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1.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:923286, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029962

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A major challenge for COVID-19 therapy is dysregulated immune response associated with the disease. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) may be a promising candidate for COVID-19 treatment owing to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of UC-MSCs inpatients with COVID-19. Method: Medline, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched to collect clinical trials concerning UC-MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19. After literature screening, quality assessment, and data extraction, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the included study were performed. Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis were prospectively registered on PROSPERO, and the registration number is CRD42022304061. After screening, 10 studies involving 293 patients with COVID-19 were eventually included. Our meta-analysis results showed that UC-MSCs can reduce mortality (relative risk [RR] =0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.38, 0.95], P=0.03) in COVID-19 patients. No significant correlation was observed between adverse events and UC-MSC treatment (RR=0.85, 95% CI: [0.65, 1.10], P=0.22;RR=1.00, 95%CI: [0.64, 1.58], P=1.00). In addition, treatment with UC-MSCs was found to suppress inflammation and improve pulmonary symptoms. Conclusions: UC-MSCs hold promise as a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19. Systematic Review Registartion: PROSPERO, identifier CRD42022304061.

3.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage ; 30:S6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004251

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The field of osteoarthritis (OA) biology is rapidly evolving and brilliant progress has been made this year as well. Methods: Landmark studies of OA biology published in 2021 and early 2022 were selected through PubMed searches and classified by their molecular mechanisms, and it was largely divided into the intra-cellular mechanisms and the inter-compartment or inter-cellular interaction in OA progression. Results: The intra-cellular mechanisms involving OA progression included 1) Piezo1/TRPV4-mediated calcium signaling, 2) low grade inflammation by TLR-CD14-LBP complex and IKKβ-NFkB signaling, 3) PGRN/TNFR2/14-3-3ε/Elk-1 anabolic cascade, 4) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, 5) mechanical loading-cilia/Ift88-hedgehog signaling, 6) mitochondrial fission by ERK1/2-DRP1 pathway, and 7) hypoxia-DOT1L-H3K79 methylation pathway. The studies on inter-compartment or inter-cellular interaction in OA progression included the following subjects: 1) the anabolic role of Lubricin, a proteoglycan from superficial zone cells, 2) osteoclast-chondrocyte interaction via exosomal miRNA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), 3) αV integrin-mediated TGFβ activation by mechanical loading, 4) TGFβ-mediated suppression of sclerostin in osteocytes, 5) catabolic role of Flightless I as a DAMPs-triggering molecule, and 6) catabolic role of paracrine signaling from fat. Conclusions: Despite the disastrous Covid-19 pandemic situation, many outstanding studies have expanded the boundary of OA biology. They give us not only critical insight on pathophysiology, but also clue for the treatment of OA.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1):689, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated circumstances that place older adults at higher risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Identifying characteristics of elder abuse during COVID-19 is critically important. This study characterized and compared elder abuse patterns across two time periods, a one-year period during the pandemic, and a corresponding one-year period prior to the start of the pandemic. METHODS: Contacts (including social media contacts, and email;all referred to as "calls" for expediency) made to the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) resource line were examined for differences in types of reported elder abuse and characteristics of alleged perpetrators prior to the pandemic (Time 1;March 16, 2018 to March 15, 2019) and during the pandemic (Time 2;March 16, 2020 to March 15, 2021). Calls were examined for whether or not abuse was reported, the types of reported elder abuse, including financial, physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect, and characteristics of callers, victims, and alleged perpetrators. Chi-square tests of independence compared frequencies of elder abuse characteristics between time periods. RESULTS: In Time 1, 1401 calls were received, of which 795 calls (56.7%) described abuse. In Time 2, 1009 calls were received, of which 550 calls (54.5%) described abuse. The difference between time periods in frequency of abuse to non-abuse calls was not significant ([Formula: see text]). Time periods also did not significantly differ with regard to caller, victim, and perpetrator characteristics. Greater rates of physical abuse ([Formula: see text] and emotional abuse ([Formula: see text] were reported during Time 2 after adjustment for multiple comparisons. An increased frequency of multiple forms of abuse was also found in Time 2 compared to Time 1 ([Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest differences in specific elder abuse subtypes and frequency of co-occurrence between subtypes between time periods, pointing to a potential increase in the severity of elder abuse during COVID-19.

