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Pharmacotherapy ; 42(7): 529-539, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905929


OBJECTIVES: Suggested therapeutic options for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) include intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and steroids. Prior studies have shown the benefit of combination therapy with both agents on fever control or the resolution of organ dysfunction. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the impact of IVIG and steroids on hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) in patients with MIS-C associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study on 356 hospitalized patients with MIS-C from March 2020 to September 2021 (28 sites in the United States) in the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (VIRUS) COVID-19 Registry. The effect of IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission, alone or in combination, on LOS was analyzed. Adjustment for confounders was made by multivariable mixed regression with a random intercept for the site. RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 8.8 (Interquartile range (IQR) 4.0, 13) years. 247/356 (69%) patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission during hospitalization. Overall hospital mortality was 2% (7/356). Of the total patients, 153 (43%) received IVIG and steroids, 33 (9%) received IVIG only, 43 (12%) received steroids only, and 127 (36%) received neither within 2 days of admission. After adjustment of confounders, only combination therapy showed a significant decrease of ICU LOS by 1.6 days compared to no therapy (exponentiated coefficient 0.71 [95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.97, p = 0.03]). No significant difference was observed in hospital LOS or the secondary outcome variable of the normalization of inflammatory mediators by Day 3. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with IVIG and steroids initiated in the first 2 days of admission favorably impacts ICU but not the overall hospital LOS in children with MIS-C.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6492, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514412


The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented cancellations of fisheries and ecosystem-assessment surveys, resulting in a recession of observations needed for management and conservation globally. This unavoidable reduction of survey data poses challenges for informing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, developing future stock assessments of harvested species, and providing strategic advice for ecosystem-based management. We present a diversified framework involving integration of monitoring data with empirical models and simulations to inform ecosystem status within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We augment trawl observations collected from a limited fisheries survey with survey effort reduction simulations, use of seabird diets as indicators of fish abundance, and krill species distribution modeling trained on past observations. This diversified approach allows for evaluation of ecosystem status during data-poor situations, especially during the COVID-19 era. The challenges to ecosystem monitoring imposed by the pandemic may be overcome by preparing for unexpected effort reduction, linking disparate ecosystem indicators, and applying new species modeling techniques.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Fisheries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biodiversity , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fishes , Food Chain , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification