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2.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 6(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013781

ABSTRACT

Background Thrombosis is reported to occur more often among patients with COVID-19 than otherwise expected in the setting of viral pneumonia and sepsis. Systemic inflammatory biomarkers may be associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. The ISTH subcommittee on Predictive and Diagnostic Variables in Thrombotic Disease aimed to report the evidence on prognostic biomarkers for VTE in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods Using a standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis methodology, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies reporting prognostic biomarkers for VTE among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Eligible studies included adults hospitalized with COVID-19 and reported the prognostic associations between any biomarker measured on admission, and the subsequent diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Two authors reviewed titles and s, and three authors extracted study data and performed review of bias. Results were displayed descriptively. Meta-analysis was not possible. Results From the initial 196 identified studies, full-text review was performed for 72 studies. Admission D-dimer levels were associated with VTE during hospitalization in five studies, and elevated platelet count was associated with VTE during hospitalization in one study. The risk of bias ranged from low to high for included studies. Overall, there was a paucity of high-quality prognostic studies. Studies on other biomarkers did not meet the systematic review inclusion criteria. Conclusions Admission D-dimer was associated with VTE diagnosis during hospitalization for COVID-19;however, prospective validation of this finding is needed to identify optimal D-dimer thresholds to guide VTE prophylaxis measures.

3.
Single commodity export dependence and the impacts of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa 2022. 31 pp. 28 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904718

ABSTRACT

As recent trade disputes have led the United States to broaden export markets, the macroeconomic and developmental characteristics of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ostensibly indicate the region will likely be a destination for U.S. agricultural exports in upcoming years. However, many of these character-istics are symptomatic of the economic development struggles prevalent in the region, which present significant challenges to sustained development. Trade in high-value commodities, for example, may offer economic growth, but the benefits are not necessarily diffused throughout the broader economy. Serving as the primary source for economic growth, foreign exchange, and export revenue, exports of high-value commodities can create terms-of-trade shocks during periods of significant fluctuations in international prices. This can limit a country's ability to trade effectively and alter trade flows due to the resultant depreciating exchange rate. The current Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has created such a period of intense price volatility, offering a unique opportunity for modeling potential effects of a global shock on trade with these nations. This working paper illuminates the impact that this volatility can have on U.S. agricultural product export values to SSA. By simulating the effects of declining oil prices in 2020 and subsequent years through a shock to gross domestic product (GDP) in oil-depen-dent nations-i.e., Angola and Nigeria-we can evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on agricultural trade for key U.S. export commodities to SSA.

4.
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing ; : 16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868486

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this research is to outline and investigate a set of five experience elements from neuroscience research labeled SCARF that could impact the quality of perception, evaluation and engagement of executives, managers and employees in business-to-business (B2B) companies during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed experience elements are perceived status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness. The authors demonstrate that all five elements are influential factors in B2B employees' workplace environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors outline several specific managerial implications and describe how companies can make better decisions related to several important market crisis decisions via a growth mindset built on the five experience elements. The authors also pay attention to implications to several B2B areas of research focus, including salesforce management and buying/supplier relationships. Design/methodology/approach The authors first examine existing B2B research to gauge if the five elements have been examined in B2B business contexts. They then analyze a combination of quantitative and qualitative survey data from 335 employees of different B2B companies to see if the five experience elements surface in discussion on how the pandemic has impacted their work experience and careers. Findings The authors find that several B2B research studies have looked at each of the individual components of the SCARF model, but none of them have yet included all five elements together in research or looked at them in the context of COVID-19. The results of analysis of surveys from employees in 335 B2B companies provide strong evidence that all five elements are influential factors in B2B employees workplace environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This study contributes to prior research focusing on how B2B companies can thrive during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The research offers valuable practical insights and detailed examples of how to apply a set of five elements/experiences that industrial and business-to-business organization leaders should adopt in their conscious decision-making evaluation and in their communications with employees, suppliers and customers during and after the pandemic.