5.
China Journal of Leprosy and Skin Diseases ; 38(8):499-502, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954980

ABSTRACT

Background: Eight pm on April 13, 2022,a10:1 mixed test tube was found to be positive in the COVID-19 nucleic acid test site set up outside the hospital. In order to identify the infected case and control the spread of COVID-19 rapidly, we conducted this emergency investigation. Methods: According to the National COVID-19 Control and Prevention Protocol (8th edition), Guideline on Emergency Response to COVID-19 Case Found in Hospital in Shandong Province, and the Emergency Response Plan for COVID-19 in our hospital, information reporting, hospitalblockading, potential COVID- 19 cases tracing, close contact screening, environmental sampling and disinfecting, COVID-19 nucleic acid testing and risk assessment were carried out by our team. Results: A female COVID-19 case aged 50 years was identified. She is aodd-jobber who works in the labour market near the hospital. The virus strain was sequenced as Omicron BA.2. A total of 65 close contacts was controlled in a hotel. The COVID-19 nucleic acid test results for all the staff of hospital, environmental samples were negative. The risk of COVID-19 spread was controlled and the hospital restarted of clinical activities as normal at 8 am on April 14 after blockaded for 12 hours. Inthe following 7 days, the staff of the hospital were tested for COVID-19 nucleic acid twice a day, and the results were negative. Then the testing frequency changed to once a day. Conclusion: Formulating detailed and feasible COVID-19 emergency response plans based on the requirements of the public documents and the actual conditions of the hospital, is useful to improve the efficiency of emergency response to COVID-19 cases and save time for control of COVID-19 spread and restart the clinical activities of hospital. © 2022 Shandong Yinbao Technology Co. Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

6.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S451-S452, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904921
7.
37th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC 2022 ; : 1771-1778, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874700

ABSTRACT

The social confusion caused by the recent pandemic of COVID-19 has been further facilitated by fake news diffused via social media on the Internet. For this reason, many studies have been proposed to detect fake news as early as possible. The content-based detection methods consider the difference between the contents of true and fake news articles. However, they suffer from the two serious limitations: (1) the publisher can manipulate the content of a news article easily, and (2) the content depends upon the language, with which the article is written. To overcome these limitations, the diffusion-based fake news detection methods have been proposed. The diffusion-based methods consider the difference among the diffusion patterns of true and fake news articles on social media. Despite its success, however, the lack of the diffusion information regarding to the COVID-19 related fake news prevents from studying the diffusion-based fake news detection methods. Therefore, for overcoming the limitation, we propose a diffusion-based fake news detection framework (D-FEND), which consists of four components: (C1) diffusion data collection, (C2) analysis of the data and feature extraction, (C3) model training, and (C4) inference. Our work contributes to the effort to mitigate the risk of infodemics during a pandemic by (1) building a new diffusion dataset, named CoAID+, (2) identifying and addressing the class imbalance problem of CoAID+, and (3) demonstrating that D-FEND successfully detects fake news articles with 88.89% model accuracy on average. © 2022 ACM.

