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1.
Acute & Critical Care ; 37(3):312-321, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the significance of bacterial and fungal coinfections in individuals with COVID-19 was unknown. Initial reports indicated that the prevalence of coinfection in the general population was low, but there was uncertainty regarding the risk of coinfection in critically ill patients. METHODS: Nine hundred critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 infection were enrolled in this observational case-control study. Patients with a coinfection (case) and patients without a coinfection (control) were compared using univariate and multivariable analyses. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients with coinfection, dividing them into early (infection within 7 days) and late (infection after 7 days) infection groups. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three patients (25.9%) had a bacterial or fungal coinfection. Vasopressor use (P<0.001) and severity of illness (higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, P=0.009) were risk factors for the development of a coinfection. Patients with coinfection had higher mortality and length of stay. Vasopressor and corticosteroid use and central line and foley catheter placement were risk factors for late infection (>7 days). There were high rates of drug-resistant infections. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at risk for both community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections throughout their hospitalization for COVID-19. It is important to consider the development of a coinfection in clinically worsening critically ill patients with COVID-19 and consider the likelihood of drug-resistance when choosing an empiric regimen.

2.
Emerging Microbes & Infections ; : 1-30, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028965

ABSTRACT

The devastating economic and public health consequences caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted outstanding efforts from the scientific community and pharmaceutical companies to develop antibody-based therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. Those efforts are encouraging and fruitful. An unprecedentedly large number of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting a large spectrum of epitopes on the spike protein has been developed in the last two years. The development of structural biology, especially the cryo-EM technology, provides structural insights into the molecular neutralizing mechanisms of those mAbs. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies are essential in protecting host from infection. Therefore, understanding the antibody neutralizing mechanism is critical for optimizing effective antibody-based therapeutics and developing next-generation pan-coronavirus vaccines. This review summarizes the latest understanding of antibody neutralizing mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2 at the molecular and structural levels.

3.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13:781274, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022856

ABSTRACT

Background: Negative life events in middle school students have a significant impact on depression. However, the mechanism of this association is not fully understood. This study used rumination and perceived social support as mediating variables to explore the influence of negative life events on depression. Materials and methods: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing, a convenient sampling method was adopted to collect information about middle school students in Shandong Province by means of online questionnaire. Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Ruminative Responses Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale and Children's Depression Inventory were used. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted for four variables of middle school students, including life events, depression, rumination thinking and perceived social support, and the chain mediated effect was tested by using process plug-in. All statistically analysis was conducted by SPSS 23.0. Results: 493 middle school students (16.7000 +/- 0.9500 years) including 343 female students (69.6000%) from Shandong Province recruited. Results showed that the total effect between life events and depression was significant (effect = 0.2535, 95%CI: 0.2146, 0.2924). The total indirect effect was significant (effect = 0.1700, 95%CI: 0.1349, 0.2072). The indirect effect was significant (effect = 0.0988, 95%CI: 0.0741, 0.1252) with rumination as the mediating variable. The indirect effect of pathway with perceived social support as the mediating variable was significant (effect = 0.0476, 95%CI: 0.0295, 0.0674). The indirect effect of pathway with rumination and perceived social support as mediating variables was also significant (effect = 0.0236, 95%CI: 0.0147, 0.0339). Conclusion: This study indicated that ruminant thinking and perceived social support had a significant chain mediating effect on adolescents' life events and depression. Life events can not only directly affect depressive emotions, but also indirectly affect depressive emotions by affecting ruminant thinking and perceived social support. The results of this study not only provide new directions for the relationship between life events and depression, but also provide possible approaches for future prevention and intervention of depression in middle school students.

4.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009548

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet are all modifiable risk factors for cancer. These unhealthy behaviors are disproportionally concentrated in racial and ethnic minorities and these disparities may have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in weight gain and other undesirable lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and explored mechanisms underlying these lifestyle disparities. Methods: We used data from the 2020 Health, Ethnicity and Pandemic Study, a national survey representative of US households conducted in October 2020. Racial and ethnic minorities were oversampled. Participants were asked to report lifestyle behaviors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined two outcomes in this study: weight gain and experiencing any undesirable lifestyle changes (i.e., reduced exercise time, increased alcohol drinking, or increased fast-food meal consumption). The primary exposure was race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Hispanic, NH Asian, NH other race). Four sets of mediators were examined: socioeconomic status (education, household income, and undesirable job changes), family and friend social relationship change, perceived and experienced racism, and psychological distress. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were performed. Mediation effects were examined with variance decomposition method. Results: A total of 2,709 participants were included in our sample. Compared with white respondents, black (OR = 1.71;p < 0.001) and Hispanic respondents (OR = 2.17;p < 0.001) were more likely to experience weight gain, controlling for age and sex. Among the hypothesized mediators, undesirable job changes during the pandemic, experiencing worse family relationship, and higher levels of psychological distress were all linked to higher odds of weight gain, but none of these variables played a salient role in mediating the black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in weight gain during the pandemic. As to the odds of experiencing undesirable lifestyle changes, black (OR = 1.76;p < 0.001), Hispanic (OR = 2.12;p < 0.001), and Asian respondents (OR = 1.42;p < 0.01) all exhibited disadvantages relative to white respondent. These disadvantages were largely attributable to perceived racism toward one's own group and psychological distress for all three minority groups. Conclusions: Racial and ethnic minorities were more likely to experience unhealthy lifestyle changes relative to white individuals during the pandemic in the United States, which can be partly attributable to higher levels of perceived racism and psychological distress. The long-term effects of racial/ethnic disparities of lifestyle change during the pandemic on cancer prevention warrant further research.

