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1.
The lancet. Planetary Health ; JOUR:S20, 6 Suppl 1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and measures such as lockdowns to control its transmission generated unique effects on psychological health and well-being. In these circumstances, access to nature and outdoor spaces became a potentially important coping strategy, but the evidence exploring the mental health benefits of nature exposure during different stages of the pandemic is mixed and poorly understood. We systematically synthesised the evidence to examine larger trends in associations between nature exposure and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072159

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a growing focus on researching the management of children with COVID-19 admitted to hospital, especially among developing countries with new variants alongside concerns with the overuse of antibiotics. Patient care can be improved with guidelines, but concerns with the continued imprudent prescribing of antimicrobials, including antibiotics, antivirals, and antimalarials. Objective: Consequently, a need to document the current management of children with COVID-19 across India. Key outcome measures included the percentage of prescribed antimicrobials, adherence to current guidelines, and mortality. Methodology: A point prevalence study using specially developed report forms among 30 hospitals in India. Results: The majority of admitted children were aged between 11 and 18 years (70%) and boys (65.8%). Reasons for admission included respiratory distress, breathing difficulties, and prolonged fever. 75.3% were prescribed antibiotics typically empirically (68.3% overall), with most on the Watch list (76.7%). There were no differences in antibiotic prescribing whether hospitals followed guidelines or not. There was also appreciable prescribing of antimalarials (21.4% of children), antivirals (15.2%), and antiparasitic medicines (27.2%) despite limited evidence. The majority of children (92.2%) made a full recovery Conclusion: It was encouraging to see low hospitalization rates. However, concerns about high empiric use of antibiotics and high use of antimalarials, antivirals, and antiparasitic medicines exist. These can be addressed by instigating appropriate stewardship programs.

3.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212-1212, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068365
4.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(4):731-743, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065437

ABSTRACT

Objective: At the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, educational establishments, including universities, were closed. Educators in high-income countries quickly shifted all education online, building on available infrastructures and approaches. However, there were concerns in developing countries regarding the necessary skills among students and faculty as well as financial support for equipment and the internet. Consequently, a pilot was undertaken in Bangladesh to determine the impact of Covid-19 on the non-medical education system, building on similar research with healthcare professionals. Material(s) and Method(s): A purposively designed questionnaire was disseminated among eight non-medical healthcare educators in private and public universities in Bangladesh. Results and Discussion: Private university educators reported their universities readily adopted e-learning systems and resumed classes more quickly than public universities. Both private and public university educators shared similar challenges, including a lack of training on e-learning initially, variable internet connections, affordability of internet bundles, concerns with available devices, as well as mental stress of faculty and students. Private universities reduced their tuition fees, extended submission deadlines, and shared class recordings to address challenges. Public universities arranged student loans, established Covid-19 testing centers, and the trained students in biosafety practices and molecular tests to volunteer in testing facilities. Conclusion(s): Lessons learned from the pandemic emphasize introducing hybrid education systems with full technological and financial support, alongside biosafety education in the curriculum. Copyright © 2022, Ibn Sina Trust. All rights reserved.

5.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046713

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the WHO classified COVID-19 a pandemic, vaccines have been developed to minimize the SARS-CoV-2 virus's incidence around the world. [1] For better understanding of the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines the identification of the localized and systemic side-effects after vaccination is important because the side effects between in a real-world community setting than reported in phase 3 trials, mostly minor in severity, and self-limiting. [2-5] Objective: To identify pattern of adverse effects of covid-19 vaccine among the people of Bangladesh. Methods: This follow up study was conducted among 2345 vaccinated people at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from June 2021 to December 2021. Data was collected by face to face and telephone interviewing through a structured questionnaire for 7 days daily for local effect and upto 28 days for systemic side effects after vaccination and SPSS software version 25.0 was used for statistical analysis Results: Among the total participants 2345, Most of the people were male 1565 (66.7%). 17.1% of people had local side effects. About 33.1% participants were experienced systemic side effects. Among the local side effects pain was more common and chill and shiver in systemic effects respectively 14.3% and 2%. About 89.1% participants were with co morbidity. Male were predominant and middle aged were more than older people. Conclusion: This study portrayed a precise scenario about the adverse effects of vaccine. The adverse effects of vaccine should be evidence based. Further education and research needed to encourage on evidenced based vaccination among the people. This was generated information for the clinical care providers to take necessary steps as a precaution in treating the adverse effects of any patients and the policy makers to take necessary steps in related to vaccine to handle this pandemic.

