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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2028, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805608

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune responses contribute critically to the progression of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), with macrophages as one of the main cell types involved. It is urgent to understand the interactions among permissive cells, macrophages, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby offering important insights into effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we establish a lung and macrophage co-culture system derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), modeling the host-pathogen interaction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that both classically polarized macrophages (M1) and alternatively polarized macrophages (M2) have inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, M1 and non-activated (M0) macrophages, but not M2 macrophages, significantly up-regulate inflammatory factors upon viral infection. Moreover, M1 macrophages suppress the growth and enhance apoptosis of lung cells. Inhibition of viral entry using an ACE2 blocking antibody substantially enhances the activity of M2 macrophages. Our studies indicate differential immune response patterns in distinct macrophage phenotypes, which could lead to a range of COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Lung , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10602, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1270959

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted the mental health of healthcare providers at the frontline. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the prevalence rate of anxiety and insomnia and identify associated risk factors among healthcare workers in Jilin, China, during the period from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Zung's Self-Reported Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale were used to diagnose anxiety and insomnia, respectively. Associated risk factors were identified through a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 300 healthcare workers were invited and 236 completed the study. Of them, 234 (99.15%) were medical workers, 197 (83.47%) were working at frontline departments, and 159 (67.37%) were fighting against COVID-19. Fifty-seven respondents (24.15%) had anxiety (SAS index score ≥45) and 94 (39.83%) had insomnia (ISI score ≥8). Based on the multivariate analysis, contact with people from Hubei province during work (no vs not clear) [OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.10-0.61] and personal protective equipment (PPE) (not in place vs in place) [OR=6.22, 95%CI: 2.23-17.40] were significantly correlated with anxiety. PPE (not in place vs in place) was the only significant risk factor of insomnia [OR=10.56, 95%CI: 4.00-27.87]. The prevalence of anxiety and insomnia was high in our study, reflecting the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers. The unavailability of PPE in place was a significant risk factor of both anxiety and insomnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Depression , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 10(7): 1572-1575, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647622
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