8.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(8): 1821-1830, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected driving and health outcomes in older adults. METHODS: We compared Advancing Understanding of Transportation Options (AUTO) study participants enrolled before (December 2019 to March 2020) versus during the pandemic (May 2020 to June 2021). Participants were English-speaking, licensed drivers (≥70 years) who drove weekly and had a primary care provider at a study site and ≥1 medical condition potentially associated with driving cessation. We used baseline self-reported measures on mobility and health. RESULTS: Compared to those enrolled pre-COVID-19 (n = 61), more participants enrolled during COVID-19 (n = 240) reported driving reductions (26% vs. 70%, p < .001) and more often for personal preference (vs. medical/emotional reasons). While mean social isolation was higher during than pre-COVID-19, self-reported depression, stress, and overall health PROMIS scores did not differ significantly. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the resiliency of some older adults and have implications for mitigating the negative effects of driving cessation.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Aged , Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Transportation , United States/epidemiology
9.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several candidate vaccines to prevent COVID-19 disease have entered large-scale phase 3 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials and some have demonstrated substantial short-term efficacy. Efficacious vaccines should, at some point, be offered to placebo participants, which will occur before long-term efficacy and safety are known. METHODS: Following vaccination of the placebo group, we show that placebo-controlled vaccine efficacy can be derived by assuming the benefit of vaccination over time has the same profile for the original vaccine recipients and the placebo crossovers. This reconstruction allows estimation of both vaccine durability and potential vaccine-associated enhanced disease. RESULTS: Post-crossover estimates of vaccine efficacy can provide insights about durability, identify waning efficacy, and identify late enhancement of disease, but are less reliable estimates than those obtained by a standard trial where the placebo cohort is maintained. As vaccine efficacy estimates for post-crossover periods depend on prior vaccine efficacy estimates, longer pre-crossover periods with higher case counts provide better estimates of late vaccine efficacy. Further, open-label crossover may lead to riskier behavior in the immediate crossover period for the unblinded vaccine arm, confounding vaccine efficacy estimates for all post-crossover periods. CONCLUSIONS: We advocate blinded crossover and continued follow-up of trial participants to best assess vaccine durability and potential delayed enhancement of disease. This approach allows placebo recipients timely access to the vaccine when it would no longer be proper to maintain participants on placebo, yet still allows important insights about immunological and clinical effectiveness over time.

10.
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice ; 17(1):38-55, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1771947

ABSTRACT

Objective - In winter 2019-2020, the world saw the emergence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). More than a year later, the pandemic continues with the U.S. death toll surpassing 550,000. Over the last decade, librarians have increased their roles in infectious disease outbreak response. However, no existing literature exists on use of the widely-used library content management platform, LibGuides, to respond to infectious disease outbreaks. This research explores how Federal Libraries use LibGuides to distribute COVID-19 information throughout the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Methods - Survey questions were created and peer-reviewed by colleagues. Survey questions first screened for participant eligibility and collected broad demographic information to assist in identifying duplicate responses from individual libraries, then examined the creation, curation, and maintenance of COVID-19 LibGuides. The survey was hosted in Max.gov, a Federal Government data collection and analysis tool. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent via email to colleagues and listservs and posted to personal social media accounts. The survey was made publicly available for three weeks. Collected data were exported into Excel to clean, quantify, and visualize results. Long form answers were manually reviewed and tagged thematically. Results - Of the 78 eligible respondents, 42% (n = 33) reported that their library uses LibGuides to disseminate COVID-19 information;45% of these respondents said they spent 10+ hours creating their COVID-19 LibGuide, and 60% of respondents spent <1 hour a week on maintenance and updates. Most LibGuides were created in early spring 2020 as the U.S. first saw an uptick in COVID-19 cases. For marketing purposes, respondents reported using web/internal announcements (75%) and email (50%) most frequently. All respondents reported inclusion of U.S. Government resources in their COVID-19 LibGuides, and a majority also included guidelines, international websites, and databases to inform their user communities. Conclusion - Some Federal Libraries use LibGuides as a tool to share critical information, including as a tool for emergency response. Results show libraries tend to start from scratch and share the same resources, duplicating efforts. To improve efficiency in LibGuide curation and use of library staff time, one solution to consider is the creation of a LibGuides template that any Federal Library can use to quickly set up and adapt an emergency response LibGuide specifically for their users. Additionally, findings show that libraries are uncertain of archiving and preservation plans for their guides post-pandemic, suggesting a need for recommended best practices.

