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1.
CRITICAL CARE NURSE ; 42(2):E10-E11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1904766
2.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753643

ABSTRACT

The optimal time to initiate research on emergencies is before they occur. However, timely initiation of high quality research may launch during an emergency under the right conditions. These include an appropriate context, clarity in scientific aims, preexisting resources, strong operational and research structures that are facile, and good governance. Here, Nebraskan rapid research efforts early during the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic, while participating in the firstuse of U.S. federal quarantine in 50 years, are described from these aspects, as the global experience with this severe emerging infection grew apace. The experience has lessons in purpose, structure, function, and performance of research in any emergency, when facing any threat.

3.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330482

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess if healthcare workers during the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rates following close contact with patients, co-workers and persons outside work with COVID-19. Methods A prospective cohort study of 5985 healthcare workers from Denmark were followed November 2020 to April 2021 and provided day-by-day information on COVID-19 contacts. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined by the first positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test ever. Results: 159 positive and 35 996 negative PCR tests were recorded during 514 165 person-days. The SARS-CoV-2 infection rate following close contact with COVID-19 patients 3-7 days earlier was 153.7 per 100,000 person-days corresponding with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 3.17 (40 cases, 95% CI 2.15 - 4.66) compared with no close contact. IRRs following close contact with coworkers and persons outside work with COVID-19 were 2.54 (10 cases, 95% CI 1.30 - 4.96) and 17.79 (35 cases, 95% CI 12.05 - 26.28). The estimates for close contact with COVID-19 patients, co-workers or persons outside work were mutually adjusted. Conclusions: Despite strong focus on preventive measures during the second wave of the pandemic, healthcare workers were still at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection when in close contact with patients with COVID-19. Among all health care workers, the numbers affected due to close patient contact were comparable to the numbers affected following COVID-19 contact outside work.

4.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330337

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.

5.
Obesity ; 29(SUPPL 2):98-99, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1616058

ABSTRACT

Background: Food insecurity (FI), a lack of consistent access to food, is associated with more frequent fast food intake and poor dietary quality in children. This analysis explored whether FI is associated with children's restaurant behaviors more than 6 months into the COVID-19 pandemic, a time when FI has been particularly high in the United States (US). Methods: An online survey was administered to US parents of children (4-8 years;n = 1000) in October 2020 and included sociodemographics, perceived safety of restaurant use, local food retail regulations, FI, and children's frequency of restaurant meals over the past 2 months. Multivariate regression models examined associations between the aforementioned variables and children's restaurant behaviors. Post-hoc analyses were conducted to examine if parent's COVID-specific employment changes were associated with FI, to help us understand high rates of FI in this sample. Sampling weights were applied to analyses to assure results were nationally representative. Results: Parents' perceived safety of restaurant use, income, education and employment status were associated with children's restaurant use. FI had a small, but significant association with more frequent in-person restaurant dining and more frequent restaurant delivery, but was not associated with picking up takeout. Parents' COVID-related employment changes (e.g. job loss, reduced work hours) had stronger associations with FI than more stable sociodemographic variables (e.g. parental education). Conclusions: Consistent access to food has been a pressing issue for many families throughout the pandemic. These circumstances may be associated with family restaurant behaviors that can impact children's diet quality and health. Future research should explore the burden of COVID-19 on community food systems as well as interventions and resources that can help parents access healthy food.

6.
South Dakota Medicine: The Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association ; 74(11):500-501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615133
8.
Postepy Psychiatrii I Neurologii ; 30(2):104-112, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1372116

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Numerous studies suggest that infection with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes acute respiratory distress syndrome and COVID-19 illness, can lead to changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, some individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection may also present the symptoms of neuropsychological disorders. The goals of this literature review is the synthesis of various perspectives and up-to-date scientific knowledge as well as the formulation of initial recommendations for clinical practice. Views: According to current state of knowledge, numerous SARS-CoV-2 infection-specific and nonspecific risk factors exist for brain damage, which might lead to neuropsychological impairments in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19. The emerging evidence suggests significant behavioral and cognitive deficits in COVID-19 survivors, which are present in the early phase after recovery and persist for several months. Neuropsychological disturbances can potentially include a wide spectrum of disorders, yet deficits of attention, memory, executive functions, language and visuospatial orientation are among most commonly identified. The relationship between cognitive impairment, emotional disturbances and severity of COVID-19 symptoms needs to be submitted to further research. Conclusions: The scientific knowledge resulting from neuropsychological empirical studies during the COVID-19 pandemic allows for a postulate of an urgent evidence-based systematic neuropsychological research to be conducted among COVID-19 survivors. More than anything, the recovered individuals must be provided with adequate neuropsychological help in the form of neuropsychological diagnosis, monitoring and rehabilitation.

9.
European Psychiatry ; 64(S1):S255, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1357141

ABSTRACT

IntroductionDuring the COVID-19 pandemic people experience higher levels of negative emotions, as well as face many negative and intense emotions felt by others. Thus, it is important to look for risk and protective factors that allow and help individuals to regulate these negative emotions and adapt to the hardships of the COVID-19 pandemic.ObjectivesThe main aims of the study were to (i) test how empathic dimensions (perspective taking, empathic concern and personal distress) and emotion regulation abilities were related to intensity of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown in Poland, as well as to (ii) check if emotion regulation difficulties and personal distress predicted slower decrease in depressive symptoms over the two months in which the number of COVID-19 cases declined in Poland.MethodsA total of 792 participants took part in the three-wave panel study. The sample was representative of the Polish population in terms of gender, age, and place of residence. Participants completed the following online questionnaires: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale Short Form, and Brief version of the Empathic Sensitivity.ResultsSignificant positive correlations were found between depressive symptoms and both personal distress and emotion regulation difficulties during the lockdown. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were the only significant predictor of slower decrease in depressive symptoms over time during the COVID-19 pandemic.ConclusionsIt seems that interventions focused on improvement of emotion regulation abilities could be particularly beneficial in reducing depressive symptoms during the pandemic and preventing potential negative long-term outcomes.