5.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846554

ABSTRACT

The last several years have seen a strong growth of telerobotic technologies with promising implications for many areas of learning. HCI has contributed to these discussions, mainly with studies on user experiences and user interfaces of telepresence robots. However, only a few telerobot studies have addressed everyday use in real-world learning environments. In the post-COVID 19 world, sociotechnical uncertainties and unforeseen challenges to learning in hybrid learning environments constitute a unique frontier where robotic and immersive technologies can mediate learning experiences. The aim of this workshop is to set the stage for a new wave of HCI research that accounts for and begins to develop new insights, concepts, and methods for use of immersive and telerobotic technologies in real-world learning environments. Participants are invited to collaboratively define an HCI research agenda focused on robot-mediated learning in the wild, which will require examining end-user engagements and questioning underlying concepts regarding telerobots for learning. © 2022 Owner/Author.

6.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in small intestine. Our aim was to study colonic ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls. We hypothesized that the colonic expression levels of ACE2 impacts CD course. METHODS: We examined the expression of colon ACE2 using RNA-seq and quantitative (q) RT-PCR from 69 adult CD and 14 NIBD control patients. In a subset of this cohort we validated ACE2 protein expression and localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded matched colon and ileal tissues using immunohistochemistry. The impact of increased ACE2 expression in CD for the risk of surgery was evaluated by a multivariate regression analysis and a Kaplan-Meier estimator. To provide critical support for the generality of our findings, we analyzed previously published RNA-seq data from two large independent cohorts of CD patients. RESULTS: Colonic ACE2 expression was significantly higher in a subset of adult CD patients (ACE2-high CD). IHC in a sampling of ACE2-high CD patients confirmed high ACE2 protein expression in the colon and ileum compared to ACE2-low CD and NIBD patients. Notably, we found that ACE2-high CD patients are significantly more likely to undergo surgery within 5 years of diagnosis, with a Cox regression analysis finding that high ACE2 levels is an independent risk factor (OR 2.18;95%CI, 1.05-4.55;p=0.037). CONCLUSION: Increased intestinal expression of ACE2 is associated with deteriorated clinical outcomes in CD patients. These data point to the need for molecular stratification that may impact CD disease-related outcomes.

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S135, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746750

ABSTRACT

Background. We conducted a large real-world study of the long-term vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the live attenuated zoster vaccine (Zostavax;ZVL). Using an innovative approach with automated observational data we measured VE for incident herpes zoster (HZ) and severe HZ outcomes including post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), and hospitalized HZ. This approach could be useful in long-term effectiveness studies of other vaccines. Methods. We assessed VE against HZ, PHN, HZO and hospitalized HZ for up to 10+ years after vaccination at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We identified incident cases using diagnoses, laboratory tests and prescriptions, and validated a sample by chart review. For each outcome, we used a Cox regression model with a calendar timeline to estimate VE in relation to year since vaccination. The model for HZ included 11 time-varying vaccination status indicators to denote -- at each timepoint during follow-up -- either the number of years since ZVL vaccination (30 days to < 1 year, 1 to < 2 years, . . ., and 10+ years) or that the individual is unvaccinated (reference group). Analyses were adjusted for demographics and time-varying measures of immune compromise status, healthcare use and comorbidities. Results. From 2007-2018, 1.5 million people contributed to analyses;507,000 (34%) were vaccinated. During 9 million person-years of follow-up, we observed 75,135 HZ cases, including 4,982 (7%) with PHN, 4,418 (6%) with HZO, and 555 (< 1%) who were hospitalized. VE for HZ was 67% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 65-69%) in the first year after vaccination, waned to 50% (CI: 47-52%) in the second year after vaccination, and then waned more gradually to 15% (CI: 5-24%) by 10+ years after vaccination. Initial VE was higher against PHN (83%;CI: 78-87%) and hospitalized HZ (89%;CI: 67-97%) with less waning observed over time (42% by Year 8 for PHN and 53% in Years 5 to < 8 for hospitalized HZ). VE against HZO was 71% in Year 1 and waned to 29% in Years 5 to < 8. Conclusion. Our large population, long follow-up and innovative methods let us estimate VE against HZ, PHN, HZO and hospitalized HZ for 10+ years after vaccination. Our approach could help assess waning and need for boosters for vaccines against other agents including COVID-19.