11.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):400, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770467

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is particularly serious in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), with estimated mortality of over 30% in several studies. In the general population, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective approach to preventing infection. However, patients with MM were not included in vaccination trials. Recent studies suggest that patients with compromised immune systems exhibit reduced antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and MM patients are often immunocompromised both due to MM itself and due to MM treatment. Thus, the objective of this retrospective cohort study in the national Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system was to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination to prevent COVID-19 infection in MM patients during the 140-day period following initial vaccine availability. Methods This is a multicenter study of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated and unvaccinated patients at VA hospitals nationwide during the period from 12/15/2020 to 5/4/2021. We identified a cohort of MM patients who were alive and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on their date of vaccination or inclusion as a control. For added comparison with a less immunocompromised population, we also identified a cohort of cancer survivors, defined as patients with any solid or hematologic malignancy who had been treated with systemic cancerdirected therapy subsequent to 8/15/2010, but had not been treated with such therapy in the 6 months prior to vaccination or inclusion as a control, and were alive and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on that date. Vaccinated patients were exactly matched 1:1 to unvaccinated controls on race, VA facility, rurality of home address, cancer type, and treatment timing and modality with minimum distance matching on age. The primary exposure was receipt of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the risk ratio of SARS-CoV-2 infection for vaccinated individuals compared to unvaccinated controls. Results 6,891 MM patients met eligibility criteria and 4,367 were vaccinated during the study period. Of those, 1,606 vaccinated MM patients were matched 1:1 to 1,606 unvaccinated or not yet vaccinated controls. In addition, for comparison, 2,476 vaccinated cancer survivors were matched 1:1 to 2,476 unvaccinated or not yet vaccinated controls. Median follow-up was 44 days among MM patients and 46 days among cancer survivors. Vaccine effectiveness in the matched cohort of MM patients was 22.2% (95% CI, -133 to 82.7%) starting 14 days after the second dose. In contrast, effectiveness was 82.3% (95% CI 16.4 to 100%) starting 14 days after the second dose in the matched cohort of cancer survivors. Among vaccinated MM patients in the matched cohort, 14 (8.7 per 1000 patients) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 subsequent to vaccination. Among vaccinated cancer survivors in the matched cohort, 10 (4.0 per 1000 patients) were infected subsequent to vaccination. Conclusion Vaccination is an effective strategy for preventing SARS-CoV-2. However, effectiveness may be reduced in patients with MM, likely due to a co-existing immunosuppression both due to the disease process as well as associated therapy. Future studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between MM disease states, types of therapy used and treatment timing that may impact vaccine effectiveness, and to also determine if MM patients would benefit from post-vaccination serologies or a booster vaccination.

12.
TMR Integrative Medicine ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1761773

ABSTRACT

Background: To examine the outcomes heterogeneity of clinical trial protocols of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prioritize the establishment of a core outcome set. Methods: Databases of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors - accepted clinical trial registry platforms were searched on February 14, 2020 and May 31, 2020. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials of COVID-19 were considered. Patient condition was classified as common, severe, or critical. Interventions included traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. We excluded trials that involved discharged patients, psychological intervention, and complications of COVID-19. The general information and outcomes, outcome measurement instruments, and measurement times were extracted. The results were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Results: In all, 19 registry platforms were searched. A total of 97 protocols were selected from among 160 protocols for the first search. For protocols of traditional Chinese medicine clinical trials, 76 outcomes from 16 outcome domains were reported, and almost half (34/76, 44.74%) of the outcomes were reported only once;the most frequently reported outcome was time taken for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA to become negative. Twenty-seven (27/76, 35.53%) outcomes provided one or more outcome measurement instruments. Ten outcomes provided one or more measurement time frame. For protocols of Western medicine clinical trials, 126 outcomes from 17 outcome domains were reported;almost half (62/126, 49.21%) of the outcomes were reported only once;the most frequently reported outcome was proportion of patients with negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Twenty-seven outcomes provided one or more outcome measurement instruments. Forty (40/126, 31.75%) outcomes provided one or more measurement time frame. There were > 40 duplicated outcomes between the clinical trials protocols of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine protocols. All of them were included in the Delphi survey when developing core outcome set for COVID-19. A total of 1,027 protocols were selected from 2,741 protocols for the second search. Forty-two new outcomes and 47 new outcome measurement instruments were reported. Conclusion: Outcome reporting in clinical trial protocols of COVID-19 is inconsistent. Thus, establishing a core outcome set is necessary for diagnosis and management.

