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1.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098297

ABSTRACT

Persistent breathlessness >28 days after acute COVID-19 infection has been identified as a highly debilitating post-COVID symptom. However, the prevalence, risk factors, mechanisms and treatments for post-COVID breathlessness remain poorly understood. We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for relevant studies published from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021285733) and included 119 eligible papers. Random-effects meta-analysis of 42 872 patients with COVID-19 reported in 102 papers found an overall prevalence of post-COVID breathlessness of 26% (95% CI 23-29) when measuring the presence/absence of the symptom, and 41% (95% CI 34-48) when using Medical Research Council (MRC)/modified MRC dyspnoea scale. The pooled prevalence decreased significantly from 1-6 months to 7-12 months post-infection. Post-COVID breathlessness was more common in those with severe/critical acute infection, those who were hospitalised and females, and was less likely to be reported by patients in Asia than those in Europe or North America. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed (including deconditioning, restrictive/obstructive airflow limitation, systemic inflammation, impaired mental health), but the body of evidence remains inconclusive. Seven cohort studies and one randomised controlled trial suggested rehabilitation exercises may reduce post-COVID breathlessness. There is an urgent need for mechanistic research and development of interventions for the prevention and treatment of post-COVID breathlessness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Risk Factors , Exercise Therapy
2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2115-2125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951763

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination had been demonstrated as an effective way to reduce the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and only a few vaccines suffered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, limited data concerning the clinical features of these vaccines infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be identified. Methods: We retrospectively collected and analyzed epidemiological and clinical characteristics data of the imported COVID-19 cases who received Chinese inactivated vaccines abroad. Data were extracted from electronic medical records from a designated hospital in the Shaanxi Province of China between March 22 and May 17, 2021. Results: Totally, 46 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection patients were enrolled. The mean age was 40.5 years (range 20-61), 41 (89.1%) are male. Eighteen (39.1%) patients were from Pakistan. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had at least one comorbidity. Forty (87.0%) and 6 cases were fully vaccinated and partly vaccinated. The time interval between vaccination and infection was 88 days (IQR, 33-123), 31 (67.4%) and 15 (32.6%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic cases, respectively. Fever (3/46, 6.5%) was the most common symptom; however, none had a body temperature higher than 38.0°C, and no severe case was observed. Notably, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 shedding discontinuation at 7 days after hospitalization in asymptomatic cases was higher than symptomatic one (93.5% vs 40%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Individuals who received Chinese inactivated vaccines abroad remain to have the probability of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, but all the vaccines infected with SARS-CoV-2 were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms with favorable clinical outcomes.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 57, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A One Health approach has been increasingly mainstreamed by the international community, as it provides for holistic thinking in recognizing the close links and inter-dependence of the health of humans, animals and the environment. However, the dearth of real-world evidence has hampered application of a One Health approach in shaping policies and practice. This study proposes the development of a potential evaluation tool for One Health performance, in order to contribute to the scientific measurement of One Health approach and the identification of gaps where One Health capacity building is most urgently needed. METHODS: We describe five steps towards a global One Health index (GOHI), including (i) framework formulation; (ii) indicator selection; (iii) database building; (iv) weight determination; and (v) GOHI scores calculation. A cell-like framework for GOHI is proposed, which comprises an external drivers index (EDI), an intrinsic drivers index (IDI) and a core drivers index (CDI). We construct the indicator scheme for GOHI based on this framework after multiple rounds of panel discussions with our expert advisory committee. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is adopted to determine the weights for each of the indicators. RESULTS: The weighted indicator scheme of GOHI comprises three first-level indicators, 13 second-level indicators, and 57 third-level indicators. According to the pilot analysis based on the data from more than 200 countries/territories the GOHI scores overall are far from ideal (the highest score of 65.0 out of a maximum score of 100), and we found considerable variations among different countries/territories (31.8-65.0). The results from the pilot analysis are consistent with the results from a literature review, which suggests that a GOHI as a potential tool for the assessment of One Health performance might be feasible. CONCLUSIONS: GOHI-subject to rigorous validation-would represent the world's first evaluation tool that constructs the conceptual framework from a holistic perspective of One Health. Future application of GOHI might promote a common understanding of a strong One Health approach and provide reference for promoting effective measures to strengthen One Health capacity building. With further adaptations under various scenarios, GOHI, along with its technical protocols and databases, will be updated regularly to address current technical limitations, and capture new knowledge.


