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1.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(5):568-570, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080558

ABSTRACT

In April 2022, a total of 69 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 232 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were COVID-19 (232), dengue fever (29), measles (25), cholera (11) and leptospirosis (9). The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (100.0%), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (40.0%), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (34.4%), Lassa fever (19.3%) and monkeypox (5.3%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were COVID-19, malaria, dengue fever, cholera and measles. The prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were COVID-19 and dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever, malaria and measles, the prevalent infectious diseases in America were COVID-19, dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus disease, the prevalent infectious disease in Europe were COVID-19 and acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology.

2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023161

ABSTRACT

Responsive two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPC) hydrogels have been widely used as smart sensing materials for constructing various optical sensors to accurately detect different target analytes. Herein, we report photonic hydrogel aptasensors based on aptamer-functionalized 2DPC poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid-N-tert-butyl acrylamide) hydrogels for facile, label-free and colorimetric detection of lysozyme in human serum. The constructed photonic hydrogel aptasensors undergo shrinkage upon exposure to lysozyme solution through multi-factors cooperative actuation. Here, the specific binding between the aptamer and lysozyme, and the simultaneous interactions between carboxyl anions and N-tert-butyl groups with lysozyme, increase the cross-linking density of the hydrogel, leading to its shrinkage. The aptasensors' shrinkage decreases the particle spacing of the 2DPC embedded in the hydrogel network. It can be simply monitored by measuring the Debye diffraction ring of the photonic hydrogel aptasensors using a laser pointer and a ruler without needing sophisticated apparatus. The significant shrinkage of the aptasensors can be observed by the naked eye via the hydrogel size and color change. The aptasensors show good sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1.8 nM, high selectivity and anti-interference for the detection of lysozyme. The photonic hydrogel aptasensors have been successfully used to accurately determine the concentration of lysozyme in human serum. Therefore, novel photonic hydrogel aptasensors can be constructed by designing functional monomers and aptamers that can specifically bind target analytes.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry , Hydrogels , Acrylamides , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Muramidase , Photons
3.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114117, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983021

ABSTRACT

Emissions from aviation and airport-related activities degrade surface air quality but received limited attention relative to regular transportation sectors like road traffic and waterborne vessels. Statistically, assessing the impact of airport-related emissions remains a challenge due to the fact that its signal in the air quality time series data is largely dwarfed by meteorology and other emissions. Flight-ban policy has been implemented in a number of cities in response to the COVID-19 spread since early 2020, which provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine the changes in air quality attributable to airport closure. It would also be interesting to know whether such an intervention produces extra marginal air quality benefits, in addition to road traffic. Here we investigated the impact of airport-related emissions from a civil airport on nearby NO2 air quality by applying machine learning predictive model to observational data collected from this unique quasi-natural experiment. The whole lockdown-attributable change in NO2 was 16.7 µg/m3, equals to a drop of 73% in NO2 with respect to the business-as-usual level. Meanwhile, the airport flight-ban aviation-attributable NO2 was 3.1 µg/m3, accounting for a marginal reduction of 18.6% of the overall NO2 change that driven by the whole lockdown effect. The airport-related emissions contributed up to 24% of the local ambient NO2 under normal conditions. Additionally, the average impact of airport-related emissions on the nearby air quality was ∼0.01 ± 0.001 µg/m3 NO2 per air-flight. Our results highlight that attention needs to be paid to such a considerable emission source in many places where regular air quality regulatory measures were insufficient to bring NO2 concentration into compliance with the health-based limit.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Airports , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325323

ABSTRACT

In semantic segmentation, we aim to train a pixel-level classifier to assign category labels to all pixels in an image, where labeled training images and unlabeled test images are from the same distribution and share the same label set. However, in an open world, the unlabeled test images probably contain unknown categories and have different distributions from the labeled images. Hence, in this paper, we consider a new, more realistic, and more challenging problem setting where the pixel-level classifier has to be trained with labeled images and unlabeled open-world images -- we name it open world semantic segmentation (OSS). In OSS, the trained classifier is expected to identify unknown-class pixels and classify known-class pixels well. To solve OSS, we first investigate which distribution that unknown-class pixels obey. Then, motivated by the goodness-of-fit test, we use statistical measurements to show how a pixel fits the distribution of an unknown class and select highly-fitted pixels to form the unknown region in each image. Eventually, we propose an end-to-end learning framework, known-region-aware domain alignment (KRADA), to distinguish unknown classes while aligning distributions of known classes in labeled and unlabeled open-world images. The effectiveness of KRADA has been verified on two synthetic tasks and one COVID-19 segmentation task.

5.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109866, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386296

ABSTRACT

Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The therapeutic combinations have a wide range of virucidal effects on DNA and RNA containing viruses. The combinations also exhibit anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidative effects. Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection. The therapeutic compound can be applied as both etiological and pathogenesis therapy and used as an effective and safe antiseptic (disinfectant) for human and animals as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Iodides/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
6.
Reviews in Medical Microbiology ; 32(3):149-157, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1364860

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) has caused a high number of hospitalizations and deaths. There are currently no approved antiviral drugs or vaccine options available for treatment. Patients with severe cases of COVID-19 are receiving supportive care to manage life-threatening symptoms of viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Clinical and pathological evidence suggests that patients with severe COVID-19 infections suffer from cytokine storm syndrome, which leads to unfavorable health outcomes. Unfortunately, the conventional pharmacotherapies for cytokine storm syndrome are associated with immunosuppression and various other side effects that may worsen the patients' health status and healing capability. This study is to review the literature on how zinc status may affect susceptibility and outcomes of a viral infection, as well as to explore the possible beneficial effects of supplementing zinc to alleviate COVID-19 duration and severity. We propose zinc supplementation as a viable therapeutic approach when used alone or in combination with other drugs to combat cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19 patients. The supplementation may be especially effective for elderly patients or patients with co-morbidity already deficient in zinc. More level I randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the clinical efficacy of zinc supplementation as a potential low-cost intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia and ARDS in COVID-19 patients.

7.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 23: 256-262, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-899142

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses increase oxidative stress in the body leading to cellular and tissue damage. To combat this, administration of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid or ascorbate), in addition to standard conventional supportive treatments, has been shown to be a safe and effective therapy for severe cases of respiratory viral infection. Morbidity, mortality, infectiveness and spread of infectious diseases are dependent on the host-pathogen relationship. Given the lack of effective and safe antiviral drugs for coronaviruses, there should be more attention in supporting host immune defence, cytoprotection and immunoregulation. Implementation of high-dose vitamin C therapy could dramatically reduce the need for high doses of corticosteroids, antibacterials and antiviral drugs that may be immunosuppressive, adrenal depressive and toxic, complicating the disease course. In order to effectively fight the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, medical professionals should explore readily available pharmaceutical and nutritional therapeutic agents with proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunosupportive properties. Supplemental vitamin C may also provide additional benefits for the prevention of viral infections, shorten the disease course and lessen complications of the disease.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Med Hypotheses ; 145: 110333, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813777

ABSTRACT

Zinc and the combination with zinc ionophore have been reported in basic research and several clinical investigations as a potentially viable and economical preventive and therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatment. Zinc is a vital microelement that actively supports respiratory epithelium barrier integrity, innate and adaptive immune functions, and inflammatory regulations. Moreover, zinc may also prevent viral entry, suppress viral replication, and mitigate the damages due to oxidative stress and hyperinflammatory reaction in patients with respiratory infections. Hinokitiol (ß-thujaplicin) is a natural monoterpenoid and is considered as a safe zinc ionophore to help zinc transport into cells. It has been widely used in skin and oral care, and therapeutic products for its potent antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer applications. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the significant morbidity and mortality exist in the high-risk group of patients associated with other respiratory infections such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and dengue fever. There is an urgent need for the development of inexpensive, safe, and effective therapeutics to prevent and treat these viral infections. Considering that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), the most studied zinc ionophore drug for COVID-19, is linked to potentially serious side effects, we propose the implementation of hinokitiol as a zinc ionophore and anti-infective agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Monoterpenes/therapeutic use , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Models, Theoretical , Risk , Tropolone/therapeutic use
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1811-1817, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753247

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus caused COVID-19 had resulted in a high number of hospitalizations and deaths and caused a devastating toll on human and society health. The symptoms of the infected patients vary significantly, from life-threatening to mild or even asymptomatic. This clinical observation led to hypothesize on the critical role of host innate immunity in the disease development and progression. As the first defense barrier against microorganisms, the innate immune reaction determines not only the viral infection rate but also immune-mediated response. Therefore, promote healthy behaviors to enhance innate immunity with functional food and nutritional agents may be a rational strategy for minimizing damages caused by viruses to global health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Functional Food , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunity, Innate
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 410-413, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694823

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a patient diagnosed with severe pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A percutaneous lung biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the patient's lungs are presented, along with details of some important changes in inflammatory biological markers, in order to help better understand the disease and provide clues to allow members of the multidisciplinary team to save more people.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
11.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1572-1579, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-23618

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019. Tens thousands of people have been infected with the disease. Our aim was to distinguish severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients from SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We retrospectively compared the data of COVID-19 patients with those of suspected and confirmed SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (control patients). There were 78 COVID-19 patients and 26 control patients, whose median ages were significantly different (P = .001). The percentage of COVID-19 patients admitting exposure to Wuhan was obviously higher than that of control patients (X2 = 29.130; P < .001). Fever and cough appeared more frequently in COVID-19 patients than in the control patients. The routine blood workup parameters of COVID-19 patients did not change much and their mean counts were in the normal range. There were 38.5% of control patients had higher procalcitonin (PCT) levels than 0.5 ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that percentage of COVID-19 patients (X2 = 22.636; P < .05), and COVID-19 patients were also more likely to have decreased or normal urea and creatinine levels than control patients (X2 = 24.930, 8.480; P < .05).Younger age, exposure to Wuhan, fever, cough, and slight changes in routine blood workup parameters, urea and creatinine were important features discriminating COVID-19 from control patients. Slightly increased, but far less than 0.5 ng/mL, PCT levels also differentiated COVID-19 patients from control patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
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