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2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286924, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241705

ABSTRACT

Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a notifiable viral disease in Malaysia, and is transmitted primarily among young children. Although vaccines for enteroviruses 71 (EV-71) were approved in China against HFMD, the availability and the acceptance of the vaccine in the Malaysia are unknown. This study investigated and ascertained the determinants of willingness-to-pay (WTP) for HFMD vaccination in Selangor Malaysia. This study adopted a cross-sectional, contingent valuation method involving 390 parents of young children aged six and below. The double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) approach was employed to assess the WTP for HFMD vaccine among respondents. A bivariate probit model was used to assess the key determinants of WTP for HFMD vaccine, while the mean WTP was measured using the Krinsky and Robb procedure. We found that 279 (71.5%) of parents were willing to pay for the HFMD vaccination. The estimated single bounded mean WTP was MYR460.23 (equivalent to US$ 102.17) for two doses of HFMD vaccination. The double bounded analysis revealed that the vaccine's price, poor education background and lower income were the key factors that significantly affected the WTP, with the estimated mean WTP being MYR394.00 (US$ 87.47). In conclusion, most Malaysian parents are willing to pay for the HFMD vaccination. The estimated WTP identifies the optimal price point for HFMD vaccination in Malaysia. Furthermore, the government should focus on an awareness programme for the HFMD vaccination among parents who have lower income or education level.


Subject(s)
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Mouth Diseases , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaysia , Vaccination , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
PLOS global public health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2248472

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents an opportunity to assess the relationship between personal experiences and vaccine decision-making. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between experiences with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination status. We administered 28 repeated cross-sectional, online surveys between June 2020 and June 2021 in the US and Asia. The main exposure was media showing COVID-19 cases, and we distinguished those with no such experience, those seeing a not severe case of disease, and those seeing a severe case of disease. Logistic regression models estimated the association between experience and acceptance of a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine (pre-rollout) or actual vaccination (post-rollout). We explored perceived susceptibility as a potential mediator. Intent to vaccinate was lowest in the US and Taiwan, and highest in India, Indonesia, and China. Across all countries, seeing a severe case of COVID-19 in the media was associated with 1.72 times higher odds of vaccination intent in 2020 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.02) and 2.13 times higher odds of vaccination in 2021 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.67), compared to those not seeing a case or a less severe case. Perceived susceptibility was estimated to mediate 25% of the relationship with hypothetical vaccination (95% CI: 18%, 31%, P<0.0001), and 16% of the relationship with actual vaccination 16% (95% CI: 12%, 19%, P<0.0001). Seriousness of experiences could relate to intention to vaccinate against COVID-19. Media exposures are a modifiable experience, and this study highlights how this experience can relate to risk perceptions and eventual vaccination, across a variety of countries where the course of the pandemic differed.

5.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The imposition of protective health protocols in public spaces to curb the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has confronted the ritual of congregational prayers in mosques for Muslims. This study examines the adoption of protective behaviors in the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak and the influence of religion on risk perception by comparing precautionary behaviors in public and in mosques. METHODS: Data were collected through an online survey of 327 Muslim men across the Aceh Province, Indonesia, from April 21, 2020, to May 2, 2020. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the paired t-test were employed to compare the uptake of protective behaviors in public and mosques. RESULTS: The adoption of protective behaviors was higher in public rather than in mosques. It further revealed that the understanding of Islamic teachings during the pandemic has influenced perceived risk and the way Muslim men comply with the protective guidelines. Those who have complete, incomplete, or no compliance of precautionary behaviors have their own interpretation of Islamic teachings that inform their individual actions to manage the risk. CONCLUSION: This study suggests the significance of religious views for developing public health preparedness during the current and future pandemics in Aceh and other Muslim majority regions.