5.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009540

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in delayed medical care that may have led to increased death rates in 2020 among people with medical conditions such as cancer. This study examined changes in cancer-related mortality between 2019 and 2020. Methods: We used the US 2019-2020 Multiple Cause of Death database from the CDC WONDER to identify cancer-related deaths, defined as decedents with invasive or noninvasive cancer as a contributing cause of death (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97 and D00-D09). We compared age-standardized cancer-related annual and monthly mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years and person-months, respectively) in January-December 2020 (pandemic) versus January-December 2019 (pre-pandemic) overall and stratified by rurality and place of death. We calculated the 2020 excess death by comparing the numbers of observed death with the projected death based on age-specific cancer-related death rate from 2015 to 2019. Results: The number of cancer-related deaths was 686 054 in 2020, up from 664 888 in 2019, with an annual increase of 3.2%. Compared to the number of projected deaths for 2020 (666 286), the number of cancer-related excess deaths was 19 768 in 2020. Annual age-standardized cancer-related mortality rate (per 100,000 person-years) continuously decreased from 173.7 in 2015 to 162.1 in 2019, while it increased to 164.1 in 2020 (2020 vs 2019 rate ratio (RR): 1.013, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.009 - 1.016). The cancer-related monthly mortality rate was higher in April 2020 (RR: 1.032, 95% CI: 1.020 - 1.044) when healthcare capacity was most challenged by the pandemic, subsequently declined in May and June 2020, and higher mortality rates were again observed each month from July to December 2020 compared to 2019. In large metropolitan areas, the largest increase in cancer-related mortality was observed in April 2020, while in non-metropolitan areas, the largest increases occurred from July to December 2020, coinciding with the time-spatial pattern of COVID-19 incidence in the country. Compared to 2019, cancer-related mortality rates were lower from March to December 2020 in medical facilities, hospice facilities, and nursing homes or long-term care settings but higher in decedent's homes. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant increases in cancer-related deaths in 2020 versus 2019. Ongoing evaluation of the spatialtemporal effects of the pandemic on cancer care and outcomes is warranted, especially in relation to patterns in vaccine uptake and COVID-19 hospitalization rates.

6.
Public Management Review ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997003

ABSTRACT

To examine the impacts of government crisis messaging on social media, we draw on Situation Crisis Communication Theory to classify government messages related to COVID-19 and develop theories about how these messages affect citizen online engagement and offline compliance. We utilize gradient boosting trees to classify tweets of fifty U.S. governors from March to December 2020. To mitigate social desirability bias, we connect social media data with mobility data, which reveals actual compliance with policies. Using double fixed-effect models, we show that governors' informational, instructional, and compassionate messages are consistently associated with increased citizen online engagement with state government. The online engagement, in turn, correlates with compliance with stay-at-home orders and advisories to avoid non-essential travel except in Republican-controlled states. Meanwhile, governors' instructional, compassionate, and praising messages are directly associated with better compliance. However, the direct associations except for compassionate ones disappear in the last four months of 2020.

7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1991611

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already infected more than 500 million people globally (as of May 2022), creating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nanotechnology has played a pivotal role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 in various aspects, with the successful development of the two highly effective nanotechnology-based messenger RNA vaccines being the most profound. Despite the remarkable efficacy of mRNA vaccines against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, hopes for quickly ending this pandemic have been dampened by the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, which have brought several new pandemic waves. Thus, novel strategies should be proposed to tackle the crisis presented by existing and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we discuss the SARS-CoV-2 variants from biological and immunological perspectives, and the rational design and development of novel and potential nanotechnology-based strategies to combat existing and possible future SARS-CoV-2 variants. The lessons learnt and design strategies developed from this battle against SARS-CoV-2 variants could also inspire innovation in the development of nanotechnology-based strategies for tackling other global infectious diseases and their future variants.

8.
Journal of the Operational Research Society ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960658

ABSTRACT

This study addresses two key issues, ie, the “cold-start problem” in transmission prediction of new or rare epidemics and the collaborative allocation of emergency medical resources considering multiple objectives. These two issues have not yet been well addressed in data-driven emergency medical resource allocation systems. A decision support prediction-then-optimization framework combing deep learning and optimization is developed to address these two issues. Two transfer learning based convolutional neural network models are built for epidemic transmission predictions in the initial and the subsequent outbreak regions using transfer learning to deal with the “cold-start problem”. A prediction-driven collaborative emergency medical resource allocation model is built to address the issue of collaborative decisions by simultaneously considering the inter- and intra-echelon resource flows in a multi-echelon system and considering the efficiency and fairness as the objective functions. A case study of the COVID-19 pandemic shows that combining transfer learning and convolutional neural networks can improve the performances of epidemic transmission predictions, and good predictions can improve both the efficiency and fairness of emergency medical resource allocation decisions. Moreover, the computational results show that the prediction errors are asymmetrically amplified in the optimization stage, and the shortage of the resource reserve quantity mediates the asymmetrical amplification effect. © Operational Research Society 2022.

