased surveillance for carbapenemase-producers and optimizing their management in relation to the pandemic, shall be addressed as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bacterial Proteins , Humans , Pandemics , beta-Lactamases
5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705475

ABSTRACT

The history of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) evolution and the diversity of the environmental resistome indicate that AMR is an ancient natural phenomenon. Acquired resistance is a public health concern influenced by the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, leading to the selection of resistant genes. Data show that AMR is spreading globally at different rates, outpacing all efforts to mitigate this crisis. The search for new antibiotic classes is one of the key strategies in the fight against AMR. Since the 1980s, newly marketed antibiotics were either modifications or improvements of known molecules. The World Health Organization (WHO) describes the current pipeline as bleak, and warns about the scarcity of new leads. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the pre-clinical and clinical pipeline indicates that few antibiotics may reach the market in a few years, predominantly not those that fit the innovative requirements to tackle the challenging spread of AMR. Diversity and innovation are the mainstays to cope with the rapid evolution of AMR. The discovery and development of antibiotics must address resistance to old and novel antibiotics. Here, we review the history and challenges of antibiotics discovery and describe different innovative new leads mechanisms expected to replenish the pipeline, while maintaining a promising possibility to shift the chase and the race between the spread of AMR, preserving antibiotic effectiveness, and meeting innovative leads requirements.

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