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JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2135379, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520147


Importance: There is a need for studies to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 and mortality among the entire Medicare long-term dialysis population using Medicare claims data. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 and mortality in Medicare patients undergoing long-term dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, claims-based cohort study compared mortality trends of patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020 with previous years (2013-2019) and fit Cox regression models to identify risk factors for contracting COVID-19 and postdiagnosis mortality. The cohort included the national population of Medicare patients receiving long-term dialysis in 2020, derived from clinical and administrative databases. COVID-19 was identified through Medicare claims sources. Data were analyzed on May 17, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 2 main outcomes were COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. Associations of claims-based risk factors with COVID-19 and mortality were investigated prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. Results: Among a total of 498 169 Medicare patients undergoing dialysis (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-74] years; 215 935 [43.1%] women and 283 227 [56.9%] men), 60 090 (12.1%) had COVID-19, among whom 15 612 patients (26.0%) died. COVID-19 rates were significantly higher among Black (21 787 of 165 830 patients [13.1%]) and Hispanic (13 530 of 86 871 patients [15.6%]) patients compared with non-Black patients (38 303 of 332 339 [11.5%]), as well as patients with short (ie, 1-89 days; 7738 of 55 184 patients [14.0%]) and extended (ie, ≥90 days; 10 737 of 30 196 patients [35.6%]) nursing home stays in the prior year. Adjusting for all other risk factors, residing in a nursing home 1 to 89 days in the prior year was associated with a higher hazard for COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR] vs 0 days, 1.60; 95% CI 1.56-1.65) and for postdiagnosis mortality (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.37), as was residing in a nursing home for an extended stay (COVID-19: HR, 4.48; 95% CI, 4.37-4.59; mortality: HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16). Black race (HR vs non-Black: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.28) and Hispanic ethnicity (HR vs non-Hispanic: HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.64-1.72) were associated with significantly higher hazards of COVID-19. Although home dialysis was associated with lower COVID-19 rates (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.80), it was associated with higher mortality (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: These results shed light on COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes among Medicare patients receiving long-term chronic dialysis and could inform policy decisions to mitigate the significant extra burden of COVID-19 and death in this population.

COVID-19/etiology , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Medicare , Renal Dialysis , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258278, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456094


BACKGROUND: Understanding risk factors for short- and long-term COVID-19 outcomes have implications for current guidelines and practice. We study whether early identified risk factors for COVID-19 persist one year later and through varying disease progression trajectories. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 6,731 COVID-19 patients presenting to Michigan Medicine between March 10, 2020 and March 10, 2021. We describe disease progression trajectories from diagnosis to potential hospital admission, discharge, readmission, or death. Outcomes pertained to all patients: rate of medical encounters, hospitalization-free survival, and overall survival, and hospitalized patients: discharge versus in-hospital death and readmission. Risk factors included patient age, sex, race, body mass index, and 29 comorbidity conditions. RESULTS: Younger, non-Black patients utilized healthcare resources at higher rates, while older, male, and Black patients had higher rates of hospitalization and mortality. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss anemia were risk factors for these outcomes. Diabetes with complications, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and blood loss were associated with lower discharge and higher inpatient mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study found differences in healthcare utilization and adverse COVID-19 outcomes, as well as differing risk factors for short- and long-term outcomes throughout disease progression. These findings may inform providers in emergency departments or critical care settings of treatment priorities, empower healthcare stakeholders with effective disease management strategies, and aid health policy makers in optimizing allocations of medical resources.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
J Affect Disord ; 282: 1226-1233, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049814


OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the SAR-Cov-2 pandemic and lockdown on individuals with bipolar disorder in comparison to healthy controls. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 560 participants including 147 healthy controls was conducted between April 30 and May 30, 2020 during a state-wide lockdown. Bi-weekly measures included the Coronavirus Impact Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item, and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, 7-item. Generalized estimating equations method was used to examine the longitudinal change of the measures within the lockdown and the change from pre-pandemic period to pandemic period. RESULTS: All participants reported an impact of lockdown. Individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater impact from the stay-at-home orders with disruptions in routines, income/employment, social support and pandemic related stress. While these measures improved over time, healthy controls recovered quicker and with greater magnitude than persons with bipolar disorder. Comparing mood symptom severity measures in mid-March through May 2020 to the same time window in 2015-2019 (pre- verses post-pandemic), there were no significant differences among individuals with bipolar disorder, whereas healthy controls showed a significant, albeit transient, increase in mood symptoms. CONCLUSION: Everyone was impacted by the SARs-CoV pandemic; however, those with bipolar disorder experienced more life impacting changes from the stay-at-home orders vs healthy controls. These disruptions improved over time but much more slowly than healthy controls. Pre- vs post-pandemic comparisons show a modest but significant increase in mood severity in the healthy controls which was not observed in those with bipolar disorder.

Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Social Isolation , Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2