6.
International Journal of Climatology ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958811

ABSTRACT

Asia is one of the continents where aerosol levels are comparatively higher across the world. India and Sri Lanka are some of the regions in the South Asian continent where pollution is increasing rapidly due to the rise in industrialization. The present study investigated the interactions between atmospheric aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and their spatial, temporal, and seasonal variation at local and regional scales during 2000–2020 using remotely sensed data sets in south India and Sri Lanka. High values (>0.5) of annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) were detected over southern India. On the other hand, lower values (0.2) were detected over Sri Lanka. In terms of seasonality, a high level of AOD was registered in both southern India and Sri Lanka during the premonsoon and monsoon periods. The angstrom exponent (AE412-470) revealed the dominance of fine-mode particles during winter and the postmonsoon, generally from biomass burning and industrial activities. The long-term analysis exhibited an increasing trend of atmospheric aerosol concentration over southern India and Sri Lanka. Interestingly, there was a decrease in AOD during the year 2020;the reduction in anthropogenic activities in the region was attributed to the COVID-19 lockdown, hence less accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere. AOD showed a positive correlation with cloud effective radius over the western areas along with the Indian Ocean, north, southeast, and southern end of India, while negatively correlated with high AOD areas such as northeast of the study domain. The AOD and cloud optical depth were positively correlated over continental areas, while negative correlations were notable over the Indian Ocean around Sri Lanka, implying heterogeneities of aerosol's effect on cloud microphysical properties over the study area. Finally, the results from wind circulation and backward air mass trajectories reveal higher concentrations of fine-mode particles associated with the continent, whereas coarse-mode particles originate from the oceans. © 2022 Royal Meteorological Society.

7.
Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians & Surgeons ; 40(3):166-170, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1933609

ABSTRACT

Background The impact of vitamin D on COVID-19 infection has been much discussed recently. Our aim was to evaluate the association between baseline serum 25(OH)D with severity of COVID-19. Method This was an prospective study, where 174 COVID- 19 in-patients of an academic hospital in an urban setting were enrolled from Aug, 2020 to Oct, 2020. After detailed clinical history taking and examination, patients were divided into mild, moderate, severe and critical categories. Vitamin D level was measured. Relation between level of vitamin D and disease severity was determined. Result Mean age of the study population was 52.01 years. 13% mild, 22.99% moderate, 26.44% severe and 3.45% were critical cases. 76% of the patients had vitamin D deficiency. No statistical significance between the level of vitamin D and disease severity was seen (p= 0.430). Conclusion Our study revealed there is no correlation between vitamin D deficiency and severity of COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians & Surgeons is the property of Bangladesh College of Physicians & Surgeons and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Advances in Human Biology ; 12(1):16-21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1917948

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To date, the focus on COVID-19 among children, especially in low- and middle-income countries, has been to address key issues including poor vaccination rates. However, the focus is changing with new variants and concerns regarding the development of hyperinflammatory syndromes. There have also been concerns with the overuse of antibiotics to treat patients with COVID-19, with the Indian Government developing guidelines, including those for children, to improve patient care. Consequently, a need to document the current management of children with COVID-19 in India and use the findings for future guidance. Materials and Methods: Pilot study assessing the management of children with COVID-19 among five hospitals in India using purposely developed case report forms, which had been piloted in Bangladesh. Results: Low numbers of children in hospital with COVID-19 (11.9% of in-patient beds). The majority were boys (58.3%) and between 11 and 18 years (55.5%). Reasons for admission were in line with previous studies and included respiratory distress/breathing difficulties. 69.4% of children with COVID-19 were prescribed antibiotics empirically, typically those on the Watch list, and administered parenterally, with only limited switching to oral therapy. A minority were prescribed antimalarials, antivirals and anti-parasitic medicines. There was appreciable prescribing of immune boosters and steroids. Conclusion: It was encouraging to see low hospitalisation rates. However, concerns with high empiric use of antibiotics and limited switching to oral formulations need to be addressed potentially, by instigating antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Similarly, other antimicrobials where these are not recommended.