6.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 9: 90-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259572

ABSTRACT

No specific drugs have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to date as the development of antivirals usually requires time. Therefore, assessment and use of currently available antiviral drugs is critical for a timely response to the current pandemic. Here, we have reviewed anti-SARS-CoV-2 potencies of available antiviral drug groups such as fusion inhibitors, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and M2 ion-channel protein blockers. Although clinical trials to assess the efficacy of these antivirals are ongoing, this review highlights important information including docking and modeling analyses, in vitro studies, as well as results from clinical uses of these antivirals against COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. AIMS: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. METHODS: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. RESULTS: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. CONCLUSION: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Cureus ; 15(2): e35029, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Being on the verge of a revolutionary approach to gathering information, ChatGPT (an artificial intelligence (AI)-based language model developed by OpenAI, and capable of producing human-like text) could be the prime motive of a paradigm shift on how humans will acquire information. Despite the concerns related to the use of such a promising tool in relation to the future of the quality of education, this technology will soon be incorporated into web search engines mandating the need to evaluate the output of such a tool. Previous studies showed that dependence on some sources of online information (e.g., social media platforms) was associated with higher rates of vaccination hesitancy. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to describe the output of ChatGPT regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine conspiracy beliefs. and compulsory vaccination. METHODS: The current descriptive study was conducted on January 14, 2023 using the ChatGPT from OpenAI (OpenAI, L.L.C., San Francisco, CA, USA). The output was evaluated by two authors and the degree of agreement regarding the correctness, clarity, conciseness, and bias was evaluated using Cohen's kappa. RESULTS: The ChatGPT responses were dismissive of conspiratorial ideas about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) origins labeling it as non-credible and lacking scientific evidence. Additionally, ChatGPT responses were totally against COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy statements. Regarding compulsory vaccination, ChatGPT responses were neutral citing the following as advantages of this strategy: protecting public health, maintaining herd immunity, reducing the spread of disease, cost-effectiveness, and legal obligation, and on the other hand, it cited the following as disadvantages of compulsory vaccination: ethical and legal concerns, mistrust and resistance, logistical challenges, and limited resources and knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that ChatGPT could be a source of information to challenge COVID-19 vaccine conspiracies. For compulsory vaccination, ChatGPT resonated with the divided opinion in the scientific community toward such a strategy; nevertheless, it detailed the pros and cons of this approach. As it currently stands, the judicious use of ChatGPT could be utilized as a user-friendly source of COVID-19 vaccine information that could challenge conspiracy ideas with clear, concise, and non-biased content. However, ChatGPT content cannot be used as an alternative to the original reliable sources of vaccine information (e.g., the World Health Organization [WHO] and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]).

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266227

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic imposed a pressing global threat. Vaccines against COVID-19 are a key tool to control the ongoing pandemic. The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs will largely depend on public willingness to receive the vaccine. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines among university students and lecturers in four different provinces of Indonesia. An anonymous, cross-sectional study was conducted online among university students and lecturers in Indonesia between 23 December 2020 and 15 February 2021. Of 3433 respondents, 50.3% stated that they would accept COVID-19 vaccination, while 10.7% expressed unwillingness and 39% were not sure about receiving the vaccine. Concern regarding the side effects after COVID-19 vaccination was the main reason among the participants for not willing to receive the vaccine. Being male, associated with the health sector, having a higher monthly expenditure and having health insurance could increase the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine. Low trust in the government and low confidence towards vaccine safety and efficacy could hinder participants' decision to be vaccinated. Simple, clear and fact-based information from trusted sources on a regular basis will be important for building confidence towards the COVID-19 vaccination program in Indonesia.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248345

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of monkeypox (mpox) has been declared as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and worry levels of the general population in the Kurdistan region of Iraq regarding the ongoing mpox multi-country outbreak. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between 27-30 July 2022, using a convenience sampling method. The questionnaire was adapted from previous studies addressing the same topic. The independent Student's t-test, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to assess possible factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and worry toward mpox. A total of 510 respondents were included in the final analysis. The participants showed a moderate level of mpox knowledge, a neutral attitude towards mpox, and a relatively moderate worry level. The logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, marital status, religion, level of education, and place of residence were associated with mpox knowledge; however, the significant variables in the multivariate regression analysis were gender, religion, level of education, and residential area. Gender and residential area were associated with attitudes toward mpox; however, the significant variables in the multivariate regression analysis were gender and residential areas. The worry toward mpox was influenced by gender, marital status, religion, and place of residence, yet the significant variables in the multivariate regression analysis were gender, religion, educational level, and residential area. In conclusion, the Kurdish population had moderate knowledge, a neutral attitude, and a moderate level of worry about mpox. Considering the continuous rapid rise in mpox cases in several countries, and its possible risk as pandemic amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, proactive control measures, adequate disease prevention strategies, and preparedness plans need to be formulated and immediately implemented to tackle the appearance of fears among people, and to safeguard the mental health of the public.