13.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696123

ABSTRACT

In this research paper, we focus on evidence of successful and sustained faculty change as part of our design-based implementation research project contextualized in the COVID-19 pandemic. This work draws on previous collaborative change efforts implemented in a multidisciplinary engineering department at a Hispanic-serving research institution in the Southwest and supported by a multiple-year NSF-funded Revolutionizing Engineering Departments (RED) grant. The abrupt shifts in instructional environments and practices brought on by the pandemic provide a valuable opportunity for us to explore whether and how faculty changes inspired and supported by RED-related activities were sustained during a time of crisis and upheaval. By analyzing and triangulating qualitative data sources such as interviews, recorded faculty meetings and professional development workshops, archived emails, and student surveys, we identified and reported salient indicators of sustained faculty changes, including their awareness and care related to students' success, their readiness and implementation of online teaching pedagogy, and their initiatives in creating inclusive learning environments for diverse student needs. Results suggest the importance of fostering and sustaining change by creating collaborative spaces for faculty to reflect on and support each other's teaching practice. A departmental Community of Practice (COP) related to teaching provided faculty with existing space, norms, and practice supporting each other in reflecting on, adapting, and improving their teaching to support the needs of diverse learners. We share our findings and implications in a traditional lecture. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

14.
25th International Conference Living and Walking in Cities, LWC 2021 ; 60:266-273, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1671240

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the everyday transport and mobility challenges faced by young women living in one poor peripheral neighborhood of a North African city, Tunis. Discussion spans a two-year period covering conditions prior to and within the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an innovative participatory methodology, young women from the study neighborhood were trained to work as peer researchers in collaboration with the academic team. We examine women’s everyday mobility experiences, with particular reference to safety and the risk-avoidance practices they employ. In the context of the pandemic we then consider the impact of measures such as social distancing, lockdowns, and curfews on women’s travel safety. In the early phases of the pandemic women’s concerns around harassment seem to have been over-ridden by stronger concerns regarding disease contagion but also reflect reduced incidence of harassment due to limits imposed on transport usage and over-crowding. We conclude with reflections regarding the interventions needed for more positive post-pandemic travel scenarios, including priority seating, and boarding for women;expanded transport services into low-income areas;also improved surveillance on transport, at transport hubs and on the streets. © 2022 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)

15.
Accounts of Materials Research ; : 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1655393

ABSTRACT

CONSPECTUS: The development of a highly effective, low-cost method for protection against direct transmission through infectious media associated with respiratory diseases has been considered to be a major challenge in the management of the pandemic outbreak. Currently, filtration in respirators and masks depends on the mesh size, raising safety concerns about direct contact with the virus-laden layers of masks and respirators during use and disposal. Also, conventional medical face masks and respirators are recommended for single use only because long-term use and reuse of masks increase the risk of contact transmission of pathogens. As a result, mask reusability has gained much attention in addressing the global problem of respirator and mask shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, coinfection by influenza, SARSCoV-2, and bacteria has been an ongoing issue in the current COVID-19 pandemic. In our response to the increasing demand for more convenient forms of disease control, our group has investigated antimicrobial technologies for respiratory devices against pandemic/epidemic diseases and developed two universal antimicrobial coating technologies: (1) nonwashable, reusable salt-coated fabrics and (2) washable, photopolymerizable polymer-coated fabrics which efficiently inactivate infectious viruses by contact with the filter. This is an opportune time to assess research efforts toward antimicrobial face mask technology for its expected impact on society and the economy. In this Account, we introduce the importance of respiratory devices for protection against respiratory diseases, decontamination methods, technical challenges for reuse and extended use, antimicrobial substances used in masks, antimicrobial functionalization strategies for mask fibers, and the characterization of antimicrobial performance and the limitations of the current procedure. Then, the major focus will be directed to discussing the continued efforts of our group to develop antimicrobial fabrics for face mask covers and face masks/respirators based on salt-coated polypropylene (PP) fibers. In the following sections of this Account, we will first discuss salt coating methods and pathogen inactivation mechanisms in salt-coated filters. Then, an overview of our recent progress in evaluating the antimicrobial performance of salt-coated PP fabrics against five different bacterial species, influenza viruses, and human coronaviruses will be presented. The technical challenges in the implementation of the technology will be highlighted in the last section. We believe that easy-to-implement antimicrobial respiratory devices would guarantee improved protection without decontamination processes and enable rapid responses to future pandemic/epidemic outbreaks.