9.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 79, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1959577

ABSTRACT

While remote working has been applied as an emerging flexible modern work arrangement and as an effective way to maintain social distancing during pandemics, it may result in negative workplace outcomes. Despite the eulogy on remote working, more research is needed to examine its possible negative effects on employees in the workplace. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of remote working on work-family conflict and workplace wellbeing during pandemics, and how such effects are moderated by employees’ general self-efficacy and job autonomy. Survey data was collected from 399 Chinese employees during COVID-19. The results show that remote working has a positive effect on work-family conflict, which in turn decreases workplace wellbeing. Further analyses show that while the work-family conflict dimension of family interfering with work (FIW) has a negative effect on wellbeing, the effect of the work-family conflict dimension of work interfering with family (WIF) on wellbeing is not significant. Besides, the effect of remote working on FIW is positively moderated by general self-efficacy and job autonomy. Lastly, the effect of remote working differs depending on the extent to which remote working is implemented. Our study contributes to the literature by explaining the negative effect of remote working on workplace wellbeing during pandemics and clarifying its boundary conditions. Our results provide managers useful guidelines regarding how to implement remote working. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

10.
Journal of Applied Analysis and Computation ; 12(4):1532-1543, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954979

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is pandemic worldwide, and different countries have adopted different measures to stop the spread of the epidemic. In order to study the impact of quarantining close contacts on the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), based on data published by Beijing Municipal Health Commission, World Health Organization (WHO) and Korea Central Disaster Control Headquarters (KCDC), SEIR dynamic models of virus transmission in Beijing and South Korea were set up respectively;the Genetic algorithm was used to fit the important parameters such as transmission rate, recovery rate and quarantine rate;calculated the control reproduction number;we discuss the impact of quarantining close contacts on daily new cases in South Korea, the daily new cases decrease after a week, and drop to 16.93 after 30 days. When close contacts were quarantined, the maximum value of daily new cases Imax = 57.4 obtained by simulation is only 13% of the actual maximum value actual Imax = 441;the influences of different quarantine rates and the number of the susceptible on the number of daily new cases are also discussed, the quarantine of close contacts has significant effect on reducing the number of daily new cases compared with less stringent control measures. Vigorous control measures reduce the number of daily new cases to single digits in just 17 days in Beijing, effectively curbing the transmission of COVID-19. It has vital significance for the prevention and control of the epidemic in other countries and regions. © 2022, Wilmington Scientific Publisher. All rights reserved.

11.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 774-777, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903516
12.
Journal of Geo-Information Science ; 24(6):1019-1033, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903896

ABSTRACT

The "Belt and Road" is a major international cooperation initiative proposed by China to adapt to current development needs. It has six economic corridors as its core pillars. The region of interest spans the three continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa, involving a large number of countries with varied regional geographical conditions and complex resources and environment backgrounds. Determination of resources and environmental information along the routes in a systematic and comprehensive manner will play a crucial role in decision-making support for promoting the scientific implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative. Considering the complex background of geographical resources, the environment, and the diverse international cooperation needs, the exploitation and utilization of resources and environmental information along the "Belt and Road" face several opportunities and challenges. This paper proposes a Spatial Information Service System for the Belt and Road Initiative, which is oriented toward collaborative innovation. Two technical routes, top to bottom and bottom to top, are used to demonstrate the overall framework of information acquisition and utilization, and generation of information services for decision support. The progress on resources and environmental information development and services in the six economic corridors is reviewed, including resources and environment patterns and their spatiotemporal evolution, monitoring and evaluation of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), key technology application in disaster risk reduction knowledge service, resources and environmental information integration and sharing, and the effect of COVID-19 on economic and social development, which can provide a reasonable foundation and reference for the establishment of a comprehensive system for "Belt and Road" resource, environment, and spatial information service. Finally, the development trends and the main directions for potential research and cooperation are highlighted, including strengthening the comprehensive collection and service capabilities of basic resource and environmental data, providing further contributions to data and methods on SDGs target monitoring and evaluation in China, integrating the entire chain of data, information, and knowledge of disaster risk reduction applications, promoting the integration and sharing of resource and environmental data with harmonized standards, and promoting the construction and application of collaborative innovation platforms involving multiple parties. The research would provide a reference for promoting the development and utilization of synchronous data resources, information integration and sharing, and the construction of collaborative innovation application environment of the "Belt and Road" economic corridor, thus, promoting decision-making support for the sustainable development of the "Belt and Road" Initiative. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880798
15.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880797
17.
Lancet ; 399(10336):1694-1694, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880313
18.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880271
19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880270
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