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Phys Rev E ; 104(4-1): 044307, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481983


Changes in individual behavior often entangle with the dynamic interaction of individuals, which complicates the epidemic process and brings great challenges for the understanding and control of the epidemic. In this work, we consider three kinds of typical behavioral changes in epidemic process, that is, self-quarantine of infected individuals, self-protection of susceptible individuals, and social distancing between them. We connect the behavioral changes with individual's social attributes by the activity-driven network with attractiveness. A mean-field theory is established to derive an analytical estimate of epidemic threshold for susceptible-infected-susceptible models with individual behavioral changes, which depends on the correlations between activity, attractiveness, and the number of generative links in the susceptible and infected states. We find that individual behaviors play different roles in suppressing the epidemic. Although all the behavioral changes could delay the epidemic by increasing the epidemic threshold, self-quarantine and social distancing of infected individuals could effectively decrease the epidemic outbreak size. In addition, simultaneous changes in these behaviors and the timing of implement of them also play a key role in suppressing the epidemic. These results provide helpful significance for understanding the interaction of individual behaviors in the epidemic process.

BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 723, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183520


BACKGROUND: The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has become the most fundamental threat to human health. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutical solutions, non-pharmaceutic intervention has become a major way for controlling the epidemic. Gentle mitigation interventions are able to slow down the epidemic but not to halt it well. While strict suppression interventions are efficient for controlling the epidemic, long-term measures are likely to have negative impacts on economics and people's daily live. Hence, dynamically balancing suppression and mitigation interventions plays a fundamental role in manipulating the epidemic curve. METHODS: We collected data of the number of infections for several countries during the COVID-19 pandemics and found a clear phenomenon of periodic waves of infection. Based on the observation, by connecting the infection level with the medical resources and a tolerance parameter, we propose a mathematical model to understand impacts of combining intervention measures on the epidemic dynamics. RESULTS: Depending on the parameters of the medical resources, tolerance level, and the starting time of interventions, the combined intervention measure dynamically changes with the infection level, resulting in a periodic wave of infections controlled below an accepted level. The study reveals that, (a) with an immediate, strict suppression, the numbers of infections and deaths are well controlled with a significant reduction in a very short time period; (b) an appropriate, dynamical combination of suppression and mitigation may find a feasible way in reducing the impacts of epidemic on people's live and economics. CONCLUSIONS: While the assumption of interventions deployed with a cycle of period in the model is limited and unrealistic, the phenomenon of periodic waves of infections in reality is captured by our model. These results provide helpful insights for policy-makers to dynamically deploy an appropriate intervention strategy to effectively battle against the COVID-19.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans