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1.
Molecules ; 26(22):6947, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524086

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious human infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the war with the virus is still underway. Since no specific drugs have been made available yet and there is an imbalance between supply and demand for vaccines, early diagnosis and isolation are essential to control the outbreak. Current nucleic acid testing methods require high sample quality and laboratory conditions, which cannot meet flexible applications. Here, we report a laser-induced graphene field-effect transistor (LIG-FET) for detecting SARS-CoV-2. The FET was manufactured by different reduction degree LIG, with an oyster reef-like porous graphene channel to enrich the binding point between the virus protein and sensing area. After immobilizing specific antibodies in the channel, the FET can detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in 15 min at a concentration of 1 pg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 1 ng/mL in human serum. In addition, the sensor shows great specificity to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Our sensors can realize fast production for COVID-19 rapid testing, as each LIG-FET can be fabricated by a laser platform in seconds. It is the first time that LIG has realized a virus sensing FET without any sample pretreatment or labeling, which paves the way for low-cost and rapid detection of COVID-19.

2.
Journal of Food Safety ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1450564

ABSTRACT

COVID‐19 has brought speculations on potential transmission routes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), the causal agent of the pandemic. It is reported that the main route of virus transmission to be person‐to‐person by respiratory droplets;however, people have raised concerns on the possible transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 to humans via food and packaging and its potential effects on food safety. This review discusses food safety issues in the COVID‐19 pandemic and reveals its possible transmission in cold‐chain food. The first outbreak of COVID‐19 in late 2019 was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, while the second outbreak of COVID‐19 in June 2020 was also related to a seafood market in Beijing, China. As of 2020, several frozen seafood products linked with SARS‐CoV‐2 have been reported in China. According to the current survey and scientific studies, the risk of infection by SARS‐CoV‐2 from cold‐chain food, food products, and food packaging is thought to be very low. However, studies on food cold chain contamination have shown that SARS‐CoV‐2 remained highly stable under refrigerated (4°C) and even in freezing conditions (−10 to −80°C). Since one mode of SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission appears to be touching contaminated surfaces, it is important to clean and sanitize food contact surfaces properly. Understanding food safety hazard risks is essential to avoid potential negative health effects and SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission in the food supply chain during the COVID‐19 pandemic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Food Safety is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21903-21913, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436455

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate of young female COVID-19 patients is reported to be lower than that of young males but no significant difference in mortality was found between female and male COVID-19 patients aged over 65 years, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes of severely ill pre- and post-menopausal COVID-19 patients and compared with age-matched males. Of the 459 patients included, 141 aged ≤55, among whom 19 died (16 males vs. 3 females, p<0.005). While for patients >55 years (n=318), 115 died (47 females vs. 68 males, p=0.149). In patients ≤55 years old, the levels of NLR, median LDH, median c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly higher while the median lymphocyte count and LCR were lower in male than in female (all p<0.0001). In patients over 55, these biochemical parameters were far away from related normal/reference values in the vast majority of these patients in both genders which were in contrast to that seen in the young group. It is concluded that the mortality of severely ill pre-menopausal but not post-menopausal COVID-19 female patients is lower than age-matched male. Our findings support the notion that estrogen plays a beneficial role in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Menopause , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Postmenopause , Premenopause , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
Am J Addict ; 30(6): 585-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era. METHODS: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ2 , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates. RESULTS: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002). CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 753-760, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the mental health and well-being of medical personnel, including nursing students. Network analysis provides a deeper characterization of symptom-symptom interactions in mental disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of anxiety and depressive symptom networks of Chinese nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A total of 932 nursing students were included. Anxiety and depressive symptom were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms were identified via centrality indices and bridge centrality indices, respectively. Network stability was examined using the case-dropping procedure. RESULTS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood had the highest centrality values. Three bridge symptoms (Depressed mood, Nervousness, and Anhedonia) were also identified. Neither gender nor region of residence was associated with network global strength, distribution of edge weights or individual edge weights. LIMITATIONS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional study design, therefore, causal relations and dynamic changes between anxiety and depressive symptoms over time could not be inferred. Generalizability of findings may be limited to Chinese nursing students during a particular phase of the current pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Irritability, Uncontrollable worry, Trouble relaxing, and Depressed mood constituted central symptoms maintaining the anxiety-depression network structure of Chinese nursing students during the pandemic. Timely, systemic multi-level interventions targeting central symptoms and bridge symptoms may be effective in alleviating co-occurring experiences of anxiety and depression in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Nursing , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 262, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317559

