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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac263, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005001

ABSTRACT

Background: We explore the ivermectin discourse and sentiment in the United States with a special focus on political leaning through the social media blogging site Twitter. Methods: We used sentiment analysis and topic modeling to geospatially explore ivermectin Twitter discourse in the United States and compared it to the political leaning of a state based on the 2020 presidential election. Results: All modeled topics were associated with a negative sentiment. Tweets originating from democratic leaning states were more likely to be negative. Conclusions: Real-time analysis of social media content can identify public health concerns and guide timely public health interventions tackling disinformation.

2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1510(1): 79-99, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822055

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation is critical for proper cellular function and development. Protein degradation pathways, such as the ubiquitin proteasomes system, autophagy, and endosome-lysosome pathway, must be tightly regulated to ensure proper elimination of misfolded and aggregated proteins and regulate changing protein levels during cellular differentiation, while ensuring that normal proteins remain unscathed. Protein degradation pathways have also garnered interest as a means to selectively eliminate target proteins that may be difficult to inhibit via other mechanisms. On June 7 and 8, 2021, several experts in protein degradation pathways met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Targeting protein degradation: from small molecules to complex organelles." The event brought together researchers working in different protein degradation pathways in an effort to begin to develop a holistic, integrated vision of protein degradation that incorporates all the major pathways to understand how changes in them can lead to disease pathology and, alternatively, how they can be leveraged for novel therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin , Autophagy/physiology , Humans , Organelles , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 55: 20-26, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, there were substantial changes in United States (U.S.) emergency department (ED) volumes and acuity of patient presentation compared to more recent years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence of specific upper extremity (UE) injuries presenting to U.S. EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze trends across age groups and rates of hospital admission compared to years prior. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried to identify patients who presented to U.S. EDs for an UE orthopaedic injury between 2016 and 2020. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to assess for differences in ED presentation volume and hospital admissions between pre-pandemic (2016 through 2019) and during-pandemic (2020) times. RESULTS: These queries returned 285,583 cases, representing a total estimate of 10,452,166 injuries presenting to EDs across the U.S. The mean incidence of UE orthopaedic injuries was 640.2 (95% CI, 638.2-642.3) injuries per 100,000 person-years, with the greatest year to year decrease in incidence occurring between 2019 and 2020 (20.1%). The largest number of estimated admissions occurred in 2020, with a total 135,018 admissions (95% CI, 131,518-138,517), a 41.6% increase from the average number of admissions between 2016 and 2019. CONCLUSION: There was a 20.1% decrease in the incidence of UE orthopaedic injuries presenting to EDs after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic with a concomitant 41.2% increase in the number of hospital admissions from the ED in 2020 compared to recent pre-pandemic years. We speculate that at least some elective, semi-elective or urgent ambulatory surgeries were canceled or delayed due to the pandemic and were subsequently directed to the ED for admission. Regardless of the cause of increased UE orthopaedic admissions, policy planners and administrators should be aware of the additional stresses placed on already burdened ED and inpatient services. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III - Retrospective Cohort Study.


Subject(s)
Arm Injuries , COVID-19 , Arm Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Upper Extremity
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3133-e3135, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387759

ABSTRACT

Prospective serial sampling of 70 patients revealed clinically relevant cycle thresholds (Ct) occurring 9, 26, and 36 days after symptom onset. Race, gender, and corticosteroids apparently did not influence RNA positivity. In a retrospective analysis of 180 patients, initial Ct did not correlate with requirements for admission or intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367937

ABSTRACT

The recent appearance of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and has brought to light the importance of understanding this highly pathogenic agent to prevent future pandemics. This virus is from the same single-stranded positive-sense RNA family, Coronaviridae, as two other epidemic-causing viruses, SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. During this pandemic, one crucial focus highlighted by WHO has been to understand the risk factors that may contribute to disease severity and predict COVID-19 outcomes. In doing so, it is imperative to understand the virology of SARS-CoV-2 and the immunological response eliciting the clinical manifestation and progression of COVID-19. In this review, we provide clinical data-based analyses of how multiple risk factors (such as sex, race, HLA genotypes, blood groups, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, smoking, and asthma) contribute to the inflammatory overactivation and cytokine storm (frequently seen in COVID-19 patients) with a focus on the IL-6 pathway. We also draw comparisons to the virulence and pathophysiology of SARS and MERS to establish parallels in immune response and discuss the potential for therapeutic approaches that may limit disease progression in patients with higher risk profiles than others. Moreover, we cover the latest information on approved or upcoming COVID-19 vaccines. This paper also provides perspective on emerging variants and associated opportunistic infections such as black molds and fungus that have added to mortality in some parts of the world, such as India. This compilation of existing COVID-19 studies and data will provide an excellent referencing tool for the research, clinical, and public health communities.

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