9.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1610381
10.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514716

ABSTRACT

Public Health Reporting has a long history (text here suddenly missing!)There is a long tradition of Public Health Reporting to support knowledge during public health crises. The Covid-19 pandemic has seen the unprecedented rapid demand for Public Health Reporting. The size, speed and scale of the pandemic led to governments, public health professionals, the media and citizens asking for up-to-date, accurate and accessible information and intelligence. One way that these demands were answered were through the creation and publication of Covid-19 dashboards to communicate to diverse audiences. Health Information Professionals were required to make significant decisions quickly. Which indicators to select? Which audiences to develop dashboards for? Which technologies to deploy? Decisions that would normally take a considerable length of time were abbreviated. There were no international standards and a variability of requirements for different commissioners of dashboards. Furthermore the public spotlight and ‘democratisation' of health information created additional pressure and a lack of situational control. Some of the choices made will have a consequential impact for shared Health Service and Population Health Research as the pandemic continues. The purpose of this presentation is to Discuss the need for rapid health reporting as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic Examine some of the choices faced by health information professionals in creating and sustaining public Covid-19 dashboards during the pandemic. Illustrate a variety of solutions that emerged internationally that were broadly trying to address the same need.

11.
Clin Radiol ; 76(5): 392.e1-392.e9, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101168

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess differences in qualitative and quantitative parameters of pulmonary perfusion from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography (DECT-PA) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with and without pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective institutional review board-approved study included 74 patients (mean age 61±18 years, male:female 34:40) with COVID-19 pneumonia in two countries (one with 68 patients, and the other with six patients) who underwent DECT-PA on either dual-source (DS) or single-source (SS) multidetector CT machines. Images from DS-DECT-PA were processed to obtain virtual mono-energetic 40 keV (Mono40), material decomposition iodine (MDI) images and quantitative perfusion statistics (QPS). Two thoracic radiologists determined CT severity scores based on type and extent of pulmonary opacities, assessed presence of PE, and pulmonary parenchymal perfusion on MDI images. The QPS were calculated from the CT Lung Isolation prototype (Siemens). The correlated clinical outcomes included duration of hospital stay, intubation, SpO2 and death. The significance of association was determined by receiver operating characteristics and analysis of variance. RESULTS: One-fifth (20.2%, 15/74 patients) had pulmonary arterial filling defects; most filling defects were occlusive (28/44) located in the segmental and sub-segmental arteries. The parenchymal opacities were more extensive and denser (CT severity score 24±4) in patients with arterial filling defects than without filling defects (20±8; p=0.028). Ground-glass opacities demonstrated increased iodine distribution; mixed and consolidative opacities had reduced iodine on DS-DECT-PA but increased or heterogeneous iodine content on SS-DECT-PA. QPS were significantly lower in patients with low SpO2 (p=0.003), intubation (p=0.006), and pulmonary arterial filling defects (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: DECT-PA QPS correlated with clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Contrast Media , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iodine , Length of Stay , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
12.
Am J Crim Justice ; 45(4): 731-742, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657378

ABSTRACT

Rural criminal justice organizations have been overlooked by researchers and underfunded in the United States, exacerbating problems caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Access to victims' services has been a longstanding issue in rural communities, but has become more difficult due to stay-at-home orders and changes in daily activities. Requirements such as social distancing, necessitated by COVID-19, have increased the risk of domestic violence and rural service providers are less prepared than those in more populated areas. Rural law enforcement agencies, on the other hand, have traditionally operated with smaller budgets and staffs-conditions that have complicated the response to the unprecedented event. Many of the recommended practices for policing during a pandemic have been more applicable to larger urban and suburban departments with more resources and officers extended across many units. The strain on rural victims' services and law enforcement has been felt only a few months into the coronavirus pandemic, while the long-term effects are not yet known.

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