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N Engl J Med ; 387(7): 611-619, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991733


BACKGROUND: Since January 2022, there has been an increase in reports of cases of acute hepatitis of unknown cause in children. Although cases have been reported across multiple continents, most have been reported in the United Kingdom. Investigations are ongoing to identify the causative agent or agents. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study involving children referred to a single pediatric liver-transplantation center in the United Kingdom between January 1 and April 11, 2022. These children were 10 years of age or younger and had hepatitis that met the case definition of the U.K. Health Security Agency for confirmed acute hepatitis that was not hepatitis A through E and did not have a metabolic, inherited or genetic, congenital, or mechanical cause, in the context of a serum aminotransferase level greater than 500 IU per liter. We reviewed medical records and documented demographic characteristics, clinical features, and results of liver biochemical, serologic, and molecular tests for hepatotropic and other viruses, as well as radiologic and clinical outcomes. The outcomes were classified as an improving condition, liver transplantation, or death. RESULTS: A total of 44 children had hepatitis that met the confirmed case definition, and most were previously healthy. The median age was 4 years (range, 1 to 7). Common presenting features were jaundice (in 93% of the children), vomiting (in 54%), and diarrhea (in 32%). Among the 30 patients who underwent molecular testing for human adenovirus, 27 (90%) were positive. Fulminant liver failure developed in 6 patients (14%), all of whom received a liver transplant. None of the patients died. All the children, including the 6 who received liver transplants, were discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: In this series involving 44 young children with acute hepatitis of uncertain cause, human adenovirus was isolated in most of the children, but its role in the pathogenesis of this illness has not been established.

Hepatitis , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/etiology , Hepatitis/surgery , Humans , Infant , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
Transpl Int ; 34(11): 2122-2137, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352507


Strict isolation of vulnerable individuals has been a strategy implemented by authorities to protect people from COVID-19. Our objective was to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL), uncertainty and coping behaviours in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey of adult SOT recipients undergoing follow-up at our institution was performed. Perceived health status, uncertainty and coping strategies were assessed using the EQ-5D-5L, Short-form Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (SF-MUIS) and Brief Cope, respectively. Interactions with COVID-19 risk perception, access to health care, demographic and clinical variables were assessed. The survey was completed by 826 of 3839 (21.5%) invited participants. Overall, low levels of uncertainty in illness were reported, and acceptance was the major coping strategy (92%). Coping by acceptance, feeling protected, self-perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 were associated with lower levels of uncertainty. Health status index scores were significantly lower for those with mental health illness, compromised access to health care, a perceived high risk of severe COVID-19 infection and higher levels of uncertainty. A history of mental health illness, risk perceptions, restricted healthcare access, uncertainty and coping strategies was associated with poorer HRQoL in SOT recipients during strict isolation. These findings may allow identification of strategies to improve HRQoL in SOT recipients during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Uncertainty