16.
Chinese Management Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1642468

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 outbreak has been effectively controlled in China, but the resulting public psychological crisis is a latent, persistent and torturous disaster. This crisis affects not only the individual’s health but also social stability. This study aims to reveal the structure and situation of public psychological crisis during the remission period of the COVID-19 epidemic. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire survey of the psychological crisis was conducted from February to May 2021. Data was collected from 1,056 respondents from different provinces in China. Findings: The findings reveal the dangerous risks of public psychological crises. The specific results are as follows: first, a hierarchical state structure of psychological crisis is constructed and characterized as a significant gradient decline, namely, anxious state>panic state>depressive state>hostile state. Second, 43.939% of respondents reported an anxious state, 46.780% reported a panic state, 40.909% reported a depressive state, 28.883% reported a hostile state and 22.254% of the respondents had four psychological crisis states. Third, those with 56–65 years of age, equal or below high school and PhD, with monthly family incomes of ¥50,000–¥100,000 and living in the county and city areas have relatively high levels of psychological crisis. Originality/value: This study enriches the research on the evolution of the psychological crisis in terms of structure and periods. This study also provides substantial evidence for hierarchical intervention and differentiated intervention of psychological crisis. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-475-S-476, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1595033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Branch duct (BD)-IPMNs with increased risk for malignant transformation are typically treated with surgical resection, and alternate therapies are needed for patients with prohibitive risks for perioperative complications. Injection of cysts with paclitaxel may prevent or reverse transformation, but current formulations are not retained in cysts to provide durable benefit. A Submicron Particle formulation of Paclitaxel (SPP) has been designed to avoid clearance into the systemic circulation and effectively provides a depot effect releasing the drug at constant saturation levels. In this initial study of EUS-guided fine needle injection (FNI) with SPP we evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and cyst response in BD-IPMNs. METHODS: A diagnosis of BD-IPMNs was confirmed by EUSguided confocal laser endomicroscopy and cyst fluid next generation sequencing. Subjects received EUS-FNI of SPP (15mg/mL concentration) at volumes equal to the aspirated cyst fluid as part of an ongoing clinical trial [NCT03188991] (Study was interrupted due to COVID-19 pandemic). This report covers 5 of the study subjects enrolled at one site. SPP was administered on two occasions 12 weeks apart in 4/5 subjects and once in 1 subject. CT Scans were performed at 0, 12, and 24 weeks to assess changes in cyst size. RESULTS: The mean6standard deviation duration of follow-up from 1st EUS-FNI was 37.3±19.8 weeks. The mean size on CT-Scan of BD-IPMNs at time 0 weeks (1st EUS-FNI) was 3.360.8 cm, 12 weeks (2nd EUS-FNI) was 3.02±1.2 cm, and 24 weeks was 3.15±1.8 cm (Table 1). The mean dosage of SPP injected by EUS-FNI was 75±39 mg for 1st dose and 40.6±15.1 mg for 2nd dose. No dose limiting toxicities, study-related serious adverse events, or clinically significant changes in blood work were observed. The paclitaxel levels (PK) in plasma and cyst fluid is shown in Figure 1. Systemic paclitaxel concentration did not exceed 1 ng/mL at any point post-administration, falling below lower limit of quantitation (25 pg/mL) within, at most, 4 weeks. Cyst fluid analysis confirmed sustained presence of SPP for at least 12 weeks. At baseline evaluation, 4 of 5 subjects had GNAS mutations in cyst fluid (Table 1). In total, DNA mutations (KRAS or GNAS) were not detectable in two of 4 (50%) subjects after EUS-FNI with SPP (Table 1);both subjects (Figure 1) had a dose-dependent high intracystic concentration (> 1000 ng/mL) of SPP immediately prior to 2nd EUS-FNI (week 12). CONCLUSION: EUS-FNI of intracystic SPP appears to be safe and tolerable in patients with BD-IPMNs. SPP is likely retained in these cysts up to 12 weeks in a dose-dependent manner and higher doses are associated with regression of mutations that are specific for BD-IPMNs. Future studies with additional injections and longer-term follow-up are needed to understand the durability of the benefits observed.(Table presented)(figure presented)

