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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106152, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506161


Cerebrovascular diseases attributed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are uncommon but can result in devastating outcomes. Pediatric acute ischemic strokes are themselves rare and with very few large vessel occlusion related acute ischemic strokes attributed to COVID-19 described in the literature as of date. COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to acute stroke care delays across the world and with pediatric endovascular therapy still in its infancy, it poses a great challenge in facilitating good outcomes in children presenting with acute ischemic strokes in the setting of COVID-19. We present a pediatric patient who underwent endovascular therapy for an internal carotid artery occlusion related acute ischemic stroke in the setting of active COVID-19 and had an excellent outcome thanks to a streamlined stroke pathway involving the vascular neurology, neuro-interventional, neurocritical care, and anesthesiology teams.

COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/therapy , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Child , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Stents , Treatment Outcome
Cureus ; 13(2): e13354, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145697


Background The COVID-19 pandemic challenges our ability to safely treat breast cancer patients and requires revisiting current techniques to evaluate optimal strategies. Potential long-term sequelae of breast radiation have been addressed by deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH), prone positioning, and four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) average intensity projection (AveIP)-based planning techniques. Dosimetric comparisons to determine the optimal technique to minimize the normal tissue dose for left-sided breast cancers have not been performed. Methods Ten patients with left-sided, early-stage breast cancer undergoing whole breast radiation were simulated in the prone position, supine with DIBH, and with a free-breathing 4DCT scan. The target and organs at risk (OAR) contours were delineated in all scans. Target volume coverage and OAR doses were assessed. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences in dosimetric parameters among the different treatment plans. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Results We demonstrate differences in heart and lung dose by the simulation technique. The mean heart doses in the prone, DIBH, and AveIP plans were 129 cGy, 154 cGy, and 262 cGy, respectively (p=0.02). The lung V20 in the prone, DIBH, and AveIP groups was 0.5%, 10.3% and 9.5%, respectively (p <0.001). Regardless of technique, lumpectomy planning target volume (PTV) coverage did not differ between the three plans with 95% of the lumpectomy PTV volume covered by 100.4% in prone plans, 98.5% in AveIP plans, and 99.3% in DIBH plans (p=0.7). Conclusions Prone positioning provides dosimetric advantages as compared to DIBH. When infection risks are considered as in the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, prone plans have advantages in reducing the risk of disease transmission. In instances where prone positioning is not feasible, obtaining an AveIP simulation may be useful in more accurately assessing heart and lung toxicity and informing a risk/benefit discussion of DIBH vs free breath-hold techniques.