9.
Advances in Human Biology ; 12(1):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1917947
10.
Advances in Human Biology ; 12(1):83-86, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1917946
11.
5th International Conference on Emerging Technologies in Computer Engineering: Cognitive Computing and Intelligent IoT, ICETCE 2022 ; 1591 CCIS:560-572, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899029

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused havoc on educational systems around the globe, impacting over 2 billion learners in over 200 countries. University, college, and other institutional facility cutbacks have impacted more than 94% of the world’s largest population of students. As a result, enormous changes have occurred in every aspect of human life. Social distance and mobility restrictions have significantly altered conventional educational procedures. Because numerous new standards and procedures have been adopted, restarting classrooms once the restrictions have been withdrawn seems to be another issue. Many scientists have published their findings on teaching and learning in various ways in the aftermath of the COVID-19 epidemic. Face-to-face instruction has been phased out in a number of schools, colleges, and universities. There is concern that the 2021 academic year, or perhaps more in the future, will be lost. Innovation and implementation of alternative educational systems and evaluation techniques are urgently needed. The COVID-19 epidemic has given us the chance to lay the groundwork for digital learning. The goal of this article is to provide a complete assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on e-learning and learning multiple papers, as well as to suggest a course of action. This study also emphasises the importance of digital transformation in e-learning as well as the significant challenges it confronts, such as technological accessibility, poor internet connectivity, and challenging study environments. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
4th RSRI Conference on Recent trends in Science and Engineering, RSRI CRSE 2021 ; 2393, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1890383

ABSTRACT

Using a Learning Management System to generate, share, monitor, and maintain various kinds of education and creation content has proven a milestone in improving online learning. Since the first Learning Management System (LMS) emerged, significant technical developments made this platform a vital technology for curriculum management, rich content management, appraisal and assessment, and complex cooperation. The future expects several improvements in its development, processes, and execution, with many emerging fields of the study exploring different innovations relevant to the LMS. Online learning has been on the increase globally due to the rapid growth in technology in education. The 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has implemented online classes for students in all colleges and universities. However, students are unknown about their ability to consider online learning. This paper presents how machine learning could support the Learning Management System's controlling to resolve student's feedback and queries associated with technical issues and problems when they have engaged in online classes. In this paper, a web-based online survey is conducted. Two hundred fifteen (215) students who have enrolled in various streams of Ph.D., Master, and Bachelor level programs in Colleges and University of Asian countries participated in this survey. Based on students' feedback, results are analyzed. A detailed analysis of possible solutions or suggestions is stated and proposed a Machine Learning-based LMS Model to handle students' problems and challenges efficiently during the online classes. © 2022 Author(s).

13.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054837, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with the infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and identify the factors influencing this compliance using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework. DESIGN: Quantitative data from an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study were employed in this research. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: From 17 May to 30 August 2020, 604 physicians and nurses working at six randomly selected tertiary care facilities in Dhaka City in Bangladesh took part in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with the WHO's guidance on IPC measures, as well as the associated factors, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A mean compliance score of 0.49 (±0.25) was observed on a 0-1 scale. HCWs were most compliant with the medical mask wearing guidelines (81%) and were least compliant with the high-touch surface decontamination regulations (23%). Compliance with the IPC guidance was significantly associated with increasing age, female sex, working as a nurse, having non-communicable diseases and history of exposure to patients with COVID-19. Perceived benefits (B=0.039, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.076), self-efficacy (B=0.101, 95% CI 0.060 to 0.142) and cues to action (B=0.045, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.088) were positively associated with compliance. Compliance with IPC guidance was 0.061 times greater among participants who reported low perceived barriers compared with those with high perceived barriers. CONCLUSION: Overall, compliance with IPC guidance among HCWs was unsatisfactory. As self-efficacy exerted the greatest contribution to compliance, it should be emphasised in any endeavour to improve HCWs' IPC adherence. Such interventions should also focus on perceived barriers, including unreliability of the information sources, unsafe working places and unavailability of protective equipment and cues to action, including trust in the administration and availability of adequate IPC guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management ; : 22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886573