Subject(s)
One Health , Forecasting , Global Health
5.
Infect Dis Model ; 7(2): 250-260, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867205

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for about 2 years now and has brought unprecedented challenges to our society. Before vaccines were available, the main disease intervention strategies were non-pharmaceutical. Starting December 2020, in Ontario, Canada, vaccines were approved for administering to vulnerable individuals and gradually expanded to all individuals above the age of 12. As the vaccine coverage reached a satisfactory level among the eligible population, normal social activities resumed and schools reopened starting September 2021. However, when schools reopen for in-person learning, children under the age of 12 are unvaccinated and are at higher risks of contracting the virus. We propose an age-stratified model based on the age and vaccine eligibility of the individuals. We fit our model to the data in Ontario, Canada and obtain a good fitting result. The results show that a relaxed between-group contact rate may trigger future epidemic waves more easily than an increased within-group contact rate. An increasing mixed contact rate of the older group quickly amplifies the daily incidence numbers for both groups whereas an increasing mixed contact rate of the younger group mainly leads to future waves in the younger group alone. The results indicate the importance of accelerating vaccine rollout for younger individuals in mitigating disease spread.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010363, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808522

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a significant threat to global public health since its outbreak in late 2019. Although there are a few drugs approved for clinical treatment to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection currently, the severity of the ongoing global pandemic still urges the efforts to discover new antiviral compounds. As the viral spike (S) protein plays a key role in mediating virus entry, it becomes a potential target for the design of antiviral drugs against COVID-19. Here, we tested the antiviral activity of berbamine hydrochloride, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that berbamine hydrochloride could efficiently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in different cell lines. Further experiments showed berbamine hydrochloride inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by targeting the viral entry into host cells. Moreover, berbamine hydrochloride and other bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids could potently inhibit S-mediated cell-cell fusion. Furthermore, molecular docking results implied that the berbamine hydrochloride could bind to the post fusion core of SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit. Therefore, berbamine hydrochloride may represent a potential efficient antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
7.
Prev Med Rep ; 27: 101764, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747639

ABSTRACT

Anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and home confinement has been associated with adverse health behaviors, such as unhealthy eating, smoking, and drinking. However, most studies have been limited by regional sampling, which precludes the examination of behavioral consequences associated with the pandemic at a global level. Further, few studies operationalized pandemic-related stressors to enable the investigation of the impact of different types of stressors on health outcomes. This study examined the association between perceived risk of COVID-19 infection and economic burden of COVID-19 with health-promoting and health-damaging behaviors using data from the PsyCorona Study: an international, longitudinal online study of psychological and behavioral correlates of COVID-19. Analyses utilized data from 7,402 participants from 86 countries across three waves of assessment between May 16 and June 13, 2020. Participants completed self-report measures of COVID-19 infection risk, COVID-19-related economic burden, physical exercise, diet quality, cigarette smoking, sleep quality, and binge drinking. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that across three time points, perceived economic burden was associated with reduced diet quality and sleep quality, as well as increased smoking. Diet quality and sleep quality were lowest among respondents who perceived high COVID-19 infection risk combined with high economic burden. Neither binge drinking nor exercise were associated with perceived COVID-19 infection risk, economic burden, or their interaction. Findings point to the value of developing interventions to address COVID-related stressors, which have an impact on health behaviors that, in turn, may influence vulnerability to COVID-19 and other health outcomes.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3824, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735265

ABSTRACT

The present paper examines longitudinally how subjective perceptions about COVID-19, one's community, and the government predict adherence to public health measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Using an international survey (N = 3040), we test how infection risk perception, trust in the governmental response and communications about COVID-19, conspiracy beliefs, social norms on distancing, tightness of culture, and community punishment predict various containment-related attitudes and behavior. Autoregressive analyses indicate that, at the personal level, personal hygiene behavior was predicted by personal infection risk perception. At social level, social distancing behaviors such as abstaining from face-to-face contact were predicted by perceived social norms. Support for behavioral mandates was predicted by confidence in the government and cultural tightness, whereas support for anti-lockdown protests was predicted by (lower) perceived clarity of communication about the virus. Results are discussed in light of policy implications and creating effective interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Public Health , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Norms , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Patterns (N Y) ; 3(4): 100482, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730022

ABSTRACT

Before vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became available, a set of infection-prevention behaviors constituted the primary means to mitigate the virus spread. Our study aimed to identify important predictors of this set of behaviors. Whereas social and health psychological theories suggest a limited set of predictors, machine-learning analyses can identify correlates from a larger pool of candidate predictors. We used random forests to rank 115 candidate correlates of infection-prevention behavior in 56,072 participants across 28 countries, administered in March to May 2020. The machine-learning model predicted 52% of the variance in infection-prevention behavior in a separate test sample-exceeding the performance of psychological models of health behavior. Results indicated the two most important predictors related to individual-level injunctive norms. Illustrating how data-driven methods can complement theory, some of the most important predictors were not derived from theories of health behavior-and some theoretically derived predictors were relatively unimportant.

10.
Pathogens ; 11(2)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705975

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has shown that COVID-19 survivors could suffer from persistent symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether these symptoms persist over the longer term. This study aimed to systematically synthesise evidence on post-COVID symptoms persisting for at least 12 months. We searched PubMed and Embase for papers reporting at least one-year follow-up results of COVID-19 survivors published by 6 November 2021. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled prevalence of specific post-COVID symptoms. Eighteen papers that reported one-year follow-up data from 8591 COVID-19 survivors were included. Fatigue/weakness (28%, 95% CI: 18-39), dyspnoea (18%, 95% CI: 13-24), arthromyalgia (26%, 95% CI: 8-44), depression (23%, 95% CI: 12-34), anxiety (22%, 95% CI: 15-29), memory loss (19%, 95% CI: 7-31), concentration difficulties (18%, 95% CI: 2-35), and insomnia (12%, 95% CI: 7-17) were the most prevalent symptoms at one-year follow-up. Existing evidence suggested that female patients and those with more severe initial illness were more likely to suffer from the sequelae after one year. This study demonstrated that a sizeable proportion of COVID-19 survivors still experience residual symptoms involving various body systems one year later. There is an urgent need for elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms and developing and testing targeted interventions for long-COVID patients.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324806

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients get more attention. Here we report a cohort study on the follow up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. There are 20 (10.99 %) patients out of the 182 were detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive, but none of them shows any clinical symptomatic recurrence indicating that COVID-19 has a good prognosis. Females and young patients aged under 15 have higher re-positive rate than the average, and none of the severe patients turned re-positive. Notably, most of the re-positive cases turn negative in the followed tests, suggesting that the importance of dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for infectivity assessment.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324805

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is getting worse every day all over the world. The present study aimed to review the epidemiological characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19 in Shenzhen city, a super megacity of China, to provide some references for fighting to the coronavirus. We collected data of 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 of Shenzhen through March 7 th , 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of the patients were analyzed. Besides, we collected the governmental measures of Shenzhen city, and the the dynamic changes of the epidemic outbreak. Governmental strategies such as early detection, early hospitalization and popular science etc. are effective for the prevention and control of the epidemic. Nearly 80% confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Shenzhen were in normal or mild conditions, and the mortality was less than 1%. Age, gender, exposure to source of transmission within 14 days and basic diseases are major risk factors for severe patients. Patients in characters of elder, male, with exposure of Wuhan and carried basic diseases had higher risk to be in severe condition (P<0.01;P<0.001). There were 368 patients discharged from hospital by the end of March 7 th , 2020. Patients in severe conditions took more time from onset to discharge (P<0.001), so as those elder one (P<0.001) or who carried basic diseases (P<0.01). The differences of epidemiological characteristics between children and the elderly are still not clear. The nucleic acid test of some discharged patients returned to positive again, and the potential mechanisms need to be further explored. In conclusion, timely administrative intervention is necessary for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak. Patients in characters of elder, male and carried basic diseases worthy more attention. The management of discharged patients, especially the investigation of the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA will be the focus on for the next step. Authors Bo Yuan and Ya-Wen An contributed equally to this work.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315206

