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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 375, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in infections with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature and individual-level data is sparse. We therefore analysed individual-level data on socioeconomic differences in the prevalence and perceived dangerousness of SARS-CoV-2 infections in local populations. Data were obtained from a population-based seroepidemiological study of adult individuals in two early German SARS-CoV-2 hotspots (n = 3903). Infection was determined by IgG antibody ELISA, RT-PCR testing and self-reports on prior positive PCR tests. The perceived dangerousness of an infection and socioeconomic position (SEP) were assessed by self-reports. Logistic and linear regression were applied to examine associations of multiple SEP measures with infection status and perceptions of dangerousness. RESULTS: We found no evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 infections by education, occupation, income and subjective social status. Participants with lower education and lower subjective social status perceived an infection as more dangerous than their better-off counterparts. In successfully contained local outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany, infections may have been equally distributed across the socioeconomic spectrum. But residents in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups might have experienced a higher level of mental distress due to the higher perceived dangerousness of an infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Dangerous Behavior , Humans , Occupations , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327624

ABSTRACT

Objective: With the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) countries had to establish COVID-19 surveillance by adapting existing systems, such as the mandatory notification system and syndromic surveillance systems. We estimated COVID-19 hospitalization and ICU burden from existing severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) surveillance and compared it to COVID-19 notification data. Methods: Using data from the ICD-10 based hospital sentinel, we estimated SARI incidence and validated our estimations retrospectively using full population data. We estimated age-specific incidences for COVID-19 hospitalization and ICU for the first three COVID-19 waves in Germany, based on information of SARI cases (COVID-SARI). We compared these estimations to hospitalization and ICU burden of COVID-19 from notification data and described potential underreporting of hospitalizations in notification data. Findings: The estimation of SARI incidence from sentinel data corresponded very well to full population data. The estimated COVID-SARI incidence matched the notified COVID-19 hospitalization incidence in the first wave, but was much higher during the second and the third wave. The proportion of unknown hospitalization status among notified COVID-19 cases was much higher in the later waves compared to the first wave. For all waves, the ICU incidence estimated from COVID-SARI was considerably higher than the results from notification data. Conclusion: The use of SARI sentinel data adds valid and important information for assessing COVID-19 hospitalization and ICU burden, especially in times with high case numbers where notification data may be more incomplete.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323080

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures affect healthcare seeking behaviour, access to healthcare, test strategies, disease notification and workload at public health authorities, but may also lead to a true change in transmission dynamics. We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic and associated public health measures on other notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in Germany.Methods: We included 32 nationally notifiable diseases categories with case numbers >100/year in 2016-2019. We used quasi-Poisson regression analysis on a weekly aggregated time-series incorporating trend and seasonality, to compute the relative change in case numbers during week 2020-10 to 2020-32 (pandemic), in comparison to week 2016-01 to 2020-09.Findings: During week 2020-10 to 2020-32, 216,825 COVID-19 cases, and 162,942 (-35%) cases of other diseases, were notified. Case numbers decreased across all ages and notification categories (all p<0·005), except for tick-borne encephalitis, which increased (+58%). Cases of respiratory diseases (from -86% for measles, to -12% for tuberculosis), gastro-intestinal diseases (from -83% for rotavirus gastroenteritis, to -7% for yersiniosis) and imported vector-borne diseases (-75% dengue fever, -73% malaria) decreased the most, followed by healthcare associated pathogens (from -43% infection/colonisation with carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter, to -28% for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus invasive infection) and sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases (from -28% for hepatitis B, to -12% for syphilis).Interpretation: During the COVID-19 pandemic a drastic decrease of notifications for most infectious diseases and pathogens was observed. Our findings suggest effects of non-pharmaceutical COVID-19 countermeasures on overall disease transmission that require further investigation.Funding: None.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Pseudonymized notification data was collected at the RKI based on the German Infection Protection Act.

4.
J Health Monit ; 5(Suppl 5): 2-16, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687796

ABSTRACT

At a regional and local level, the COVID-19 pandemic has not spread out uniformly and some German municipalities have been particularly affected. The seroepidemiological data from these areas helps estimate the proportion of the population that has been infected with SARS-CoV-2 (seroprevalence), as well as the number of undetected infections and asymptomatic cases. In four municipalities which were especially affected, 2,000 participants will be tested for an active SARS-CoV-2 infection (oropharyngeal swab) or a past infection (blood specimen IgG antibody test). Participants will also be asked to fill out a short written questionnaire at study centres and complete a follow-up questionnaire either online or by telephone, including information on issues such as possible exposure, susceptability, symptoms and medical history. The CORONA-MONITORING lokal study will allow to determine the proportion of the population with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in four particularly affected locations. This study will increase the accuracy of estimates regarding the scope of the epidemic, help determine risk and protective factors for an infection and therefore also identify especially exposed groups and, as such, it will be crucial towards planning of prevention measures.