11.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(1): 4-14, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240251

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuously posing high global public health concerns and panic resulting in waves of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Depending on the extent of genomic variations, mutations and adaptation, few of the variants gain the ability to spread quickly across many countries, acquire higher virulency and ability to cause severe disease, morbidity and mortality. These variants have been implicated in lessening the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines and immunotherapies resulting in break-through viral infections in vaccinated individuals and recovered patients. Altogether, these could hinder the protective herd immunity to be achieved through the ongoing progressive COVID-19 vaccination. Currently, the only variant of interest of SARS-CoV-2 is Omicron that was first identified in South Africa. In this review, we present the overview on the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with a special focus on the Omicron variant, its lineages and hybrid variants. We discuss the hypotheses of the origin, genetic change and underlying molecular mechanism behind higher transmissibility and immune escape of Omicron variant. Major concerns related to Omicron including the efficacy of the current available immunotherapeutics and vaccines, transmissibility, disease severity, and mortality are discussed. In the last part, challenges and strategies to counter Omicron variant, its lineages and hybrid variants amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic are presented.

12.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(6): 1017-1032, 2022 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154959

ABSTRACT

Willingness to pay (WTP) for booster doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is an under studied research topic. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the WTP for the booster doses of COVID-19 vaccines and its predictors in Indonesia using an online survey distributed all over the provinces of this low-middle-income country. The WTP was evaluated using a basic dichotomous contingent valuation approach, and its associated determinants were evaluated using a linear regression model. Out of 2935 responders, 66.2% (1942/2935) were willing to pay for a booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. The majority of respondents (63.5%) were willing to pay within a price range of 100,000-500,000 Indonesian rupiah (IDR), i.e., USD 6.71-33.57. Being older than 40 years, having a higher educational level, having a higher income, knowing and understanding that booster doses were important, and having a vaccine status that is certified halal (permissible in Islamic law), were all associated with a higher WTP for the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines. The study findings imply that the WTP for a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccination in Indonesia is lower compared to acceptance of vaccines provided free of charge. This WTP data can be utilized to develop a pricing scheme for the booster doses of COVID-19 vaccination in the country with potential benefits in other low-income countries. The government may be required to provide subsidies for the herd immunity vaccination process to proceed as anticipated. Furthermore, the public community must be educated on the importance of vaccination as well as the fact that the COVID-19 epidemic is far from being over.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123901

ABSTRACT

Obtaining a booster dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is required to maintain the protective level of neutralizing antibodies and therefore herd immunity in the community, and the success of booster dose programs depends on public acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptance of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine and its drivers and barriers in Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the provinces of Indonesia between 1 and 15 August 2022. Individuals who completed the primary series of the COVID-19 vaccine were asked about their acceptance of a booster dose. Those who refused the booster dose were questioned about their reasons. A logistic regression was used to determine the determinants associated with rejection of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine. A total of 2935 respondents were included in the final analysis. With no information on the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine, 95% of respondents agreed to receive a booster dose if it were provided for free by the government. This acceptance was reduced to only 50.3% if the vaccine had a 75% efficacy with a 20% chance of side effects. The adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that there were eight factors associated with the rejection of the booster dose: age, marital status, religion, occupation, type of the first two vaccines received, knowledge regarding the importance of the booster dose, belief that natural immunity is sufficient to prevent COVID-19 and disbelief in the effectiveness of the booster dose. In conclusion, the hesitancy toward booster doses in Indonesia is influenced by some intrinsic factors such as lack of knowledge on the benefits of the booster dose, worries regarding the unexpected side effects and concerns about the halal status of the provided vaccines and extrinsic determinants such as the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine. These findings suggest the need for more campaigns and promotions regarding the booster dose benefits to increase its acceptance.

