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1.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; : e00309, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549193

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To assess if in adults with COVID-19, whether those with diabetes and complications (DM+C) present with a more severe clinical profile and if that relates to increased mortality, compared to those with diabetes with no complications (DM-NC) and those without diabetes. METHODS: Service-level data was used from 996 adults with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who presented to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, UK, from March to June 2020. All individuals were categorized into DM+C, DM-NC, and non-diabetes groups. Physiological and laboratory measurements in the first 5 days after admission were collated and compared among groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate associations between diabetes status and the risk of mortality. RESULTS: Among the 996 individuals, 104 (10.4%) were DM+C, 295 (29.6%) DM-NC and 597 (59.9%) non-diabetes. There were 309 (31.0%) in-hospital deaths documented, 40 (4.0% of total cohort) were DM+C, 99 (9.9%) DM-NC and 170 (17.0%) non-diabetes. Individuals with DM+C were more likely to present with high anion gap/metabolic acidosis, features of renal impairment, and low albumin/lymphocyte count than those with DM-NC or those without diabetes. There was no significant difference in mortality rates among the groups: compared to individuals without diabetes, the adjusted HRs were 1.39 (95% CI 0.95-2.03, p = 0.093) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.90-1.54, p = 0.226) in DM+C and DM-C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Those with COVID-19 and DM+C presented with a more severe clinical and biochemical profile, but this did not associate with increased mortality in this study.

2.
Clinical Medicine ; 21:S1-S2, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1380314

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 infection in people with diabetes is associated with a disproportionately increased risk of complications and mortality.1 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication of diabetes.2,3 Little is known about DKA in the presence of COVID-19 infection. DKA onset was defined as the presence of hyperglycaemia (serum glucose >11 mmol/L), ketosis (serum ketones >3 mmol/L or urine ketone >+++) and metabolic acidosis (pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L) and DKA resolution as (ketone <0.6 mmol/L or urinary ketones <++ and pH >7.3 or bicarbonate >15 mmol/L) as per national guidelines in the UK.4 Results A total of 88 episodes were included in the final analysis (20 COVID-positive, 31 COVID-negative, 37 pre-COVID). There was no significant difference in the severity of DKA at presentation (median for COVID positive, COVID negative and pre-COVID groups): pH (7.15 vs 7.2 vs 7.2), bicarbonate (11.4 mmol/L vs 11 mmol/L vs 13.3 mmol/L), glucose (25.85 mmol/L vs 30.9 mmol/L vs 29.1 mmol/L), lactate (2.7 mmol/L vs 3.2 mmol/L vs 2.8 mmol/L), serum osmolality (314.6 mmol/L vs 323.1 mmol/L vs 316.2 mmol/L).

4.
Diabetologia ; 64(8): 1717-1724, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219907

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to describe the clinical characteristics of adults with type 1 diabetes admitted to hospital and the risk factors associated with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the UK. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data collected through a nationwide audit of people admitted to hospital with diabetes and COVID-19, conducted by the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists from March to October 2020. Prespecified demographic, clinical, medication and laboratory data were collected from the electronic and paper medical record systems of the participating hospitals by local clinicians. The primary outcome of the study, severe COVID-19, was defined as death in hospital and/or admission to the adult intensive care unit (AICU). Logistic regression models were used to generate age-adjusted ORs. RESULTS: Forty UK centres submitted data. The final dataset included 196 adults who were admitted to hospital and had both type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 on admission (male sex 55%, white 70%, with mean [SD] age 62 [19] years, BMI 28.3 [7.3] kg/m2 and last recorded HbA1c 76 [31] mmol/mol [9.1 (5.0)%]). The prevalence of pre-existing microvascular disease and macrovascular disease was 56% and 39%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis on admission was 29%. A total of 68 patients (35%) died or were admitted to AICU. The proportions of people that died were 7%, 38% and 38% of those aged <55, 55-74 and ≥75 years, respectively. BMI, serum creatinine levels and having one or more microvascular complications were positively associated with the primary outcome after adjusting for age. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In people with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital in the UK, higher BMI, poorer renal function and presence of microvascular complications were associated with greater risk of death and/or admission to AICU. Risk of severe COVID-19 is reassuringly very low in people with type 1 diabetes who are under 55 years of age without microvascular or macrovascular disease. IN PEOPLE WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES AND COVID-19 ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL IN THE UK, BMI AND ONE OR MORE MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS HAD A POSITIVE ASSOCIATION AND LOW SERUM CREATINE LEVELS HAD A NEGATIVE ASSOCIATION WITH DEATH/ADMISSION TO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT AFTER ADJUSTING FOR AGE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Lancet ; 397(10283): 1443-1444, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170812
6.
Lancet ; 396(10264): 1732-1733, 2020 11 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164641
7.
Endocr Connect ; 10(4): 371-377, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119488

