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1.
Virus Res ; 322: 198954, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050063

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) are the main porcine enteric coronaviruses that cause severe diarrhoea in piglets, posing huge threat to the swine industry. Our previous study verified that the co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV is common in natural swine infections and obviously enhances the disease severity in piglets. However, the effects of co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV on intestinal microbial community are unknown. In current study, the microbial composition and diversity in the colon of piglets were analyzed. Our results showed that both of PDCoV and PEDV were mainly distributed in the small intestines and caused severe damage of ileum but not colon in the co-inoculated piglets. Furthermore, we observed that PDCoV and PEDV co-infection alters the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family and genus levels. The abundance of Mitsuokella and Collinsella at genus level were significantly increased in PDCoV-PEDV co-infection piglets. Spearman's correlation analysis further suggested that there existed strong positive correlation between Mitsuokella and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, these two factors may together aggravating the small intestine pathological lesions. These results proved there existed obvious correlation between the disease severity caused by PDCoV-PEDV co-infection and intestinal microbial community.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Coinfection/veterinary
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5723-5738, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971295

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission, posing a threat to animal and human health. However, the susceptibility profile of different species of mice to PDCoV infection and its evolutionary characteristics are still unclear. In the current study, we found that BALB/c and Kunming mice are susceptible to PDCoV. Our results showed that there were obvious lesions in intestinal and lung tissues from the infected mice. PDCoV RNAs were detected in the lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues from the infected mice of both strains, and there existed wider tissue tropism in the PDCoV-infected BALB/c mice. The RNA and protein levels of aminopeptidase N from mice were relatively high in the kidney and intestinal tissues and obviously increased after PDCoV infection. The viral-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against PDCoV were detected in the serum of infected mice. An interesting finding was that two key amino acid mutations, D138H and Q641K, in the S protein were identified in the PDCoV-infected mice. The essential roles of these two mutations for PDCoV-adaptive evolution were confirmed by cryo-electron microscope structure model analysis. The evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV among Deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) were further analyzed. δ-CoVs from multiple mammals are closely related based on the phylogenetic analysis. The codon usage analysis demonstrated that similar codon usage patterns were used by most of the mammalian δ-CoVs at the global codon, synonymous codon, and amino acid usage levels. These results may provide more insights into the evolution, host ranges, and cross-species potential of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA , Swine
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