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J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 20(1): 98, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923613


BACKGROUND: The baculovirus expression vector system has been developed for expressing a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, glycoproteins, recombinant viruses, and vaccines. The availability of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence has enabled the synthesis of SARS-CoV2 proteins in a baculovirus-insect cell platform for various applications. The most cloned SARS-CoV-2 protein is the spike protein, which plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is available in its whole length or as subunits like S1 or the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Non-structural proteins (Nsps), another recombinant SARS-CoV-2 protein generated by the baculovirus expression vector system (BEV), are used in the identification of new medications or the repurposing of existing therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. Non-SARS-CoV-2 proteins generated by BEV for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis or treatment include moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLVRT), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), therapeutic proteins, and recombinant antibodies. The recombinant proteins were modified to boost the yield or to stabilize the protein. CONCLUSION: This review covers the wide application of the recombinant protein produced using the baculovirus expression technology for COVID-19 research. A lot of improvements have been made to produce functional proteins with high yields. However, there is still room for improvement and there are parts of this field of research that have not been investigated yet.

Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438587


This study is a cross-sectional, observational analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa, to understand the progression of the disease across the continent. Published data on COVID-19 from 20 January 2020 to 21 June 2021 were obtained and analyzed. Case fatality ratios, as well as case growth rates and other indices were computed. On 21 June 2021, a total of 178,210,532 confirmed cases and 3,865,978 deaths had been recorded worldwide. While the Americas recorded the highest number of cases, Southern Africa recorded the majority of African cases. Fatality rate since from 20 February 2020 to 21 June 2021 was highest in the Americas (2.63%) and low in the South Eastern Asia region (1.39%), globally increasing from 2.17% at the end of January to 6.36% in May 2020 and decreasing to a range between 2.14% to 2.30% since January 2021. In Africa, the infection rate per 100,000 persons was up to 3090.18, while deaths per 100,000 and case fatality ratio were as high as 119.64 and 5.72%, respectively, among the 20 most-affected countries. The testing rate per million population was highest in Botswana (512,547.08). Fatality appears to be increasing in some regions of Africa. The rate of infection and fatality in Africa could still likely take an upward turn. Strict control measures are required, considering the continent's weak healthcare systems.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Africa, Southern , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Malays J Med Sci ; 27(2): 1-9, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-96129


When the first report of COVID-19 appeared in December 2019 from Wuhan, China, the world unknowingly perceived this as another flu-like illness. Many were surprised at the extreme steps that China had subsequently taken to seal Wuhan from the rest of the world. However, by February 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, had spread so quickly across the globe that the World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 a pandemic. COVID-19 is not the first pandemic the world has seen, so what makes it so unique in Malaysia, is discussed to avoid a future coronacoma.