14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082151

ABSTRACT

Little is known on the characteristics of headaches associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of headache in post-COVID-19 patients, and its impact on the patients' quality of life (QoL), as well as to determine the associated determinants of the poor QoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms of COVID-19, characteristics of headache, and the QoL were collected and assessed. Headache was diagnosed and characterized using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, version 3 (ICHD-3). QoL was assessed using a Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) tool. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associated determinants of poor QoL in post-COVID-19 patients. A total of 215 post-COVID-19 patients were included in the final analysis, and 21.4% (46/215) of them had a poor QoL due to headache following COVID-19. Those who were unemployed and who contracted COVID-19 less than three months prior to the study had higher odds of having poor QoL compared to those who were employed and who contracted COVID-19 more than three months prior to the study. Low QoL was also related to headache that occurred less than one month after recovering from COVID-19 (compared to that which occurred longer than one month after); had a high frequency; had a combination sensation of pulsating, pressing, fiery, and stabbing pain; had a high severity score; and had additional symptoms accompanying the headache. In conclusion, headache related to COVID-19 is associated with low QoL among post-COVID-19 patients. A guideline on prevention measures of headache on COVID-19 patients, therefore, needs to be established to avoid long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Headache/etiology , Logistic Models
15.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066549

ABSTRACT

The 2022 multi-country monkeypox outbreak in humans has brought new public health adversity on top of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease has spread to 104 countries throughout six continents of the world, with the highest burden in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, monkeypox virus (MPXV), has been known since 1959 after isolation from infected monkeys, and virulence among humans has been reported since the 1970s, mainly in endemic countries in West and Central Africa. However, the disease has re-emerged in 2022 at an unprecedented pace, with particular concern on its human-to-human transmissibility and community spread in non-endemic regions. As a mitigation effort, healthcare workers, public health policymakers, and the general public worldwide need to be well-informed on this relatively neglected viral disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of monkeypox, including the following aspects: epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. In addition, the current review discusses the preventive and control measures, the latest vaccine developments, and the future research areas in this re-emerging viral disease that was declared as a public health emergency of international concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Vaccines , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Disease Outbreaks
16.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11537, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2033117

ABSTRACT

The controlled environment room, called an isolation room, has become a must have for medical facilities, due to the spreading of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), to isolate the high risk infected patients. To avoid the transmission of the virus through airborne routes, guidelines were published by the government and the association. A medical facility must comply with this document for high-risk patient treatment. A full-scale N class isolation room was built at Syiah Kuala University to investigate the performance in terms of the controller, temperature, pressure, humidity, and energy consumption. The isolation room was equipped with a proper capacity heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, which consisted of an air conditioning compressor and a negative pressure generator (NPG), and its installation was ensured to fulfil the guidelines. Since the current NPG was controlled manually, a computer-based control system was designed, implemented, and compared with the manual control. The results showed that the computer-based control outputs better stability of pressure and electric power. For that reason, a computer-based control was chosen in the real case. To investigate the performance of the isolation room, a 24 h experiment was carried out under different parameter setups. The results showed that improvement of the control strategy for temperature and humidity is still necessary. The energy consumption during the activation of the NPG for the recommended negative pressure was slightly different. An additional piece of equipment to absorb the heat from the exhaust air would be promising to improve the energy efficiency.

17.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009797

ABSTRACT

Recently, people worldwide have experienced several outbreaks caused by viruses that have attracted much interest globally, such as HIV, Zika, Ebola, and the one being faced, SARSCoV-2 viruses. Unfortunately, the availability of drugs giving satisfying outcomes in curing those diseases is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to dig deeper to provide compounds that can tackle the causative viruses. Meanwhile, the efforts to explore marine natural products have been gaining great interest as the products have consistently shown several promising biological activities, including antiviral activity. This review summarizes some products extracted from marine organisms, such as seaweeds, seagrasses, sponges, and marine bacteria, reported in recent years to have potential antiviral activities tested through several methods. The mechanisms by which those compounds exert their antiviral effects are also described here, with several main mechanisms closely associated with the ability of the products to block the entry of the viruses into the host cells, inhibiting replication or transcription of the viral genetic material, and disturbing the assembly of viral components. In addition, the structure-activity relationship of the compounds is also highlighted by focusing on six groups of marine compounds, namely sulfated polysaccharides, phlorotannins, terpenoids, lectins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. In conclusion, due to their uniqueness compared to substances extracted from terrestrial sources, marine organisms provide abundant products having promising activities as antiviral agents that can be explored to tackle virus-caused outbreaks.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997861