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination has been demonstrated as an effective way to reduce the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and only a few vaccinees suffered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, limited data concerning the clinical features of these vaccinees infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be identified. Methods: We retrospectively collected and analyzed epidemiological and clinical characteristics data of the imported COVID-19 cases who received Chinese inactivated vaccines abroad. Data were extracted from electronic medical records from a designated hospital in the Shaanxi Province of China between March 22 and May 17, 2021. Results: Totally, 46 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection patients were enrolled. The mean age was 40.5 years (range 20-61), 41 (89.1%) are male. Eighteen (39.1%) patients were from Pakistan. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had at least one comorbidity. Forty (87.0%) and 6 cases were fully vaccinated and partly vaccinated. The time interval between vaccination and infection was 88 days (IQR, 33-123), 31 (67.4%) and 15 (32.6%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic cases, respectively. Fever (3/46, 6.5%) was the most common symptom;however, none had a body temperature higher than 38.0℃, and no severe case was observed. Notably, the rate of SARS-CoV-2 shedding discontinuation at 7 days after hospitalization in asymptomatic cases was higher than symptomatic one (93.5% vs 40%, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Individuals who received Chinese inactivated vaccines abroad remain have the probability to be infected with SARS-CoV-2, but all the vaccinees infected with SARS-CoV-2 were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms with favorable clinical outcomes.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311948

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that public trust in government is vital for implementations of social policies that rely on public's behavioural responses. This study examined associations of trust in government regarding COVID-19 control with recommended health behaviours and prosocial behaviours. Data from an international survey with representative samples (N=23,733) of 23 countries were analysed. Specification curve analysis showed that higher trust in government was significantly associated with higher adoption of health and prosocial behaviours in all reasonable specifications of multilevel linear models (median standardised β=0.173 and 0.244, P<0.001). We further used structural equation modelling to explore potential determinants of trust in government regarding pandemic control. Governments perceived as well organised, disseminating clear messages and knowledge on COVID-19, and perceived fairness were positively associated with trust in government (standardised β=0.358, 0.230, 0.055, and 0.250, P<0.01). These results highlighted the importance of trust in government in the control of COVID-19.

15.
J Environ Manage ; 309: 114728, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683294

ABSTRACT

Real-time evaluation of the fighting activities during a sudden unknown disaster like the COVID-19 pandemic is a critical challenge for control. This study demonstrates that the temporal variations of effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities can be used as an effective indicator for such evaluation. Taking a typical infection-suffering city in China as an example, we found that there was an obvious decrease in effluent ammonia and COD concentrations in line with the start of city lockdown, and its temporal variations well indicated the major events happened during the pandemic control. Notably, the lagging period between the change point of effluent residual chlorine and the change points of COD and ammonia concentration coincided with a period in which there was a deficiency in local medical resources. In addition, the diurnal behavior of effluents from designated hospitals has varied significantly at different stages of the pandemic development. The effluent ammonia peaks shifted from daytime to nighttime after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a high workload of the designated hospitals in fighting the rapidly emerging pandemic. This work well demonstrates the necessary for data integration at the wastewater-medical service nexus and highlights an unusual role of the effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities in revealing the status of fighting the pandemic, which helps to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage
16.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655861

ABSTRACT

Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake is important to inform policy decisions and plan vaccination campaigns. The aims of this research were to: (1) explore the individual- and country-level determinants of intentions to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, and (2) examine worldwide variation in vaccination intentions. This cross-sectional online survey was conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, involving 6697 respondents across 20 countries. Results showed that 72.9% of participants reported positive intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas 16.8% were undecided, and 10.3% reported they would not be vaccinated. At the individual level, prosociality was a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, whereas generic beliefs in conspiracy theories and religiosity were negative predictors. Country-level determinants, including cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism and power distance, were not significant predictors of vaccination intentions. Altogether, this study identifies individual-level predictors that are common across multiple countries, provides further evidence on the importance of combating conspiracy theories, involving religious institutions in vaccination campaigns, and stimulating prosocial motives to encourage vaccine uptake.

