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1.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1328-1337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. RESULT: Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 918834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933847

ABSTRACT

Individual differences in effortful control, a component of temperament, reflecting the ability to use attention and other cognitive processes to self-regulate emotion and behavior, contribute to child academic adjustment, social competence, and wellbeing. Research has linked excessive screen time in early childhood to reduced self-regulation ability. Furthermore, research suggests that parents are more likely to use screens with children who have more challenging temperaments, such as low levels of effortful control. Since screen time by children between the ages of 0 and 18 has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, it remains timely to investigate the developmental pattern of association between child screen media use and effortful control. We hypothesize that higher levels of screen media intake at age 3.5 will be associated with lower effortful control at age 4.5 and that lower effortful control at 3.5 will contribute to more screen media intake at age 4.5. This study draws on participants followed longitudinally over the span of 2-years for an investigation of Canadian preschoolers' screen media use during the pandemic (N = 316, Wave 1). A follow-up with this sample was completed in 2021 (N = 265, Wave 2). Analyses using a cross-lagged panel model revealed stability in child screen time and effortful control between the ages of 3.5 and 4.5. Child screen time at age 3.5 significantly contributed to decreased effortful control scores at the age of 4.5, whereas effortful control at age 3.5 did not contribute to screen time at age 4.5. Our results partially confirmed our hypothesis and indicated that higher levels of screen time intake were detrimental to the development of effortful control. These results suggest that screen media use, an exceedingly frequent activity, may play an enduring role in development by shaping young children's temperaments.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330969

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant persons with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are at increased risk of preterm birth, and evidence suggests this risk may be higher among pregnant persons with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or among those infected later in pregnancy. However, the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of COVID-19, and preterm birth is not fully understood. Objective: This study examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth after adjusting for maternal age, selected underlying conditions, and pregnancy complications. Study Design: Using a cohort of 6,396 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 identified through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network, we analyzed data for those with infection at <37 weeks gestation who delivered a singleton liveborn infant. Illness severity groups (asymptomatic infection, mild, moderate-to-severe, and critical) were adapted from National Institutes of Health and World Health Organization criteria. Risk ratios for preterm birth (<37 weeks) were calculated for illness severity categories (referent=mild), trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection (referent=first trimester), and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. Results: : Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second (aRR 3.9;95% CI: 1.7-9.0) or third (aRR 4.6;95% CI: 3.2-6.6) trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Among persons infected in the second or third trimester, those with critical COVID-19 delivered sooner after infection compared with persons with mild COVID-19 (p<0.001 for second trimester and p=0.02 for third trimester). Nearly half of those with moderate-to-severe or critical COVID-19 delivered by cesarean, with most critical COVID-19 cesarean deliveries as emergent (76.6% weighted [65/96 unweighted]). Conclusion: When infection occurred in the second or third trimester, critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and those with critical COVID-19 delivered sooner after infection compared to those with mild COVID-19. These findings can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons, particularly those presenting with critical COVID-19 later in pregnancy.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316370

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The considerable volume of infections from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has made it challenging for health departments to collect complete data for national disease reporting. We sought to examine sensitivity of the COVID-19 case report form (CRF) pregnancy field by comparing CRF data to the gold standard of CRF data linked to birth and fetal death certificates. Methods: CRFs for women aged 15–44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to birth and fetal death certificates for pregnancies completed during January 1–December 31, 2020 in Illinois and Tennessee. Among linked records, pregnancy was considered confirmed for women with a SARS-CoV-2 specimen collection date on or prior to the delivery date. Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnancy indicated on the CRF by the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Among 4,276 (Illinois) and 2,070 (Tennessee) CRFs that linked with a birth or fetal death certificate, CRF pregnancy field sensitivity was 45.3% and 42.1%, respectively. In both states, sensitivity varied significantly by maternal race/ethnicity, insurance, trimester of prenatal care entry, month of specimen collection, and trimester of specimen collection. Sensitivity also varied by maternal education in Illinois but not in Tennessee. Discussion: Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field varied by state and demographic factors. To more accurately assess outcomes for pregnant women, jurisdictions might consider utilizing additional data sources and linkages to obtain pregnancy status.

