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Environmental Pollution ; 316, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2246526


The association between oxidative protein damage in early pregnant women and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is unknown. We estimated the effect of PM2.5 exposures within seven days before blood collection on serum 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in 100 women with normal early pregnancy (NEP) and 100 women with clinically recognized early pregnancy loss (CREPL). Temporally-adjusted land use regression model was applied for estimation of maternal daily PM2.5 exposure. Daily nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of each participant was estimated using city-level concentrations of NO2. Single-day lag effect of PM2.5 was analyzed using multivariable linear regression model. Net cumulative effect and distributed lag effect of PM2.5 and NO2 within seven days were analyzed using distributed lag non-linear model. In all 200 subjects, the serum 3-NT were significantly increased with the single-day lag effects (4.72%–8.04% increased at lag 0–2), distributed lag effects (2.32%–3.49% increased at lag 0–2), and cumulative effect within seven days (16.91% increased). The single-day lag effects (7.41%–10.48% increased at lag 0–1), distributed lag effects (3.42%–5.52% increased at lag 0–2), and cumulative effect within seven days (24.51% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum 3-NT in CREPL group but not in NEP group. The distributed lag effects (2.62%–4.54% increased at lag 0–2) and cumulative effect within seven days (20.25% increased) of PM2.5 significantly increased serum AOPP in early pregnant women before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic but not after that, similarly to the effects of NO2 exposures. In conclusion, PM2.5 exposures were associated with oxidative stress to protein in pregnant women in the first trimester, especially in CREPL women. Analysis of NO2 exposures suggested that combustion PM2.5 was the crucial PM2.5 component. Wearing masks may be potentially preventive in PM2.5 exposure and its related oxidative protein damage. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: grc-750500


SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 are not phylogenetically closely related;however, both use the ACE2 receptor in humans for cell entry. This is not a universal sarbecovirus trait;for example, many known sarbecoviruses related to SARS-CoV-1 have two deletions in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein that render them incapable of using human ACE2. Here, we report three novel sarbecoviruses from Rwanda and Uganda which are phylogenetically intermediate to SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrate via in vitro studies that they are also unable to utilize human ACE2. Furthermore, we show that the observed pattern of ACE2 usage among sarbecoviruses is most likely due to recombination. We show that the lineage that includes SARS-CoV-2 is most likely the ancestral ACE2-using lineage, and that recombination with at least one virus from this group conferred ACE2 usage to the progenitor of SARS-CoV-1 at some time in the past. We argue that alternative scenarios such as convergent evolution are much less parsimonious;we show that biogeography and patterns of host tropism support the plausibility of a recombination scenario;and we propose a competitive release hypothesis to explain how this recombination event could have occurred and why it is evolutionarily advantageous. The findings provide important insights into the natural history of ACE2 usage for both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, and a greater understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms that shape zoonotic potential of coronaviruses. This study also underscores the need for increased surveillance for sarbecoviruses in southwestern China, where most ACE2-using viruses have been found to date, as well as other regions including Africa, where these viruses have only recently been discovered.