17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 465-476, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625432

ABSTRACT

The extremely high transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 and severe cases of COVID-19 pose the two critical challenges in the battle against COVID-19. Increasing evidence has shown that the viral spike (S) protein-driven syncytia may be responsible for these two events. Intensive attention has thus been devoted to seeking S-guided syncytium inhibitors. However, the current screening campaigns mainly rely on either live virus-based or plasmid-based method, which are always greatly limited by the shortage of high-level biosafety BSL-3 facilities or too much labour-intensive work. Here, we constructed a new hybrid VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP reporter vector through replacement of the structural genes of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 as the single structural protein. VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP can propagate steadily through cell-to-cell transmission pathway in S- and ACE2-dependent manner, forming GFP positive syncytia. In addition, a significant dose-dependent decay in GFP signals was observed in VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP replicating cells upon treatment with SARS-CoV-2 antiserum or entry inhibitors, providing further evidence that VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP system is highly sensitive to characterize the anti-syncytium-formation activity of antiviral agents. More importantly, the assay is able to be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory without manipulation of live SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, our work establishes a more convenient and efficient VEEV-SARS-CoV-2-S-eGFP replicating cells-based method for rapid screening of inhibitors blocking syncytium formation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Giant Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Curr Res Ecol Soc Psychol ; 3: 100028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560426

ABSTRACT

Tightening social norms is thought to be adaptive for dealing with collective threat yet it may have negative consequences for increasing prejudice. The present research investigated the role of desire for cultural tightness, triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, in increasing negative attitudes towards immigrants. We used participant-level data from 41 countries (N = 55,015) collected as part of the PsyCorona project, a cross-national longitudinal study on responses to COVID-19. Our predictions were tested through multilevel and SEM models, treating participants as nested within countries. Results showed that people's concern with COVID-19 threat was related to greater desire for tightness which, in turn, was linked to more negative attitudes towards immigrants. These findings were followed up with a longitudinal model (N = 2,349) which also showed that people's heightened concern with COVID-19 in an earlier stage of the pandemic was associated with an increase in their desire for tightness and negative attitudes towards immigrants later in time. Our findings offer insight into the trade-offs that tightening social norms under collective threat has for human groups.

19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 369, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483125

ABSTRACT

The lung is the prophylaxis target against SARS-CoV-2 infection, and neutralizing antibodies are a leading class of biological products against various infectious viral pathogen. In this study, we develop a safe and cost-effective platform to express neutralizing antibody in the lung with replicating mRNA basing on alphavirus replicon particle (VRP) delivery system, to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. First, a modified VEEV replicon with two subgenomic (sg) promoters was engineered to translate the light and heavy chains of antibody simultaneously, for expression and assembly of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody CB6. Second, the feasibility and protective efficacy of replicating mRNA against SARS-CoV-2 infection were demonstrated through both in vitro and in vivo assays. The lung target delivery with the help of VRP system resulted in efficiently block SARS-CoV-2 infection with reducing viral titer and less tissue damage in the lung of mice. Overall, our data suggests that expressing neutralizing antibodies in the lungs with the help of self-replicating mRNA could potentially be a promising prophylaxis approach against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477523

ABSTRACT

During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. conservative politicians and the media downplayed the risk of both contracting COVID-19 and the effectiveness of recommended health behaviors. Health behavior theories suggest perceived vulnerability to a health threat and perceived effectiveness of recommended health-protective behaviors determine motivation to follow recommendations. Accordingly, we predicted that-as a result of politicization of the pandemic-politically conservative Americans would be less likely to enact recommended health-protective behaviors. In two longitudinal studies of U.S. residents, political conservatism was inversely associated with perceived health risk and adoption of health-protective behaviors over time. The effects of political orientation on health-protective behaviors were mediated by perceived risk of infection, perceived severity of infection, and perceived effectiveness of the health-protective behaviors. In a global cross-national analysis, effects were stronger in the U.S. (N = 10,923) than in an international sample (total N = 51,986), highlighting the increased and overt politicization of health behaviors in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
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