ABSTRACT

Countries worldwide have deployed mass COVID-19 vaccination drives, but there are people who are hesitant to receive the vaccine. Studies assessing the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy are inconclusive. This study aimed to assess the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and determine the potential factors associated with such hesitancy. We performed an organized search for relevant articles in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Extraction of the required information was performed for each study. A single-arm meta-analysis was performed to determine the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy; the potential factors related to vaccine hesitancy were analyzed using a Z-test. A total of 56 articles were included in our analysis. We found that the global prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy was 25%. Being a woman, being a 50-year-old or younger, being single, being unemployed, living in a household with five or more individuals, having an educational attainment lower than an undergraduate degree, having a non-healthcare-related job and considering COVID-19 vaccines to be unsafe were associated with a higher risk of vaccination hesitancy. In contrast, living with children at home, maintaining physical distancing norms, having ever tested for COVID-19, and having a history of influenza vaccination in the past few years were associated with a lower risk of hesitancy to COVID-19 vaccination. Our study provides valuable information on COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy, and we recommend special interventions in the sub-populations with increased risk to reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997860

ABSTRACT

Vaccination to prevent influenza virus infection and to lessen its severity is recommended among healthcare workers (HCWs). Health professionals have a higher risk of exposure to viruses and could transmit the influenza virus to vulnerable patients who are prone to severe disease and mortality. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the levels of influenza vaccine acceptance and uptake as well as its determinants, among Jordanian HCWs over the last influenza season of 2021/2022. This study was based on a self-administered electronic survey that was distributed in March 2022. Psychological determinants of influenza vaccine acceptance and vaccine conspiracy beliefs were assessed using the previously validated 5C scale questionnaire (confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation and collective responsibility) and the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale. The study sample comprised a total of 1218 HCWs: nurses (n = 412, 33.8%), physicians (n = 367, 30.1%), medical technicians (n = 182, 14.9%), pharmacists (n = 161, 13.2%) and dentists (n = 87, 7.1%), among others. About two-thirds of the study sample expressed willingness to receive influenza vaccination if provided free of charge (n = 807, 66.3%), whereas less than one-third were willing to pay for the vaccine (n = 388, 31.9%). The self-reported uptake of the influenza vaccine in the last influenza season was 62.8%. The following factors were significantly associated with higher acceptance of influenza vaccination if provided freely, as opposed to vaccine hesitancy/rejection: male sex; physicians and dentists among HCW categories; higher confidence and collective responsibility; and lower complacency, constraints and calculation. Higher influenza vaccine uptake was significantly correlated with nurses and physicians among HCW categories, older age, a higher monthly income, higher confidence and collective responsibility, lower complacency and constraints and lower embrace of general vaccine conspiracy beliefs. The results of the current study can provide helpful clues to improve influenza vaccine coverage among HCWs in Jordan. Consequently, this can help to protect vulnerable patient groups and reserve valuable resources in healthcare settings. Psychological determinants appeared to be the most significant factors for vaccine acceptance and uptake, whereas the embrace of general vaccine conspiracy beliefs was associated with lower rates of influenza vaccine uptake, which should be considered in educational and interventional measures aiming to promote influenza vaccination.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(16)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987925

ABSTRACT

Polymeric materials are used for personal protective equipment (PPE), which is mandatory for clinicians to use when handling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The development of diagnostic tools and vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is also dependent on polymer technology. This current report aims to provide readers with the trend of polymer research regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, by employing bibliometric analysis. A literature search on the Scopus database (31 January 2022) was carried out using predetermined terms. Using Scopus database features, the publications were filtered based on the year of publication (2020-2022), types of articles (original research and review), and language (English). The metadata were extracted in a CSV (.csv) file, to be later used in VOSviewer software. The data were presented in a table, graph, and network visualization. As many as 512 publications were included, consisting of 66.4% original research articles and 33.6% review articles. Most of the publications were written by authors whose affiliation was in the United States (n = 118, 23%) and covering the Materials Science subject area (n = 142, 27.7%). The Ministry of Education of China was the most productive organization, publishing 11 articles. The National Science Foundation of China was the top funding source, supporting 45 publications. Heinz C. Schröder was the most prolific author, publishing nine articles. Science of the Total Environment was the leading journal publishing the included studies. The trend of polymer technology related to COVID-19 mostly covers PPE and waste-management themes. The use of polymer technology as a delivery system for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 vaccine is also among the frequently researched areas. We encourage more research in the field of polymer technology be carried out, to overcome the global pandemic.

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