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is now a severe threat to global health. Facing this pandemic, we developed a space-encoding microfluidic biochip for high-throughput, rapid, sensitive, simultaneous quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen proteins and IgG/IgM antibodies in serum. The proposed immunoassay biochip integrates the advantages of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) and microfluidic chip and is capable of conducting multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens or IgG/IgM antibodies of 60 serum samples simultaneously with only 2 µL sample volume of each patient. Fluorescence intensity of antigens and IgG antibody detection at emission wavelength of ~680 nm was used to quantify the target concentration at excitation wavelength of 632 nm, and emission wavelength of ~519 nm was used during the detection of IgM antibodies at excitation wavelength of 488 nm. The method developed has a large linear quantification detection regime of 5 orders of magnitude, an ultralow detection limit of ~0.3 pg/mL under optimized conditions, and less than 10-min qualitative detection time. The proposed biosensing platform will not only greatly facilitate the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, but also provide a valuable screening approach for infected patients, medical therapy, and vaccine recipients.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/blood , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Journal of Research in Nursing ; : 17449871211007529, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1288591

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWith epidemics emerging at a hastened pace, a phenomenological study allows researchers to cast aside their perceptions to understand nurses? lived experiences, and from there to discover previously unavailable insights at the epicentre of a pandemic.AimsTo understand volunteer nurses? lived experiences in Wuhan.MethodsA descriptive phenomenological study with a purposive sampling strategy was used to describe volunteer nurses? experiences in Wuhan. Interviews continued until data saturation. Ten semi-structured interviews of 30 to 60 minutes duration were conducted from 27 to 30 March 2020. The narrative data were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi?s method.ResultsFour themes emerged: mission and challenges denoted the participants? realisation of the grim challenges ahead;challenges called for actions that described the concerted actions through partnerships and familial bonds;caring acts from all around revealed an external support system;and actions that made a difference portrayed the interplay of actions with feelings, thoughts and further actions to accomplish the mission.ConclusionsThis phenomenological study showed the interplay of nurses? intentions and actions, and ?actions speak louder than words? when nurses were motivated by workmates? actions to change their feelings, thoughts and actions. The concerted efforts can be used to develop educational programmes, management strategies and institutional policy on structure, system and resource utilisation, as well as dissemination of scientific knowledge to global healthcare workers and the public.

8.
Protein Cell ; 12(11): 877-888, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188202

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (Mpro), PLpro is responsible for processing the viral replicase polyprotein into functional units. Therefore, it is an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Here we discovered four compounds, YM155, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and GRL0617 that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 PLpro with IC50 values ranging from 1.39 to 5.63 µmol/L. These compounds also exhibit strong antiviral activities in cell-based assays. YM155, an anticancer drug candidate in clinical trials, has the most potent antiviral activity with an EC50 value of 170 nmol/L. In addition, we have determined the crystal structures of this enzyme and its complex with YM155, revealing a unique binding mode. YM155 simultaneously targets three "hot" spots on PLpro, including the substrate-binding pocket, the interferon stimulating gene product 15 (ISG15) binding site and zinc finger motif. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of this screening and repurposing strategy, which has led to the discovery of new drug leads with clinical potential for COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Imidazoles/chemistry , Imidazoles/metabolism , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
PeerJ ; 9: e11154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184016

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, all teaching activities in nursing schools were suspended in China, and many nursing students were summoned to work in hospitals to compensate for the shortage of manpower. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with quality of life (QOL) among nursing students during the post-COVID-19 era in China. Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Nursing students in five Chinese universities were invited to participate. Fatigue, depressive and anxiety symptoms, pain and QOL were measured using standardized instruments. Results: A total of 1,070 nursing students participated. The prevalence of fatigue was 67.3% (95% CI [64.4-70.0]). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (P = 0.003, OR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.20-2.49]), and being a senior nursing student (second year: OR = 2.20, 95% CI [1.46-3.33], P < 0.001; third year: OR = 3.53, 95% CI [2.31-5.41], P < 0.001; and fourth year OR = 3.59, 95% CI [2.39-5.40], P < 0.001) were significantly associated with more severe fatigue. In addition, moderate economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.08-3.33], P < 0.015; compared to low loss), participants with more severe depressive (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.22-1.78], P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.05-1.20], P = 0.001), and more severe pain (OR = 1.67, 95%CI [1.46-1.91], P < 0.001) were significantly associated with reported more severe fatigue. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with fatigue had a lower overall QOL score compared to those without (F (1, 1070) = 31.4, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Fatigue was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of fatigue on QOL and daily functioning, routine physical and mental health screening should be conducted for nursing students. Effective stress-reduction measures should be enforced to assist this subpopulation to combat fatigue and restore optimal health.

10.
J Popul Res (Canberra) ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137197

ABSTRACT

Emerging at the end of 2019, COVID-19 has become a public health threat to people worldwide. Apart from deaths with a positive COVID-19 test, many others have died from causes indirectly related to COVID-19. Therefore, the COVID-19 confirmed deaths underestimate the influence of the pandemic on society; instead, the measure of 'excess deaths' is a more objective and comparable way to assess the scale of the epidemic and formulate lessons. One common practical issue in analysing the impact of COVID-19 is to determine the 'pre-COVID-19' period and the 'post-COVID-19' period. We apply a change point detection method to identify any change points using excess deaths in Belgium.

