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3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293006

ABSTRACT

Antibodies specific for the spike glycoprotein (S) and nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins are typically present during severe COVID-19, and induced to S after vaccination. The binding of viral antigens by antibody can initiate the classical complement pathway. Since complement could play pathological or protective roles at distinct times during SARS-CoV-2 infection we determined levels of antibody-dependent complement activation along the complement cascade. Here, we used an ELISA assay to assess complement protein binding (C1q) and the deposition of C4b, C3b, and C5b to S and N antigens in the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from different test groups: non-infected, single and double vaccinees, non-hospitalised convalescent (NHC) COVID-19 patients and convalescent hospitalised (ITU-CONV) COVID-19 patients. C1q binding correlates strongly with antibody responses, especially IgG1 levels. However, detection of downstream complement components, C4b, C3b and C5b shows some variability associated with the antigen and subjects studied. In the ITU-CONV, detection of C3b-C5b to S was observed consistently, but this was not the case in the NHC group. This is in contrast to responses to N, where median levels of complement deposition did not differ between the NHC and ITU-CONV groups. Moreover, for S but not N, downstream complement components were only detected in sera with higher IgG1 levels. Therefore, the classical pathway is activated by antibodies to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens, but the downstream effects of this activation may differ depending on the specific antigen targeted and the disease status of the subject.

6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2292-2304, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404736

ABSTRACT

The effects of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, particularly among those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who commonly have defects in humoral and cellular immunity, and the efficacy of vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are uncertain. To inform public health and clinical practice, we synthesized published studies and preprints evaluating surrogate measures of immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with CKD, including those receiving dialysis or with a kidney transplant. We found 35 studies (28 published, 7 preprints), with sample sizes ranging from 23 to 1140 participants and follow-up ranging from 1 week to 1 month after vaccination. Seventeen of these studies enrolled a control group. In the 22 studies of patients receiving dialysis, the development of antibodies was observed in 18% to 53% after 1 dose and in 70% to 96% after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. In the 14 studies of transplant recipients, 3% to 59% mounted detectable humoral or cellular responses after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. After vaccination, there were a few reported cases of relapse or de novo glomerulonephritis, and acute transplant rejection, suggesting a need for ongoing surveillance. Studies are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in these populations. Rigorous surveillance is necessary for detection of long-term adverse effects in patients with autoimmune disease and transplant recipients. For transplant recipients and those with suboptimal immune responses, alternate vaccination platforms and strategies should be considered. As additional data arise, the NephJC COVID-19 page will continue to be updated (http://www.nephjc.com/news/covid-vaccine).

7.
Clinical Medicine ; 21:S13-S14, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1380276

ABSTRACT

Demographic data, laboratory data and other clinical information were extracted from the electronic medical record system. After exclusion of anyone under the age of 16 years, patients on replacement therapy or with a working kidney transplant and anyone not requiring admission, the details of 2,325 patients were analysed. 55.2% of the patients were male, with 64.8% Caucasian, 14.7% Asian/Asian British and the rest either of mixed race, Black, Chinese or unknown. Coronavirus disease 19 infection does not result in acute kidney injury;an analysis of 116 hospitalised patients from Wuhan, China.

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