10.
European Journal of Neurology ; 28(SUPPL 1):157, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1307711

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: To systematically describe CNS and PNS complications in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study of adult patients from a tertiary referral center with confirmed COVID-19. All patients were screened daily for neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms during admission and discharge. Three-month follow-up data were collected using electronic health records. We classified complications as caused by SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, immune-mediated or critical illness-related. Results: From April-September 2020, we enrolled 61 consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients, 35 (57%) of whom required ICU management for respiratory failure. Forty-one CNS/PNS complications were identified in 28 of 61 patients and were more frequent in ICU compared to non-ICU patients. The most common CNS complication was encephalopathy (n=19, 31.1%), which was severe in 13 patients (GCS 12), including eight with akinetic mutism. Length of ICU admission was independently associated with encephalopathy (OR=1.22). Other CNS complications included ischemic stroke, a biopsy-proven acute necrotizing encephalitis, and transverse myelitis. The most common PNS complication was critical illness polyneuromyopathy (13.1%), with prolonged ICU stay as independent predictor (OR=1.14). Treatment-related PNS complications included meralgia paresthetica. Of 41 complications in total, three were para/post-infectious, 34 were secondary to critical illness or other causes, and four remained unresolved. Cerebrospinal fluid was negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all five patients investigated. Conclusion: CNS/PNS complications were common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly in the ICU, and often attributable to critical illness. When COVID-19 was the primary cause for neurological disease, no signs of viral neurotropism were detected, but laboratory changes suggested autoimmune-mediated mechanisms.

11.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 10:22-23, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234511

ABSTRACT

Objective: Integrative medicine is a key framework for the treatment of chronic medical conditions, particularly chronic pain. In-person visits pose notable barriers for individuals with pain or limited mobility, particularly in rural or underserved areas. However, many barriers are pertinent to the expansion of telehealth use in integrative medicine settings, such as concerns about maintaining patient-clinician rapport in the delivery of holistic, relationship-based care. The COVID-19 pandemic served as impetus for an immediate and complete transition to telehealth services in this interdisciplinary outpatient integrative medicine clinic. This poster will present rich qualitative perspectives from multiple stakeholder levels on the experience of virtual visits to examine whether telehealth represents an acceptable, accessible, and high-quality option for providing integrative healthcare. Methods: Patients (N=180), providers (N=19), and administrative staff (N=7) in our outpatient integrative health clinic were surveyed about their experience of providing or receiving care via telehealth. Specifically, participants were asked to describe what telehealth visits were like in comparison to in-person visits. Free-text responses were analyzed for major and minor emergent themes. Results: Major themes identified from the data included acceptability, ease/convenience, comfort, interpersonal connection, technology difficulties, application of telehealth to group/movement classes, and equity/access. Overwhelmingly, participants described telehealth as an acceptable and adequate, at times equal or superior, alternative to in-person visits. Importantly, telehealth improved comfort for patients who could hold visits at home where they were most comfortable. Challenges were also welldescribed including technological issues and loss of interpersonal connection. Conclusion: Telehealth visits represent an acceptable, at times preferable, way to deliver care in an outpatient integrative medicine setting. Telehealth represents a particularly promising care modality for patients experiencing chronic pain or limited mobility, or those residing in rural and underserved communities. Detailed qualitative results provide rich perspective to inform future implementation and health policy regarding telehealth use.

12.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 10:21-22, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1234506

ABSTRACT

Objective: Interdisciplinary integrative medicine is key to treatment of chronic pain conditions. In-person visits can burden this population, particularly in rural and underserved areas with limited transportation options. Telehealth visits, were historically unsupported by payment models, delivery platforms, health and technological literacy, and clinician buy-in. The COVID-19 pandemic initiated a rapid transition to telehealth at our interdisciplinary outpatient integrative medicine center. This poster will describe the quantitative experience of telehealth integrative medicine services among stakeholders. Methods: Patients (n=472), clinicians (n=25), and staff (n=12) ranked telehealth vs in-person visits by survey with custom scale quality judgments and discrete choice after transitioning to telehealth and three months later. Results: Patient quality judgements significantly favored telehealth at baseline, B=.77 [0.29-1.25], SE=.25, t(712)= 3.15, p=.002, and increased in preference for telehealth at three months, B=.27 [-0.03-0.57], SE=.15, t(712)= 1.76, p=.079. Quality of technology, residing outside the county, and experiencing multiple disciplines predicted patient telehealth favorability. Clinicians did not favor one modality over the other, B=-1.00 [-1.56--0.44], SE=.29, t(799)=-3.48, p<.001. Patient discrete choice split at baseline and favored telehealth at three months. Overall, discrete choice favored telehealth at follow-up across clinicians and patients. Administrative staff's overall impression of telehealth was most favorable of all groups. Conclusion: Telehealth is a promising care modality for patients experiencing chronic pain. Far from a temporary preference, after three months, the majority of patients indicated they would choose telehealth visits over inperson visits, if they were equally safe. Policy that does not support telehealth for outpatient integrative medicine cannot do so under the name of patient preference, perceptions of quality, patient choice, or access.

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