11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1154: 338330, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086723

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly infectious, which threatens human health and has received increasing attention. So far, there is no specific drug or vaccine for COVID-19. Therefore, it is urgent to establish a rapid and sensitive early diagnosis platform, which is of great significance for physical separation of infected persons after rapid diagnosis. Here, we propose a colorimetric/SERS/fluorescence triple-mode biosensor based on AuNPs for the fast selective detection of viral RNA in 40 min. AuNPs with average size of 17 nm were synthesized, and colorimetric, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and fluorescence signals of sensors are simultaneously detected based on their basic aggregation property and affinity energy to different bio-molecules. The sensor achieves a limit detection of femtomole level in all triple modes, which is 160 fM in absorbance mode, 259 fM in fluorescence mode, and 395 fM in SERS mode. The triple-mode signals of the sensor are verified with each other to make the experimental results more accurate, and the capacity to recognize single-base mismatch in each working mode minimizes the false negative/positive reading of SARS-CoV-2. The proposed sensing platform provides a new way for the fast, sensitive, and selective detection of COVID-19 and other diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Particle Size , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Chem Eng J ; 414: 128788, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071137

ABSTRACT

Previous observations have been reported that viruses were inactivated using strong irradiation. Here, new evidence was disclosed by studying the effects of nanosized TiO2 on viral pathogens under a low irradiation condition (0.4 mW/cm2 at UVA band) that mimics the field setting. We showed that photo-activated TiO2 efficiently inhibits hepatitis C virus infection, and weak indoor light with intensity of 0.6 mW/cm2 at broad-spectrum wavelength and around 0.15 mW/cm2 of UVA band also lead to partial inhibition. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals produced by photo-activated TiO2 do not destroy virion structure and contents, but attack viral RNA genome, thus inactivating the virus. Furthermore, we showed that photo-activated TiO2 inactivates a broad range of human viral pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In conclusion, we showed that photo-catalyzed nanosized TiO2 inactivates pathogenic viruses, paving a way to its field application in control of viral infectious diseases.

13.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(1): 3-8, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058393

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 vaccines have recently been approved for emergency use according to governmental immunization programs. The arrival of these vaccines has created hope for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), as this can help to mitigate their risk of becoming infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can lead to serious, life-threatening disease, at least among those with more advanced PD. However, both persons with PD and physicians looking after these individuals have expressed concerns about the vaccine's efficacy and safety in the specific context of PD and its symptomatic treatment. Here, we discuss our perspective on these concerns, based on our interpretation of the literature plus the unfolding experience with widespread vaccination in the population at large. Because the benefits and risks of COVID-19 vaccines do not appear to be different than in the general population, we recommend COVID-19 vaccination with approved vaccines to persons with PD, unless there is a specific contraindication. Some caution seems warranted in very frail and terminally ill elderly persons with PD living in long-term care facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. ; 6(41): 637-641, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-727549

ABSTRACT

Objective To predict the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic situation based on the infectious disease dynamics susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model, so as to provide guidance for effective control of the epidemic. Methods Python crawler automatic update function was used to collect the epidemic data released by the National Health Commission of China. An improved infectious disease dynamics SEIR model, which can automatically correct the COVID-19 basic reproductive number (R0), was constructed to predict the development trend of COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei Province of China and South Korea. Results The peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hubei Province of China predicted by the model would appear on Feb. 21, 2020. The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases would be about 50 000 on Feb. 19 and would fall to below 30 000 on Mar. 4, and the epidemic would end on May 10. According to the actual data released by the National Health Commission of China, the peak number of confirmed COVID-19 patients was 53 371. The model predicted that an epidemic peak in South Korea would be on Mar. 7, and would end at the end of April. Conclusion This improved infectious disease dynamics SEIR model established in the early stage of COVID-19 epidemic has achieved relatively accurate prediction. The timely and effective intervention by relevant government departments has significantly affected the development of the epidemic. The epidemic situation in other countries in East Asia, such as South Korea, is still on the rise in March, suggesting that China needs to be on guard against the risk of imported epidemic.

