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Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 61(6): 543-549, 2023 Jun 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241887


Objective: To investigate the clinical features and short-term prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated acute encephalopathy (AE). Methods: Retrospective cohort study. The clinical data, radiological features and short-term follow-up of 22 cases diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection associated AE in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into cytokine storm group, excitotoxic brain damage group and unclassified encephalopathy group according to the the clinicopathological features and the imaging features. The clinical characteristics of each group were analyzed descriptively. Patients were divided into good prognosis group (≤2 scores) and poor prognosis group (>2 scores) based on the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of the last follow-up. Fisher exact test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the two groups. Results: A total of 22 cases (12 females, 10 males) were included. The age of onset was 3.3 (1.7, 8.6) years. There were 11 cases (50%) with abnormal medical history, and 4 cases with abnormal family history. All the enrolled patients had fever as the initial clinical symptom, and 21 cases (95%) developed neurological symptoms within 24 hours after fever. The onset of neurological symptoms included convulsions (17 cases) and disturbance of consciousness (5 cases). There were 22 cases of encephalopathy, 20 cases of convulsions, 14 cases of speech disorders, 8 cases of involuntary movements and 3 cases of ataxia during the course of the disease. Clinical classification included 3 cases in the cytokine storm group, all with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE); 9 cases in the excitotoxicity group, 8 cases with acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) and 1 case with hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome; and 10 cases of unclassified encephalopathy. Laboratory studies revealed elevated glutathione transaminase in 9 cases, elevated glutamic alanine transaminase in 4 cases, elevated blood glucose in 3 cases, and elevated D-dimer in 3 cases. Serum ferritin was elevated in 3 of 5 cases, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain protein was elevated in 5 of 9 cases, serum cytokines were elevated in 7 of 18 cases, and CSF cytokines were elevated in 7 of 8 cases. Cranial imaging abnormalities were noted in 18 cases, including bilateral symmetric lesions in 3 ANE cases and "bright tree appearance" in 8 AESD cases. All 22 cases received symptomatic treatment and immunotherapy (intravenous immunoglobulin or glucocorticosteroids), and 1 ANE patient received tocilizumab. The follow-up time was 50 (43, 53) d, and 10 patients had a good prognosis and 12 patients had a poor prognosis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, biochemical indices, and duration of illness to initiate immunotherapy (all P>0.05). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection is also a major cause of AE. AESD and ANE are the common AE syndromes. Therefore, it is crucial to identify AE patients with fever, convulsions, and impaired consciousness, and apply aggressive therapy as early as possible.

Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/etiology , Prognosis , Seizures , Cytokines
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(5): 510-514, 2022 May 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834946


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two respiratory infectious diseases with a high incidence of transmission, mainly via respiratory droplets and both can weaken the immune system and lower the number of CD4+T cells in patients. COVID-19 can occur before, at the same time or after the diagnosis of TB. Patients with pulmonary TB are more likely to have co-infection when they have a history of epidemiological exposure to COVID-19. At present, many cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 caused by ineffective prevention and control measures in tuberculosis hospitals have been reported successively at domestic and overseas. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in tuberculosis hospitals. The superposition of the two diseases can lead to a worsening prognosis, aggravating the patient's condition and making treatment more difficult. In addition, in the context of the new coronavirus epidemic, early recognition of co-infection with new coronavirus should be made when TB patients in chest hospitals present with symptoms such as aggregated fever or progressive disease. At the same time, we should focus on identifying the clinical and imaging manifestations of TB and COVID-19 co-infection. At present, research on COVID-19 complicated with pulmonary TB is scarce, and there are disputes on many aspects. As a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, it is of great practical significance to identify the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment of the two infectious diseases in China.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
TMR Integrative Medicine ; 5, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449765


Objective: To explore the mechanism of Kangguan decoction in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then perform preliminary verification. Methods: The effective compounds and target genes of Kangguan decoction were obtained from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform. COVID-19 related target genes were searched in the GeneCards database. The active target genes of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 were identified to perform GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The compound-target network and protein-protein interaction were constructed;Molecular docking simulations of macromolecular protein target receptors and their corresponding compounds were performed. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients were retrieved from their electronic medical records of Nantong Third People's Hospital. Results: We screened out 137 effective compounds and 274 effective target genes of Kangguan decoction from TCMSP. The active target genes of Kangguan decoction were compared with the COVID-19 related target genes, and 63 active target genes for Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 were identified. GO function enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed. The compound-target network and PPI network were constructed and the key compounds and key targets were selected to construct a key compound-target network. Finally, the binding of the target and its corresponding components was verified by molecular docking and two clinical cases with obvious clinical efficacy after Kangguan decoction application were demonstrated. Conclusion: The pharmacological mechanism of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 has been explored, and the active compounds and targets of Kangguan decoction acting on COVID-19 and clinical efficacy for Kangguan decoction treating COVID-19 patients have been preliminarily verified.