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1.
An Interdisciplinary Approach in the Post-COVID-19 Pandemic Era ; CHAP: 263-278,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2092128

ABSTRACT

Unlocking after lockdown in the current COVID-19 pandemic has apparently resulted in a new normal way of living, but its impact on mental health is still unexplored. The present study tried to explore the mental health status of the general population in India during the current unlocking phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Furthermore, it aimed at examining the mental health burden in different age groups and finally to find out the association between psychological distress and education loss, financial loss, exposure and acquaintance of COVID 19. The study was conducted from Unlock phase 3.0 to Unlock phase 8.0 on 200 participants. A Google form was created and circulated on different online and social media platforms. The measures used were: the Impact of Event Scale (IES), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS v21. Results clearly show that the mental health burden of the majority of the population fell into the normal category and a few into the mild category. As far as stress, anxiety, depression, and IES in the unlock phase are concerned, they still exist but in lower figures as compared to lockdown phases. Without a doubt, the burden on mental health has been greatly reduced, but it still exists among the general population. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

2.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10:41-55, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072559

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection. Mucormycetes causes a wide range of diseases, including pneumonia, rhinosinusitis, internal organ spread, gastrointestinal tract involvement, and skin and soft tissue infection. It infects predominantly with hematological malignancies, transplantation, immunocompromised, and diabetes mellitus patients. The most severe type of the disease is a disseminated disease, which is linked to significant immunosuppression. Currently, this disease is more prevalent in the COVID-19 pandemic because of erroneous steroid use and untreated diabetes. However, there is a scarcity of study and information on the COVID-19 and mucormycosis connection. According to the latest research, mucormycosis cases are rising in developed and developing nations, and only a few therapies are available. The exact burden of mucormycosis is unclear;however, it is likely to be greater than recorded instances due to mucormycosis epidemiological changes. As a result of the delay in identifying this severe illness, appropriate antifungal medications are delayed, resulting in significant morbidity and death. A few drugs are underclinical trials for their efficacy. Other obstacles to treat patients are lack of reliable diagnostic non-invasive tests. This review article draws the attention of its readers and clinicians towards the agents of mucormycosis and discuss the various cases to manage this fungal infection.

3.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(5): e798, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047622

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: There is a sought for vaccines and antiviral agents as countermeasures for the recent monkeypox outbreak. Here, we aimed to review and discuss the repurposing potentials of smallpox vaccines and drugs in monkeypox outbreaks based on their comparative benefits and risks. Therefore, we conducted this rapid review and discussed the repurposing potentials of smallpox vaccines and drugs in monkeypox infection. Methods: Here, we searched Google Scholar and PubMed for relevant information and data. We found many articles that have suggested the use of smallpox vaccines and antiviral drugs in monkeypox outbreaks according to the study findings. We read the relevant articles to extract information. Results: According to the available documents, we found two replication-competent and one replication-deficient vaccinia vaccines were effective against Orthopoxvirus. However, the healthcare authorities have authorized second-generation live vaccina virus vaccines against Orthopoxvirus in many countries. Smallpox vaccine is almost 85% effective in preventing monkeypox infection as monkeypox virus, variola virus, and vaccinia virus are similar. The United States and Canada have approved a replication-deficient third-generation smallpox vaccine for the prevention of monkeypox infection. However, the widely used second-generation smallpox vaccines contain a live virus and replicate it into the human cell. Therefore, there is a chance to cause virus-induced complications among the vaccinated subjects. In those circumstances, the available Orthopoxvirus inhibitors might be a good choice for treating monkeypox infections as they showed similar efficacy in monkeypox infection in different animal model clinical trials. Also, the combined use of antiviral drugs and vaccinia immune globulin can enhance significant effectiveness in immunocompromised subjects. Conclusion: Repurposing of these smallpox vaccines and antiviral agents might be weapons to fight monkeypox infection. Also, we recommend further investigations of smallpox vaccines and Orthopoxvirus inhibitors in a human model study to explore their exact role in human monkeypox infections.