17.
Chin Med ; 15: 78, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688856

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new global public health emergency. The therapeutic benefits of Cold‒Damp Plague Formula (CDPF) against COVID-19, which was used to treat "cold‒dampness stagnation in the lung" in Trial Versions 6 and 7 of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19", have been demonstrated, but the effective components and their mechanism of action remain unclear. Methods: In this study, a network pharmacology approach was employed, including drug-likeness evaluation, oral bioavailability prediction, protein‒protein interaction (PPI) network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation, and virtual docking, to predict the bioactive components, potential targets, and molecular mechanism of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Results: The active compound of herbs in CDPF and their candidate targets were obtained through database mining, and an herbs-ingredients-targets network was constructed. Subsequently, the candidate targets of the active compounds were compared to those relevant to COVID-19, to identify the potential targets of CDPF for COVID-19 treatment. Subsequently, the PPI network was constructed, which provided a basis for cluster analysis and hub gene screening. The seed targets in the most significant module were selected for further functional annotation. GO enrichment analysis identified four main areas: (1) cellular responses to external stimuli, (2) regulation of blood production and circulation, (3) free radical regulation, (4) immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects. KEGG pathway analysis also revealed that CDPF could play pharmacological roles against COVID-19 through "multi components‒multi targets‒multi pathways" at the molecular level, mainly involving anti-viral, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory pathways; consequently, a "CDPF-herbs-ingredients-targets-pathways-COVID-19" network was constructed. In hub target analysis, the top hub target IL6, and ACE2, the receptor via which SARS-CoV-2 typically enters host cells, were selected for molecular docking analyses, and revealed good binding activities. Conclusions: This study revealed the active ingredients and potential molecular mechanism by which CDPF treatment is effective against COVID-19, and provides a reference basis for the wider application and further mechanistic investigations of CDPF in the fight against COVID-19.

18.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 52(5): 564-573, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638402

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the anxiety and depression levels of frontline clinical nurses working in 14 hospitals in Gansu Province, China, during this period. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted online between February 7 and 10, 2020, with a convenience sample of 22,034 nurses working in 14 prefecture and city hospitals in Gansu Province, located in northwest China. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire with four parts (demographic characteristics, general questions related to novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia, self-rating anxiety scale, and self-rating depression scale) was administered. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and SDs were computed. The associations between anxiety and depression with sociodemographic characteristics, work-related concerns, and impacts were analyzed, followed by multiple stepwise linear regression to identify factors that best predicted the nurses' anxiety and depression levels. FINDINGS: A total of 21,199 questionnaires were checked to be valid, with an effective recovery rate of 96.21%. The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 31.89 ± 7.084 years, and the mean ± SD length of service was 9.40 ± 7.638 years. The majority of the respondents were female (98.6%) and married (73.1%). Some demographic characteristics, related concerns, and impacts of COVID-19 were found to be significantly associated with both anxiety (p < .001) and depression (p < .001). Nurses who needed to take care of children or elderly relatives, took leave from work because they were worried about COVID-19, avoided contact with family and friends, and wanted to obtain more COVID-19-related knowledge had higher levels of both anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that nurses faced with the COVID-19 outbreak are at risk for experiencing anxiety and depression. Demographic background, psychosocial factors, and work-related factors predicted the psychological responses. The family responsibilities and burdens of women may explain the higher levels of anxiety and depression among nurses with these obligations as compared to those without. On the other hand, nurses who chose not to take leave from work or who did not avoid going to work during this period were less anxious and depressed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Professional commitment might be a protective factor for adverse psychological responses. It is pertinent to provide emotional support for nurses and recognize their professional commitment in providing service to people in need.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Occupational Stress , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Nursing , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 171, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381361

ABSTRACT

Understanding the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 is crucial for evaluating its spread pattern, especially in metropolitan areas of China, as its spread could lead to secondary outbreaks. In addition, the experiences gained and lessons learned from China have the potential to provide evidence to support other metropolitan areas and large cities outside China with their emerging cases. We used data reported from January 24, 2020, to February 23, 2020, to fit a model of infection, estimate the likely number of infections in four high-risk metropolitan areas based on the number of cases reported, and increase the understanding of the COVID-19 spread pattern. Considering the effect of the official quarantine regulations and travel restrictions for China, which began January 23~24, 2020, we used the daily travel intensity index from the Baidu Maps app to roughly simulate the level of restrictions and estimate the proportion of the quarantined population. A group of SEIR model statistical parameters were estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods and fitting on the basis of reported data. As a result, we estimated that the basic reproductive number, R 0, was 2.91 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and 1.75 in Shenzhen based on the data from January 24, 2020, to February 23, 2020. In addition, we inferred the prediction results and compared the results of different levels of parameters. For example, in Beijing, the predicted peak number of cases was 467 with a peak time of March 01, 2020; however, if the city were to implement different levels (strict, moderate, or weak) of travel restrictions or regulation measures, the estimation results showed that the transmission dynamics would change and that the peak number of cases would differ by between 54% and 209%. We concluded that public health interventions would reduce the risk of the spread of COVID-19 and that more rigorous control and prevention measures would effectively contain its further spread, and awareness of prevention should be enhanced when businesses and social activities return to normal before the end of the epidemic. Further, the experiences gained and lessons learned from China offer the potential to provide evidence supporting other metropolitan areas and big cities with their emerging cases outside China.

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