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to examine the factors influencing user satisfaction with unified payment interface (UPI)-based payment systems during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. The study also aimed to examine whether the user satisfaction with UPI-based payment systems during the COVID-19 pandemic will transform into their continuance intention post-COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The study was performed in three phases, i.e. pre-testing (for developing questionnaire), pilot study (using exploratory factor analysis to ensure unidimensionality) and the main study. The main study was based on the feedback from a sample of 369 internet users who first used the UPI-based payment system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data generated were analysed using the structural equation modelling approach. Findings The study findings suggest that the users who are satisfied with UPI-based transactions during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to continue their use of this payment mode in future. Factors such as post-adoption perceived value, perceived usefulness and post-adoption perceived risk were observed to be key constructs in explaining user satisfaction and continued intention for UPI-based payment systems. Originality/value The study is one of the pioneering studies, in the sense that it investigated the continuance intention of UPI-based payment systems, which, surprisingly, did not gain much attention from past researchers.

15.
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin ; 47(1):9-16, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1883888

ABSTRACT

Background: Bangladesh with its large population is highly vulnerable to the devastating blows of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rural people are more at risks due to demographic characteristics and unequal health facilities. Currently, focuses are more on testing and clinical management of COVID-19 but initiatives or innovations on behavioural changes are almost unseen to prevent the spread of the disease which is more urgent until getting specific treatment or vaccine. Objective: The study was aimed to determine significant predictors in the preventive health practices during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted among 810 rural adults of Bangladesh in 2020. Multistage sampling method was done and data were collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested questionnaire. Significant factors of COVID-19 prevention behaviour were determined through hierarchical regression and path relationships were explained through causal model. Results: Almost half of the rural adults showed poor COVID-19 prevention behaviour during the pandemic crisis. Poor knowledge and attitude regarding COVID-19 prevention were also common scenarios in rural areas. Majority of the rural adults were not well motivated and lack of seriousness made them more vulnerable for COVID-19. Socio-demographic and regional variation showed significance predicting health practices of rural adults regarding COVID-19 prevention. Information, attitude, motivation and intention were also found significant in hierarchical regression to predict the outcome. The causal model of preventive health behaviour was justified through all the significant direct and indirect path relationships (p<0.001). Conclusion: Socio-economic disparity should be reduced for behavioural changes of rural adults to ensure healthy practices during the pandemic. This study has great implications regarding designing health programs by emphasizing significant predictors to improve community behaviour to prevent the spread of coronavirus.

16.
Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 8(2):57-63, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865446

ABSTRACT

Background: IPC knowledge and practice can shield HCWs from being infected or even worse.

17.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 12(5):088-097, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863255

ABSTRACT

There is growing concern with the management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) across countries with suboptimal management increasing morbidity, mortality, and costs. In Bangladesh, the number of patients with diabetes will increase to an estimated 22.3 million by 2045, mainly T2DM, unless addressed. Alongside this, continued concerns with high rates of uncontrolled blood glucose levels as well as complication rates, including both microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM in Bangladesh. This adds to the cost of care, which can be a concern among patients in Bangladesh with high co-payment rates. Alongside this, concerns with the impact of COVID-19 and associated lockdown measures on the care of these patients. Greater proactivity in managing these patients can help. Consequently, a need to ascertain what data is routinely collected in public hospitals in Bangladesh, including during the pandemic, to guide care. A pilot study was undertaken among eight patients in Chittagong Medical College using purposely designed case report forms to ascertain the extent of clinical information collected and their care against agreed target levels. There was typically poor control of blood glucose levels among the eight patients, which has resulted in increased prescribing of insulin. However, better control of blood pressure, lipids and urinary albumin levels. There were appreciable missing knowledge gaps, especially during the pandemic. This needs addressing. FUNDING There was no funding for this study or the write up of the study. © 2022. Farhana Akter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