4.
International Journal of Tourism Cities ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005050

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to explore green hotel visitors' afforestation intentions by extending the theory of planned behavior, including post-COVID-19 personal norms (PCPN) and post-COVID-19 environmental concerns (PCECs). Moreover, this study examines the mediating effect of PCECs from the post-COVID-19 perspective. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on existing literatures and collection of 384 usable responses using the convenience sampling technique. The partial least square structural equation modeling is used to analyze data using Smart PLS3.3.3. Findings The findings reveal that post-COVID-19 afforestation attitudes, subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC) and PCPN significantly influence post-COVID-19 afforestation intentions (PCAI) and PCECs. Further, PCEC partially mediates the between post-COVID-19 afforestation attitudes, SN, PBC and PCPN and PCAI. Practical implications The findings of this study may be useful to green hotel operators in formulating business strategies enhancing visitors' positive perceptions toward green hotels and afforestation intentions coping with new normal environment and hospitality industry. Originality/value This research presents a distinguished case highlighting how the green hotel guests' perceptions toward afforestation for mitigating carbon emissions are changing because of COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides crucial insights for green hotel practitioners by integrating post-COVID-19 afforestation attitudes, SN, PBC, PCPN and PCEC of green hotel visitors in examining PCAI.

5.
International Journal of Tourism Cities ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992505

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors influencing customers’ revisit intentions of green hotels after the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on the existing literatures and interviews of 404 respondents visiting hotels after the pandemic. The partial least square structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data. Findings: The findings show that green attitude, green personality and personal norms significantly influence post-COVID-19 green hotel revisit intentions. Practical implications: The findings of the study may be useful to hotel operators in formulating focused business strategies improving customers’ green hotel revisit intentions and coping with the new normal business environment of the hospitality industry. Originality/value: The study presents a unique case highlighting how the hospitality business is changing after the COVID-19 pandemic. The study provides important insights for industry operators by integrating attitudes, personality and norms of the customers in examining the green hotels revisit intentions. © 2022, International Tourism Studies Association.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-487, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967318

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 249 million people worldwide as of November 2021. Patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are at risk of viral infections either related to their underlying immune dysfunction or the immunosuppressive therapy, but little is known about the impact of COVID19 on outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD) patients. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the clinical outcomes and management of pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients in different geographic areas with COVID-19 outbreak. Pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients aged 18 years or older from 7 referral centers in Hong Kong, Japan, Thailand, Singapore, the United States and Italy were included. Case definition of IgG4 RD: elevated serum IgG4 serology with typical features of pancreatobiliary involvement on imaging, EUS, ERCP and/ or typical histopathologic features of IgG4 RD. Medical records were reviewed for IgG4 RD status (organ involvement, disease activity, treatment status), COVID-19 infection and outcome. Outcome measures were incidence and severity of COVID-19 in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients, medical treatment for the IgG4 disease during COVID-19 and incidence of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19. Results: 101 pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients (mean age 66.4 +/- 12.1 years, male 74.3%) from 7 referral centers were included from January 2020 to November 2020. Major comorbidities of patients: none in 21.8%, diabetes in 45.5%, hypertension in 49.5%, ischemic heart disease in 8.9%, chronic liver disease in 8.9%, chronic kidney disease in 9.9% and cancer in 5.0% of patients. IgG4 RD organ involvement: pancreas only in 36.6%, pancreas and bile duct in 16.8%, bile duct only in 14.9%, pancreatobiliary and other organs in 26.7% of patients. The mean serum IgG4 serology level was 4.72+/-7.31 g/L. In 2020, 27.7% of patients had active IgG4 disease while 72.3% of patients were in remission. In 2020, 65.3% of patients received treatment (steroid in 48.5%, thiopurines in 22.7%, steroid and thiopurines in 25.8%, rituximab in 1.5%), while 30.7% of patients were not on treatment. 2 patients (2.0%) had COVID-19 infection, with 1 patient requiring ICU admission. All infected patients recovered from COVID-19 without flare up of IgG4 RD. In 2020, 6.9% of patients had postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment for IgG4 RD during COVID-19 outbreak due to concern of COVID-19 infection while on immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusion: In this study, low incidence of COVID-19 infection and low rates of postponement or discontinuation of indicated medical treatment were observed in pancreatobiliary IgG4 RD patients during COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. (Table Presented)

7.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management ; 148(9), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1947745