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 in people with diabetes is associated with a disproportionately worse prognosis. DKA is an acute complication of diabetes with a mortality rate of approximately 0.67%. Little is known about the natural history of DKA in the presence of COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 on presentation, clinical course and outcome in patients presenting with DKA. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: All patients treated for DKA between 1 March 2020 and 30 May 2020 were included. Patients were categorised as COVID-positive or COVID-negative based on the swab test. A pre-COVID group was established using data from 01 March 2019 to 30 May 2019 as external control. Data regarding demographics, diabetes type, pH, bicarbonate, lactate, glucose, DKA duration, complications and outcome were collected. Results: A total of 88 DKA episodes were included in this study. There was no significant difference in the severity or duration of DKA between the three groups. COVID-positive T1DM were more hyperglycaemic on admission compared to COVID-negative and pre-COVID patients. There was an over representation of T2DM in COVID-positive patients with DKA than in pre-COVID or COVID-negative groups. Conclusion: COVID-19 appears to influence the natural history of DKA differently in T1DM and T2DM. Patients with T1DM and COVID-19 presented with more hyperglycaemia (60 mmol/L (35.9-60.0) vs 31.4 mmol/L (28.0-39.1) vs 24 mmol/L (20.2-33.75), respectively). Patients with T2DM were unusually presenting in DKA when infected with COVID-19 with greater ICU need and higher mortality rates. A collaborative, multi-centre study is needed to provide more definitive results.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1255-1268, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes has emerged as an important risk factor for mortality from COVID-19. Metformin, the most commonly prescribed glucose-lowering agent, has been proposed to influence susceptibility to and outcomes of COVID-19 via multiple mechanisms. We investigated whether, in patients with diabetes, metformin is associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 and its outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a propensity score-matched cohort study with active comparators using a large UK primary care dataset. Adults with type 2 diabetes patients and a current prescription for metformin and other glucose-lowering agents (MF+) were compared to those with a current prescription for glucose-lowering agents that did not include metformin (MF-). Outcomes were confirmed COVID-19, suspected/confirmed COVID-19, and associated mortality. A negative control outcome analysis (back pain) was also performed. RESULTS: There were 29 558 and 10 271 patients in the MF+ and MF- groups, respectively, who met the inclusion criteria. In the propensity score-matched analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios for suspected/confirmed COVID-19, confirmed COVID-19, and COVID-19-related mortality were 0.85 (95% CI 0.67, 1.08), 0.80 (95% CI 0.49, 1.30), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.34, 2.20) respectively. The negative outcome control analysis did not suggest unobserved confounding. CONCLUSION: Current prescription of metformin was not associated with the risk of COVID-19 or COVID-19-related mortality. It is safe to continue prescribing metformin to improve glycemic control in patients with.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(1): 263-269, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802778

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely prescribed in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2 inhibitor prescription is associated with COVID-19, when compared with an active comparator. We performed a propensity-score-matched cohort study with active comparators and a negative control outcome in a large UK-based primary care dataset. Participants prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors (n = 9948) and a comparator group prescribed dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (n = 14 917) were followed up from January 30 to July 27, 2020. The primary outcome was confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19. The incidence rate of COVID-19 was 19.7/1000 person-years among users of SGLT2 inhibitors and 24.7/1000 person-years among propensity-score-matched users of DPP-4 inhibitors. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.29), and there was no evidence of residual confounding in the negative control analysis. We did not observe an increased risk of COVID-19 in primary care amongst those prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors compared to DPP-4 inhibitors, suggesting that clinicians may safely use these agents in the everyday care of people with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
12.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100404, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505963

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between ethnicity and COVID-19 is uncertain. We performed a systematic review to assess whether ethnicity has been reported in patients with COVID-19 and its relation to clinical outcomes. Methods: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and PROSPERO for English-language citations on ethnicity and COVID-19 (1st December 2019-15th May 2020). We also reviewed: COVID-19 articles in NEJM, Lancet, BMJ, JAMA, clinical trial protocols, grey literature, surveillance data and preprint articles on COVID-19 in MedRxiv to evaluate if the association between ethnicity and clinical outcomes were reported and what they showed. PROSPERO:180654. Findings: Of 207 articles in the database search, five reported ethnicity; two reported no association between ethnicity and mortality. Of 690 articles identified from medical journals, 12 reported ethnicity; three reported no association between ethnicity and mortality. Of 209 preprints, 34 reported ethnicity - 13 found Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals had an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and 12 reported worse clinical outcomes, including ITU admission and mortality, in BAME patients compared to White patients. Of 12 grey literature reports, seven with original data reported poorer clinical outcomes in BAME groups compared to White groups. Interpretation: Data on ethnicity in patients with COVID-19 in the published medical literature remains limited. However, emerging data from the grey literature and preprint articles suggest BAME individuals are at an increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to White individuals and also worse clinical outcomes from COVID-19. Further work on the role of ethnicity in the current pandemic is of urgent public health importance. Funding: NIHR.

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