5.
J Health Monit ; 5(Suppl 4): 2-15, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687795

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the year 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has spread globally at a tremendous pace. Studies on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the population help estimate the number of people that have already been infected. They also allow an estimate of the number of undetected infections i.e. infections that do not appear in data on officially reported cases. The interpretation of study results needs to consider bias from selective sampling and the diagnostic test properties. To promote networking and co-operation between scientists, the Robert Koch Institute has compiled an overview of the seroepidemiological studies conducted in Germany on its website, which is regularly updated. The RKI conducts searches, for example of press releases, study registry entries or preprint server publications, and contacts the lead investigators of these studies. Of the 40 studies contacted so far, 24 have already provided information (as of 25.06.2020). We can differentiate between studies of the general population, of selected population groups such as healthcare workers, or of ongoing cohorts. This article provides an overview of such studies from Germany, but also of selected international studies. A special focus is set on studies of children and adolescents, which are now of particular interest due to the planned reopening of childcare facilities and schools.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113: 344-346, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555515

ABSTRACT

Over the course of the second pandemic wave in late 2020, new infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 shifted from the most affluent to the most deprived regions of Germany. This study investigated how this trend in infections played out for deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by examining area-level socio-economic disparities in COVID-19-related mortality during the second pandemic wave in Germany. The analysis was based on nationwide data on notified deaths, which were linked to an area-based index of socio-economic deprivation. In the autumn and winter of 2020/2021, COVID-19-related deaths increased faster among residents in Germany's more deprived districts. From late 2020 onwards, the mortality risks of men and women in the most deprived districts were 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.82] and 1.44 (95% CI 1.19-1.73) times higher than among those in the most affluent districts, respectively, after adjustment for age, urbanization and population density. To promote health equity in the pandemic and beyond, deprived populations should receive increased attention in pandemic planning, infection control and disease prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(9): 1107-1115, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333043

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide in 2020. By the end of June 2021, over 3.7 million people had been infected in Germany. The spread of the infection, however, is not evenly distributed across all parts of the population. Some groups are at a higher risk for SARS-CoV­2 infections or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) trajectories than others.This narrative review provides an overview of the parts of the population in Germany that are most affected by COVID-19. In addition, risk factors associated with hospitalization or severe courses of COVID-19 are identified.SARS-CoV­2 transmission may occur in various locations and settings. Professional settings, e.g., in the meat-processing industry, but also leisure activities and large public events are particularly affected. In the course of the pandemic, certain comorbidities associated with an increased risk for hospitalization or severe courses of COVID-19 have been identified. These include preexisting pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. Patients with organ transplants and people with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) have the highest risk for hospitalization after SARS-CoV­2 infection.The identified settings that contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV­2 and the knowledge about vulnerable groups with a higher risk for hospitalization or severe disease trajectories form an important evidence base for the planning of prevention strategies and the fight against the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors
9.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100103, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) affect healthcare seeking behaviour, access to healthcare, test strategies, disease notification and workload at public health authorities, but may also lead to a true change in transmission dynamics. We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic and NPIs on other notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in Germany. METHODS: We included 32 nationally notifiable disease categories with case numbers >100/year in 2016-2019. We used quasi-Poisson regression analysis on a weekly aggregated time-series incorporating trend and seasonality, to compute the relative change in case numbers during week 2020-10 to 2020-32 (pandemic/NPIs), in comparison to week 2016-01 to 2020-09. FINDINGS: During week 2020-10 to 2020-32, 216,825 COVID-19 cases, and 162,942 (-35%) cases of other diseases, were notified. Case numbers decreased across all ages and notification categories (all p<0•05), except for tick-borne encephalitis, which increased (+58%). The number of cases decreased most for respiratory diseases (from -86% for measles, to -12% for tuberculosis), gastro-intestinal diseases (from -83% for rotavirus gastroenteritis, to -7% for yersiniosis) and imported vector-borne diseases (-75% dengue fever, -73% malaria). The less affected infections were healthcare associated pathogens (from -43% infection/colonisation with carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter, to -28% for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus invasive infection) and sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases (from -28% for hepatitis B, to -12% for syphilis). INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic a drastic decrease of notifications for most infectious diseases and pathogens was observed. Our findings suggest effects of NPIs on overall disease transmission that require further investigation. FUNDING: The Robert Koch Institute is the National Public Health Institute of Germany, and is an institute within the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Health.