6.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669907

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The considerable volume of infections from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has made it challenging for health departments to collect complete data for national disease reporting. We sought to examine sensitivity of the COVID-19 case report form (CRF) pregnancy field by comparing CRF data to the gold standard of CRF data linked to birth and fetal death certificates. DESCRIPTION: CRFs for women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to birth and fetal death certificates for pregnancies completed during January 1-December 31, 2020 in Illinois and Tennessee. Among linked records, pregnancy was considered confirmed for women with a SARS-CoV-2 specimen collection date on or prior to the delivery date. Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnancy indicated on the CRF by the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. ASSESSMENT: Among 4276 (Illinois) and 2070 (Tennessee) CRFs that linked with a birth or fetal death certificate, CRF pregnancy field sensitivity was 45.3% and 42.1%, respectively. In both states, sensitivity varied significantly by maternal race/ethnicity, insurance, trimester of prenatal care entry, month of specimen collection, and trimester of specimen collection. Sensitivity also varied by maternal education in Illinois but not in Tennessee. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field varied by state and demographic factors. To more accurately assess outcomes for pregnant women, jurisdictions might consider utilizing additional data sources and linkages to obtain pregnancy status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294712

ABSTRACT

Background: Risky media use in terms of accumulating too much time in front of screens and usage before bedtime in early childhood is linked to developmental delays, reduced sleep quality, and unhealthy media use in later childhood and adulthood. For this reason, we examine patterns of media use in pre-school children and the extent to which child and family characteristics contribute to media use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional study of digital media use by preschool-aged children (mean age =3.45, N=316) was conducted at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic between April and August of 2020. Parents completed a questionnaire and 24-hour recall diary in the context of an ongoing study of child digital media use. From these responses we estimated hours of average daily screen time, screen time in the past 24 hours, average daily mobile device use, and media use before bedtime. Parents also answered questions about their child (i.e., age, sex, temperament), family characteristics (parental mediation style, parental screen time, education, income), and contextual features of the pandemic (ex., remote work, shared childcare). Daycare closures were directly assessed using a government website. Results Our results indicate that 64% of preschoolers used more than 2 hours of digital media hours/day on average during the pandemic. A majority (56%) of children were also exposed to media within the hour before bedtime. Logistic regression results revealed that child age, temperament, restrictive mediation, family income and education were all correlates of risky digital media use by children. Conclusions Our results suggest widespread risky media use by preschoolers during the pandemic. Parenting practices that include using more restrictive mediation strategies may foster benefits in regulating young children’s screen time.

8.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 8: 20543581211053458, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511696

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM: This article provides guidance on optimizing the management of pediatric patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who will be or are being treated with any form of home or in-center dialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic. The goals are to provide the best possible care for pediatric patients with ESKD during the pandemic and ensure the health care team's safety. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: The core of these rapid guidelines is derived from the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) consensus recommendations for adult patients recently published in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease (CJKHD). We also consulted specific documents from other national and international agencies focused on pediatric kidney health. Additional information was obtained by formal review of the published academic literature relevant to pediatric home or in-center hemodialysis. METHODS: The Leadership of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Nephrologists (CAPN), which is affiliated with the CSN, solicited a team of clinicians and researchers with expertise in pediatric home and in-center dialysis. The goal was to adapt the guidelines recently adopted for Canadian adult dialysis patients for pediatric-specific settings. These included specific COVID-19-related themes that apply to dialysis in a Canadian environment, as determined by a group of senior renal leaders. Expert clinicians and nurses with deep expertise in pediatric home and in-center dialysis reviewed the revised pediatric guidelines. KEY FINDINGS: We identified 7 broad areas of home dialysis practice management that may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, (2) home dialysis training, (3) home dialysis management, (4) personal protective equipment, (5) product delivery, (6) minimizing direct health care providers and patient contact, and (7) caregivers support in the community. In addition, we identified 8 broad areas of in-center dialysis practice management that may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) identification of patients with COVID-19, (2) hemodialysis of patients with confirmed COVID-19, (3) hemodialysis of patients not yet known to have COVID-19, (4) management of visitors to the dialysis unit, (5) handling COVID-19 testing of patients and staff, (6) safe practices during resuscitation procedures in a pandemic, (7) routine hemodialysis care, and (8) hemodialysis care under fixed dialysis resources. We make specific suggestions and recommendations for each of these areas. LIMITATIONS: At the time when we started this work, we knew that evidence on the topic of pediatric dialysis and COVID-19 would be severely limited, and our resources were also limited. We did not, therefore, do formal systematic review or meta-analysis. We did not evaluate our specific suggestions in the clinical environment. Thus, this article's advice and recommendations are primarily expert opinions and subject to the biases associated with this level of evidence. To expedite the publication of this work, we created a parallel review process that may not be as robust as standard arms' length peer-review processes. IMPLICATIONS: We intend these recommendations to help provide the best care possible for pediatric patients prescribed in-center or home dialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic, a time of altered priorities and reduced resources.

