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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(8): 749-760, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated influenza virus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (dNS1-RBD) administered by intranasal spray in healthy adults. METHODS: We did double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials, followed by a phase 2 extension trial, at a single centre in Jiangsu, China. Healthy adults (≥18 years) who had negative serum or fingertip blood total antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 (in phases 1 and 2), with no prevalent SARS-CoV-2 infection or history of infection and no SARS-CoV-2 vaccination history (in all three trials reported here), were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated (4:1 in phase 1, 2:1 in phase 2, and 1:1 in the extension trial) to receive two intranasal doses of the dNS1-RBD vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 14 or, for half of the participants in phase 2, on days 0 and 21. To avoid cross-contamination during administration, vaccine and placebo recipients were vaccinated in separate rooms in the extension trial. The phase 1 primary outcome was safety (adverse events recorded on days 0-44; serious adverse events recorded from day 0 until 12 months after the second dose). In the phase 2 and extension trials, the primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood (measured by IFN-γ ELISpot), proportion of participants with positive conversion for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG and secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibodies, and concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG in serum and SARS-CoV-2 RBD s-IgA in the nasopharynx (measured by ELISA) at 1 month after the second dose in the per-protocol set for immunogenicity. χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyse categorical data, and t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare the measurement data between groups. These trials were registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000037782, ChiCTR2000039715, and ChiCTR2100048316). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021, 63, 724, and 297 participants without a history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in the phase 1, phase 2, and extension trials, respectively. At least one adverse reaction after vaccination was reported in 133 (19%) of 684 participants in the vaccine groups. Most adverse reactions were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was noted. Specific T-cell immune responses were observed in 211 (46% [95% CI 42-51]) of 455 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial, and in 48 (40% [31-49]) of 120 vaccine recipients compared with one (1% [0-5]) of 111 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. Seroconversion for RBD-specific IgG was observed in 48 (10% [95% CI 8-13]) of 466 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial (geometric mean titre [GMT] 3·8 [95% CI 3·4-4·3] in responders), and in 31 (22% [15-29]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 4·4 [3·3-5·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. 57 (12% [95% CI 9-16]) of 466 vaccine recipients had positive conversion for RBD-specific s-IgA (GMT 3·8 [95% CI 3·5-4·1] in responders) in the phase 2 trial, as did 18 (13% [8-19]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 5·2 [4·0-6·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. INTERPRETATION: dNS1-RBD was well tolerated in adults. Weak T-cell immunity in peripheral blood, as well as weak humoral and mucosal immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, were detected in vaccine recipients. Further studies are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of intranasal vaccines as a potential supplement to current intramuscular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pools. Steps should be taken in future studies to reduce the potential for cross-contamination caused by the vaccine strain aerosol during administration. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science, Fujian Provincial Science, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects
2.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(13): 1372-1387, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867754

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 d after single-dose vaccination or 9 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially for the latest Omicron variant. In addition, this vaccine also provides cross-protection against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to the fight against the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and influenza infection, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292884

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2);however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 day and 7 days after single-dose vaccination or 6 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight, caused by either the prototype-like strain or beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Lasted data showed that the animals could be well protected against beta variant challenge 9 months after vaccination. Notably, the weight loss and lung pathological changes of hamsters could still be significantly reduced when the hamster was vaccinated 24 h after challenge. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines, particularly at the start of an outbreak.

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