18.
Arab World English Journal ; : 258-280, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1761553

ABSTRACT

The study aims to find out the perceptions of university faculty who taught the courses online during the Covid-19 pandemic in March 2020. The purpose is to highlight the issues of students and faculty involved in the new context of teaching and learning and prepare them to face the technical and academic challenges. A questionnaire is circulated among the faculty of universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The majority of the university faculty who taught the courses online from the middle of the semester are satisfied with their teaching. However, they prefer face-to-face instruction to online instruction. A few of them are in favor of blended learning. The faculty accepts technical and academic issues and issues related to the trust and the value of online instruction. The study is helpful for all the educational institutions, teachers, and students across the world to understand how to conduct online education during crises and calamities to eradicate the technical and academic problems present in the online mode of teaching, and to update and accept the changing trends and developments in the field of education. The article is original because it studies the perceptions of the regular university faculty who taught half of the course face-to-face and the other half online. The novelty lies in finding out how they participated in online teaching during the lockdown period of the Covid-19 pandemic.

19.
Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Experimental Therapeutics ; 5(1):100-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1742884

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, are the leading causes of dementia in the elderly. In the coming days, an alarming upsurge of dementia patients is expected with increasing life expectancy. This is the scenario not only in the developed world but also in the developing world, where older people live in vulnerable situations. Even in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) pandemic, the situation has worsened. Due to the limitations of conventional therapeutic strategies, it is necessary to explore integrated approaches consisting of both pharmacological and non-pharmaceutical interventions. As existing anti-dementia drugs pose many adverse effects on patients, pharmacological intervention through naturally occurring agents should be employed to explore targeted therapy. Alongside, non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive and motor rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological therapy need to be explored. From this perspective, multidisciplinary approaches need to be employed in order to develop a sustainable patient-friendly treatment strategy for the management of these emerging health issues with tremendous social burdens. © 2022, Bangladesh Society for Microbiology, Immunology and Advanced Biotechnology. All rights reserved.

20.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(2):444-454, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736748

ABSTRACT

Objective: Lockdown and other measures, including the closure of universities, introduced by Governments across countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have appreciably impacted on the education of dental and medical students across countries. Key challenges included the need to rapidly move to e-learning as well as instigate new approaches to practicals for health science students. This involves lecturers and students necessarily needing to rapidly adapt to e-learning and other approaches. There have also been affordability issues among students to regularly access the Internet, and purchase the necessary equipment, particularly among those from low-and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh. Consequently, there is an urgent need to assess current challenges among senior level physicians and educators in Bangladesh regarding the education of dental and medical students arising from the current pandemic, and how these are being addressed, to provide future direction. This is particularly important in Bangladesh with high rates of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Materials and Methods: Pragmatic investigation involving a purposely developed questionnaire based on previous studies and the experience of the co-authors. The questionnaire was distributed to 15 senior-level educators with the findings analysed by themes. Results: Key issues included little experience with e-learning at the start of the pandemic among both staff and students, poor internet access and cost of internet bundles. In addition, fear and anxieties among both students and staff. The colleges responded by instigating teaching classes for educators on e-learning and providing adequate personal protective equipment for staff and students during teaching and practical sessions. These formed the basis of future recommendations. Other recommendations included increased flexibility among staff and students. Conclusion: The pandemic posed appreciable challenges to both staff and students attending dental and medical colleges in Bangladesh. Some of the key issues are starting to be addressed.

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