ABSTRACT

Construction project delays are costly to stakeholders. Therefore, extensive research has been carried out in various countries covering different types of construction projects to identify delay factors and mitigation strategies. However, the literature has not documented the impact of a once-in-a-century event such as the COVID-19 pandemic on construction projects' schedules and costs. The present study uses a case study approach to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on three lift irrigation projects' construction programs and the financial implications for the contractor in the Indian construction industry. The findings reveal that the main factors responsible for delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic were fear of an outbreak, imposition of a nationwide lockdown, late return of workers, resource shortages, and changes in operating procedures. Furthermore, the study found that the contract conditions and government directives allowed for time extensions in construction projects by recognizing the pandemic as a force majeure. However, such provisions did not protect contractors' financial interests. This study evaluates the financial implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the contractor in terms of worker compensation during the lockdown, idling of resources, overhead costs, cost escalation, and liquidity. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers. Practical Applications The public health crisis from the COVID-19 pandemic led to a series of preventive measures from the government and organizations worldwide that caused severe disruptions in construction projects and disturbed the construction supply chain. This study recommends rethinking the scope and coverage of force majeure and excusable delay clauses in standard construction contracts beyond provisions for an extension of time to protect the financial interests of different stakeholders. The vagueness in assessing and compensating for the losses from unprecedented events such as the COVID-19 pandemic could expose construction organizations to significant financial risks and threaten their existence in a highly competitive industry. Therefore, construction organizations should carefully review the contract provisions of future projects for proper risk allocations to accommodate unprecedented events and pandemics to help them recover successfully from various disruptions and associated financial losses. Moreover, proper communication and negotiation, a supportive and collaborative project culture, and early government interventions are crucial in dealing with such events and avoiding disputes among project stakeholders. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.

8.
Comput Biol Med ; 148: 105903, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936229

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 at Wuhan in the Hubei province of China in 2019, the virus has accumulated various mutations, giving rise to many variants. According to the combinations of mutations acquired, these variants are classified into lineages and greatly differ in infectivity and transmissibility. In 2021 alone, a variant of interest (VoI) Mu (B.1.621), as well as, variants of concern (VoC) Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (BA.1, BA.2) and later in 2022, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 have emerged. Since then, the world has seen prominent surges in the rate of infection during short periods of time. However, not all populations have suffered equally, which suggests a possible role of host genetic factors. Here, we investigated the strength of binding of the spike glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 variants: Mu, Delta, Delta Plus (AY.1), Omicron sub-variants BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) missense variants prevalent in major populations. In this purpose, molecular docking analysis, as well as, molecular dynamics simulation was performed of the above-mentioned SARS-CoV-2 RBD variants with the hACE2 containing the single amino acid substitutions prevalent in African (E37K), Latin American (F40L), non-Finnish European (D355 N), and South Asian (P84T) populations, in order to predict the effects of the lineage-defining mutations of the viral variants on receptor binding. The effects of these mutations on protein stability were also explored. The protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulation analyses have revealed variable strength of attachment and exhibited altered interactions in the case of different hACE2-RBD complexes. In vitro studies are warranted to confirm these findings which may enable early prediction regarding the risk of transmissibility of newly emerging variants across different populations in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927765

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Antiphospholipid Syndrome is a condition where self-antibodies are directed against phospholipid binding proteins resulting in thrombosis and/or pregnancy loss. Diagnosis is made via history, physical, positive anticardiolipin and anti-beta-2-glycoprotein antibodies. We describe a case of a large thrombus in a previously diagnosed patient with antiphospholipid syndrome and discuss the need for prophylaxis in these patients. Case Report: 34-year-old G7P1161 Hispanic female with past medical history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 presents with an acute onset of sharp abdominal pain radiating to the back associated with nausea, non-bloody non-bilious emesis and dysuria. Vital signs on admission are significant for tachycardia and hypertension. Labs are noteworthy for elevated Creatinine at 1.7 mg/dl, thrombocytopenia, transaminitis, elevated Ddimer at 14272 ng/ml. Urine analysis is positive for nitrites, trace leukocytes and bacteria. Her serum pregnancy test and COVID PCR are negative. CT Abdomen/Pelvis with contrast revealed an extensive thrombus in the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) to the Right Atrium (RA), also extending into the hepatic veins and upper lumbar veins. Moderate perinephric fat stranding is also noted around bilateral kidneys. Ultrasound of the abdomen reveals cholelithiasis without evidence of acute cholecystitis. Venous Doppler of lower extremities reveals patent deep veins. Patient was started on heparin drip immediately and intravenous Cefepime. Interventional Radiology performed mechanical thrombectomy. Hematology was consulted and converted patient to Warfarin with an INR goal of 2.5-3. Patient was discharged and instructed to follow up with hematology. Discussion: There are few case reports of extensive thrombi ranging from IVC to RA with most cases occurring in elderly population. We present a unique case of an extensive thrombus ranging not only from the IVC to RA but also extending into the hepatic veins and the upper lumbar veins. The patient described has a history of multiple spontaneous abortions with her only successful preterm birth required daily therapeutic Lovenox during pregnancy. Her recurrent pregnancy loss and current large burden thrombus can be attributed to her antiphospholipid syndrome. This begs the question whether these patients should be started on prophylaxis anticoagulation. There have been limited studies with aspirin and warfarin which at times demonstrated positive results. Our patient had her thrombus identified incidentally due to an admission for pyelonephritis. If her thrombus was not recognized in time, outcomes could have been devastating. In conclusion, there should be further studies to determine the efficacy of anticoagulation prophylaxis in patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. (Figure Presented).