18.
12th International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics, ICEME 2021 ; : 379-387, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1574488

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in substantial employment losses in the US. To understand how this impact fell on male and female workers unevenly, I empirically investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the gender inequality in labor markets and analyze the variation in effects across sectors. I find that the COVID-19 pandemic influences all sectors to different degrees, with the tertiary (service) sector hit the hardest. The pandemic has also exacerbated gender inequality in certain sectors, but not all: women working in the tertiary sector are most economically harmed, while sectors that rely mostly on knowledge and technology tend to work remotely and generally have the least impact in working hours from the pandemic. The intersectionality of race, gender, and educational attainment also contributes to the disparities in labor markets across all sectors. Results also show that marriage benefits employment, and that having children under the age of five could slightly disadvantage workers in the labor markets. © 2021 ACM.

19.
Journal of Emergency Management ; 19(9):121-131, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481100

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Our research addressed double vic timization among Asian Americans by COVID-19 and anti-Asian racial discrimination during the pandemic. Guided by the Vulnerable Populations framework that argues that health status reflects the dynamic interplay between resource availability and relative risk, we investigated time-sensitive ques tions that explored relative risk (perceived racial dis crimination, fear of COVID-19), resources (COVID-19 prevention knowledge, resilience), and mental health status (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depres sion) in Asian American undergraduate and graduate students during the pandemic. Methods: A mixed-methods research was con ducted to examine the relationships among the rela tive risk, resources, and mental health outcomes in this population. We adapted questions from valid and reliable measures to assess key variables. Descriptive and regression analyses along with content analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data. Results: Our sample included 74 Asian American students (AA students) who participated in the online survey (53 complete cases were included in the statistical analysis) and an additional 10 AA students who were interviewed via Zoom. The results of hierarchical regression models confirmed a posi tive association between fear of COVID-19 and both mental health outcomes (PTSD and depression), and a negative association between COVID-19 prevention knowledge and mental health outcomes. Perceived racial discrimination was significantly and posi tively associated with PTSD and depression while controlling for sociodemographic variables. However, its association with outcomes diminished when fear of COVID-19 and COVID-19 prevention knowledge were added to the models. Our interview results sup ported the survey findings with more nuanced details not revealed in the survey. Conclusion: The findings of this research will help public health officials and universities identify prac tices useful for promoting culturally congruent safety and protection in response to pandemics and other health emergencies. © 2021 Weston Medical Publishing. All rights reserved.

20.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; 56(14):1178-1181, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of timely inclusion of medical insurance on the use of high-quality domestic innovative drugs, using the domestic innovative drug, icotinib, as an example. METHODS Province X and province Z with large difference on the timing to include icotinib in medical insurance were selected as sample provinces to compare and analyze the price, volume and expenditure changes of three targeted drugs (gefitinib, erlotinib and icotinib) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), using the sample hospital procurement data covering two provinces from 2013 to 2018 in the China Medical Economic Information Network (CMEI) database. RESULTS In two sample provinces, icotinib's daily cost had been the lowest among three sample drug's for a long time. Province Z has included icotinib in the basic health insurance since 2013. After that, the market shares of icotinib's volume and expenditure had increased rapidly from 0, and remained at about 85% for a long period of time, occupying the dominant position in province Z's market. However, province X has not included icotinib until 2016. The highest market share of icotinib's volume was only 8% in province X's market. There was little difference of sample drugs' daily cost between two provinces. After the national health insurance negotiation, the daily cost of sample drugs decreased significantly, with an overall decrease between 60% to 79%. By the second half of 2018, the daily cost of sample drugs was almost the same. CONCLUSION Timely inclusion of high-quality domestic innovative drugs in the scope of medical insurance reimbursement can greatly promote the use of high-quality domestic innovative drugs. Compared with foreign drugs with same indications, high-quality domestic innovative drugs can save money for patients, which will greatly benefit them.

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