10.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 403-411, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196567

ABSTRACT

The collection of data on SARS-CoV­2 tests is central to the assessment of the infection rate in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), data collected from various laboratory data recording systems are consolidated. First, this article aims to exemplify significant aspects regarding test procedures. Subsequently the different systems for recording laboratory tests are described and test numbers from the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance as well as accounting data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians for SARS-CoV­2 laboratory tests are shown.Early in the pandemic, the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance became available and able to evaluate data on performed tests and test capacities. By recording the positive and negative test results, statements about the total number of tests and the proportion of positive test rates can be made. While the aggregate test numbers are largely representative nationwide, they are not always representative at the state and district level. The billing data of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians can complement the laboratory data afterwards. In addition, it can provide a retrospective assessment of the total number of SARS-CoV­2 numbers in Germany, because the services provided by statutory health insurers (around 85% of the population in Germany) are included. The various laboratory data recording systems complement one another and the evaluations flow into the recommended measures for the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 388-394, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196560

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the routine surveillance system for infectious diseases had to be adapted. The disease was unknown before the first cases were reported under a catch-all notification requirement for new and threatening pathogens and diseases, but specific notification requirements for SARS-CoV­2 detection by laboratories as well as for suspect cases of COVID-19 diagnosed by physicians were soon integrated in the infectious diseases protection act. This article describes how the notification system for infectious diseases was adapted in 2020 to meet the requirements of the COVID-19 pandemic.In addition to the notification requirements, the list of data that is collected through the notification system was also amended. To facilitate the work of laboratories and local health authorities we have established the possibility for electronic reporting.Additionally, the software used for case and contact management within the local health authorities had to be adapted accordingly.COVID-19 notification data is important for the assessment of the current epidemiological situation and daily updated data was published by the Robert Koch Institute. To ensure timely data and good data quality, the IT infrastructure within the public health system has to be further modernized and the electronic notification system should be further strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 418-425, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196557

ABSTRACT

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) plays a central role in Germany in the management of health hazards of biological origin. The RKI's crisis management aims to contribute to protecting the health of the population in Germany in significant epidemic situations and to maintain the RKI's working ability over a long period of time even under high load. This article illustrates the crisis management of the RKI in general as well as during the COVID-19 pandemic. The generic RKI crisis management structures and the setup of the RKI emergency operations centre (EOC), their operationalisation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting challenges as of 31 October 2020 are described in this paper. The exchange between the federal and state governments during the pandemic is also described.The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extraordinary circumstances. During the epidemic situation, good communication and coordination has been essential, both within the RKI and with other federal or state authorities and expert groups. Under great pressure, the RKI produces and regularly updates recommendations, statements and assessments on various topics. To provide operational support for all COVID-19 related activities, an EOC was activated at the RKI. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are various challenges regarding personnel and structures. It became apparent that good preparation (e.g. existing task descriptions and premises) has an important positive impact on crisis management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
13.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 403-411, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184643

ABSTRACT

The collection of data on SARS-CoV­2 tests is central to the assessment of the infection rate in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), data collected from various laboratory data recording systems are consolidated. First, this article aims to exemplify significant aspects regarding test procedures. Subsequently the different systems for recording laboratory tests are described and test numbers from the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance as well as accounting data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians for SARS-CoV­2 laboratory tests are shown.Early in the pandemic, the RKI test laboratory query and the laboratory-based SARS-CoV­2 surveillance became available and able to evaluate data on performed tests and test capacities. By recording the positive and negative test results, statements about the total number of tests and the proportion of positive test rates can be made. While the aggregate test numbers are largely representative nationwide, they are not always representative at the state and district level. The billing data of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians can complement the laboratory data afterwards. In addition, it can provide a retrospective assessment of the total number of SARS-CoV­2 numbers in Germany, because the services provided by statutory health insurers (around 85% of the population in Germany) are included. The various laboratory data recording systems complement one another and the evaluations flow into the recommended measures for the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 388-394, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179026

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic the routine surveillance system for infectious diseases had to be adapted. The disease was unknown before the first cases were reported under a catch-all notification requirement for new and threatening pathogens and diseases, but specific notification requirements for SARS-CoV­2 detection by laboratories as well as for suspect cases of COVID-19 diagnosed by physicians were soon integrated in the infectious diseases protection act. This article describes how the notification system for infectious diseases was adapted in 2020 to meet the requirements of the COVID-19 pandemic.In addition to the notification requirements, the list of data that is collected through the notification system was also amended. To facilitate the work of laboratories and local health authorities we have established the possibility for electronic reporting.Additionally, the software used for case and contact management within the local health authorities had to be adapted accordingly.COVID-19 notification data is important for the assessment of the current epidemiological situation and daily updated data was published by the Robert Koch Institute. To ensure timely data and good data quality, the IT infrastructure within the public health system has to be further modernized and the electronic notification system should be further strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(4): 418-425, 2021 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118210