10.
Structural Chemistry ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926060

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, has currently infected more than 247 million people around the world. Nowadays, several receptors of COVID-19 have been reported, and few of them are explored for drug discovery. New mutant strains of COVID-19 are emerging since the first outbreak of disease and causing significant morbidity and mortality across the world. Although, few drugs were approved for emergency uses, however, promising drug with well-proven clinical efficacy is yet to be discovered. Hence, researchers are continuously attempting to search for potential drug candidates targeting the well-established enzymatic targets of the virus. The present study aims to discover the antiviral compounds as potential inhibitors against the five targets in various stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, i.e., virus attachments (ACE2 and TMPRSS2), viral replication, and transcription (M-pro, PLpro and RdRp), using the most reliable molecular docking and molecular dynamics method. The ADMET study was then carried out to determine the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of several compounds with the best docking results. To provide a more effective mechanism for demonstrating protein-ligand interactions, molecular docking data were subjected to a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation at 300 K for 100 ns. In terms of structural stability, structure compactness, solvent accessible surface area, residue flexibility, and hydrogen bond interactions, the dynamic features of complexes have been compared.

11.
Alexandria Engineering Journal ; 61(12):11787-11802, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1914097

ABSTRACT

The fractional derivative is an advanced category of mathematics for real-life problems. This work focus on the investigation of 2nd wave of the Corona virus in India. We develop a time fractional order COVID-19 model with effects of the disease which consist of a system of fractional differential equations. The fractional-order COVID-19 model is investigated with AtanganaBaleanu-Caputo fractional derivative. Also, the deterministic mathematical model for the Omicron effect is investigated with different fractional parameters. The fractional-order system is analyzed qualitatively as well as verified sensitivity analysis. Fixed point theory is used to prove the existence and uniqueness of the fractional-order model. Analyzed the model locally as well as globally using Lyapunov first and second derivative. Boundedness and positive unique solutions are verified for the fractional-order model of infection of disease. The concept of fixed point theory is used to interrogate the problem and confine the solution. Solutions are derived to investigate the influence of fractional operator which shows the impact of the disease on society. Simulation has been made to understand the behavior of the virus.(c) 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).

12.
Psychiatry Res Commun ; 2(3): 100054, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the psychological well-being, especially of health care workers, for more than two years now. Here, we followed-up on a survey we conducted at the very beginning of the pandemic, to determine potential changes in psychological strain experienced by health care workers one year later. Since our first survey in 2020, COVID-19 vaccines have been established, thus we assessed whether vaccination-status might modulate psychological burden of health care workers. We also collected data on resilience and sleep, as those might be related to successful coping. Between March and April 2021, nurses and physicians (N â€‹= â€‹286) working at the University Hospital Augsburg - with high or low exposure to COVID-19 patients - took part in an online survey. We found that fully vaccinated personnel reported lower levels of anxiety, depression, stress and exhaustion suggesting the potential positive consequences of vaccination beyond the obvious protection against a COVID-19 infection. Nurses reported more depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress and exhaustion and lower levels of job fulfilment than physicians. Individuals with high exposure to COVID-19 patients reported higher exhaustion and depersonalization. Resilience and sleep quality were significantly correlated with psychological and work-related burden, suggesting their potential role as protective resources. In general, the comparison of the present data to the survey conducted in 2020 suggests an overall increase of psychological burden in health care workers. Despite these surely alarming findings, it should be noted that being vaccinated might come along with reduced psychological strain.