9.
Current Medical Research & Opinion ; 37:21-39, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1193654

ABSTRACT

2020 European Meeting of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP), 21-22 January 2020, London, UK. 18 About us. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients with Covid-19. Impact of requirements to register and report results of all clinical trials: what is being p... Funding OPEN Health Group The impact of the increased need for digital activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic: a surve... Funding OPEN Health Group Footnotes 1 Encored poster at the 17th Annual Meeting of ISMPP. 38 Baral R, White M, Vassiliou VS. Effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28,872 patients. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Current Medical Research & Opinion is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 8: 2054358121990135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article provides guidance on managing acute kidney injury (AKI) and kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in pediatrics during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Canadian context. It is adapted from recently published rapid guidelines on the management of AKI and KRT in adults, from the Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN). The goal is to provide the best possible care for pediatric patients with kidney disease during the pandemic and ensure the health care team's safety. INFORMATION SOURCES: The Canadian Association of Paediatric Nephrologists (CAPN) COVID-19 Rapid Response team derived these rapid guidelines from the CSN consensus recommendations for adult patients with AKI. We have also consulted specific documents from other national and international agencies focused on pediatric kidney health. We identified additional information by reviewing the published academic literature relevant to pediatric AKI and KRT, including recent journal articles and preprints related to COVID-19 in children. Finally, our group also sought expert opinions from pediatric nephrologists across Canada. METHODS: The leadership of the CAPN, which is affiliated with the CSN, solicited a team of clinicians and researchers with expertise in pediatric AKI and acute KRT. The goal was to adapt the guidelines recently adopted for Canadian adult patients for pediatric-specific settings. These included specific COVID-19-related themes relevant to AKI and KRT in a Canadian setting, as determined by a group of kidney disease experts and leaders. An expert group of clinicians in pediatric AKI and acute KRT reviewed the revised pediatric guidelines. KEY FINDINGS: (1) Current Canadian data do not suggest an imminent threat of an increase in acute KRT needs in children because of COVID-19; however, close coordination between nephrology programs and critical care programs is crucial as the pandemic continues to evolve. (2) Pediatric centers should prepare to reallocate resources to adult centers as needed based on broader health care needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. (3) Specific suggestions pertinent to the optimal management of AKI and KRT in COVID-19 patients are provided. These suggestions include but are not limited to aspects of fluid management, KRT vascular access, and KRT modality choice. (4) Considerations to ensure adequate provision of KRT if resources become scarce during the COVID-19 pandemic. LIMITATIONS: We did not conduct a formal systematic review or meta-analysis. We did not evaluate our specific suggestions in the clinical environment. The local context, including how the provision of care for AKI and acute KRT is organized, may impede the implementation of many suggestions. As knowledge is advancing rapidly in the area of COVID-19, suggestions may become outdated quickly. Finally, most of the literature for AKI and KRT in COVID-19 comes from adult data, and there are few pediatric-specific studies. IMPLICATIONS: Given that most acute KRT related to COVID-19 is likely to be required in the pediatric intensive care unit initial setting, close collaboration and planning between critical care and pediatric nephrology programs are needed. Our group will update these suggestions with a supplement if necessary as newer evidence becomes available that may change or add to the recommendations provided.

12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914861

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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