ABSTRACT

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) plays a central role in Germany in the management of health hazards of biological origin. The RKI's crisis management aims to contribute to protecting the health of the population in Germany in significant epidemic situations and to maintain the RKI's working ability over a long period of time even under high load. This article illustrates the crisis management of the RKI in general as well as during the COVID-19 pandemic. The generic RKI crisis management structures and the setup of the RKI emergency operations centre (EOC), their operationalisation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting challenges as of 31 October 2020 are described in this paper. The exchange between the federal and state governments during the pandemic is also described.The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extraordinary circumstances. During the epidemic situation, good communication and coordination has been essential, both within the RKI and with other federal or state authorities and expert groups. Under great pressure, the RKI produces and regularly updates recommendations, statements and assessments on various topics. To provide operational support for all COVID-19 related activities, an EOC was activated at the RKI. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are various challenges regarding personnel and structures. It became apparent that good preparation (e.g. existing task descriptions and premises) has an important positive impact on crisis management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government
16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(47)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976160

ABSTRACT

Three months after a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Kupferzell, Germany, a population-based study (n = 2,203) found no RT-PCR-positives. IgG-ELISA seropositivity with positive virus neutralisation tests was 7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5-9.1) and 4.3% with negative neutralisation tests. We estimate 12.0% (95% CI: 10.4-14.0%) infected adults (24.5% asymptomatic), six times more than notified. Full hotspot containment confirms the effectiveness of prompt protection measures. However, 88% naïve adults are still at high COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(8): 920-928, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December, 2019, the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, causing COVID-19, a respiratory disease presenting with fever, cough, and often pneumonia. WHO has set the strategic objective to interrupt spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. An outbreak in Bavaria, Germany, starting at the end of January, 2020, provided the opportunity to study transmission events, incubation period, and secondary attack rates. METHODS: A case was defined as a person with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR. Case interviews were done to describe timing of onset and nature of symptoms and to identify and classify contacts as high risk (had cumulative face-to-face contact with a confirmed case for ≥15 min, direct contact with secretions or body fluids of a patient with confirmed COVID-19, or, in the case of health-care workers, had worked within 2 m of a patient with confirmed COVID-19 without personal protective equipment) or low risk (all other contacts). High-risk contacts were ordered to stay at home in quarantine for 14 days and were actively followed up and monitored for symptoms, and low-risk contacts were tested upon self-reporting of symptoms. We defined fever and cough as specific symptoms, and defined a prodromal phase as the presence of non-specific symptoms for at least 1 day before the onset of specific symptoms. Whole genome sequencing was used to confirm epidemiological links and clarify transmission events where contact histories were ambiguous; integration with epidemiological data enabled precise reconstruction of exposure events and incubation periods. Secondary attack rates were calculated as the number of cases divided by the number of contacts, using Fisher's exact test for the 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Patient 0 was a Chinese resident who visited Germany for professional reasons. 16 subsequent cases, often with mild and non-specific symptoms, emerged in four transmission generations. Signature mutations in the viral genome occurred upon foundation of generation 2, as well as in one case pertaining to generation 4. The median incubation period was 4·0 days (IQR 2·3-4·3) and the median serial interval was 4·0 days (3·0-5·0). Transmission events were likely to have occurred presymptomatically for one case (possibly five more), at the day of symptom onset for four cases (possibly five more), and the remainder after the day of symptom onset or unknown. One or two cases resulted from contact with a case during the prodromal phase. Secondary attack rates were 75·0% (95% CI 19·0-99·0; three of four people) among members of a household cluster in common isolation, 10·0% (1·2-32·0; two of 20) among household contacts only together until isolation of the patient, and 5·1% (2·6-8·9; 11 of 217) among non-household, high-risk contacts. INTERPRETATION: Although patients in our study presented with predominately mild, non-specific symptoms, infectiousness before or on the day of symptom onset was substantial. Additionally, the incubation period was often very short and false-negative tests occurred. These results suggest that although the outbreak was controlled, successful long-term and global containment of COVID-19 could be difficult to achieve. FUNDING: All authors are employed and all expenses covered by governmental, federal state, or other publicly funded institutions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/pathology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged , Mutation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
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