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1.
Talanta ; 233: 122609, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267932

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory illness that was caused by the SARS-CoV-2. It spread around the world in just a few months and became a worldwide pandemic. Quick and accurate diagnosis of infected patients is very important for controlling transmission. In addition to the commonly used Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection techniques, other diagnostic techniques are also emerging endlessly. This article reviews the current diagnostic methods for COVID-19 and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. It provides an important reference for the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112676, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213353

ABSTRACT

Unprecedented travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused remarkable reductions in anthropogenic emissions, however, the Beijing area still experienced extreme haze pollution even under the strict COVID-19 controls. Generalized Additive Models (GAM) were developed with respect to inter-annual variations, seasonal cycles, holiday effects, diurnal profile, and the non-linear influences of meteorological factors to quantitatively differentiate the lockdown effects and meteorology impacts on concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) at 34 sites in the Beijing area. The results revealed that lockdown measures caused large reductions while meteorology offset a large fraction of the decrease in surface concentrations. GAM estimates showed that in February, the control measures led to average NO2 reductions of 19 µg/m3 and average PM2.5 reductions of 12 µg/m3. At the same time, meteorology was estimated to contribute about 12 µg/m3 increase in NO2, thereby offsetting most of the reductions as well as an increase of 30 µg/m3 in PM2.5, thereby resulting in concentrations higher than the average PM2.5 concentrations during the lockdown. At the beginning of the lockdown period, the boundary layer height was the dominant factor contributing to a 17% increase in NO2 while humid condition was the dominant factor for PM2.5 concentrations leading to an increase of 65% relative to the baseline level. Estimated NO2 emissions declined by 42% at the start of the lockdown, after which the emissions gradually increased with the increase of traffic volumes. The diurnal patterns from the models showed that the peak of vehicular traffic occurred from about 12pm to 5pm daily during the strictest control periods. This study provides insights for quantifying the changes in air quality due to the lockdowns by accounting for meteorological variability and providing a reference in evaluating the effectiveness of control measures, thereby contributing to air quality mitigation policies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Meteorology , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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