13.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(5):436-443, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1870142

ABSTRACT

Because of the inadequate capacity and a substantial surge of probable COVID-19 cases, several health systems around worldwide have collapsed. As a result, the requirement for a rapid, effective, and precise way to reduce radiologists' workload in diagnosing suspected instances has arisen. The goal of the present study is to develop a novel system to automatically diagnose and classify lung CT scans into three categories: suspected covid-19, covid-19, and healthy lung scans. Before feature extraction using convolutional neural network (CNN) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) approaches, the CT scans are first pre-processed through implementing a set of algorithms. Lastly, with the use of the support vector machine (SVM) model, such features are divided into three groups. The maximum accuracy attained in classifying a dataset of 351 CT scans of the lungs was 98.22%. The outcomes of the experiments show that merging the extracted features increases the effectiveness of lung classification CT scans.

14.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857697

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of nebulizers is an important and useful method for delivering drugs to the lungs in patients with various airway and lung parenchymal disorders. Use of nebulization had markedly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This had raised concerns about the potential spread of infection to others in the surroundings exposed to the virus dissemination through aerosolized particles. We considered it necessary to ensure appropriate use of nebulizers by primary care physicians and therefore developed a simple nebulization score to decide when to use nebulizers. Methods: An expert working group (EWG) of pulmonologists was formed who using a semi-Delphi method developed a list of variables and a cut-off score. The EWG started with 55 variables developed through an exhaustive review of literature. These were further reduced to smaller number that had the maximum score as well as concordance with the EWG. The scores ranged from 1-10 (completely disagree to completely agree) and only those above 7.5 were selected. Results: A total of 8 variables with the highest scores were selected [Table 1] which had a total maximum score of 40. A score of <15 was suggested to indicate not-to use and >20 to suggest a definite-use of nebulizer. A score between 15-20 was suggested to use as per physician judgement. A separate table of 12 conditions was made where use of nebulizers was mandatory. Conclusion: This first of its kind nebulizer score should be used by primary care physicians to decide which patients should be put on nebulization treatment.

15.
Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 22(1):1075-1092, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1848276

ABSTRACT

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most well-characterized bacterial foodborne infections worldwide, the species are the most common zoonotic pathogens. Chicken and chicken products are known to be the major sources of Campylobacter infection in humans. Campylobacter species represent one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal illness worldwide, it is the main cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections occurring at any age, but it peaks in children and young adults. This study aims to investigate the presence and prevalence of Campylobacter bacteria in humans and chicken and aims for determination the extent of the contamination of this bacteria. The study involved two parts;the first part designed for isolation Campylobacter species from chickens which were alive, while the second part was about isolation Campylobacter species from human stool samples for different ages. The current study based on analysis of three hundred and fifty (350) stool samples taken from humans with different ages. The patients samples were collected from Al-Batool Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Pediatric, Baquba Teaching Hospital and Central Health Laboratories in Diyala, these patients were had vary clinical aspects like : (diarrhea, Fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and cramp, fatigue and muscle pain). On the other hand, one hundred seventy five (175) stool samples of chicken which they apparently had diarrhea were collected randomly from different areas of Diyala Governorate. The collection of both humans and chicken samples were during 2020 - 2021. The analysis of 350 samples of patients their ages ranged from 3 months to 59 years showed that the mean +or- SD of age was 24.5 +or- 14.3 years. The most predominant age group was 20-29 years (26.9%), while the lowest age group was 50-59 years (4.9%). Regarding the gender, 151 (43.1%) of the included patients were male and 199 (56.9%) were female. Patients included in the current study were collected from four districts of Diyala province. The highest collection rate was from Baquba district 217(62.0%), while the lowest collection rate was from Baladrooz district 18 (5.1%). the distribution of clinical signs and symptoms of included patients. Persistent diarrhea forming the predominance of signs 179 (51.1%), followed by watery diarrhea 55 (15.7%), while the least sign was vomiting 1(3%). Furthermore, 15 (4.3%) of patients showed all that signs and symptoms. The signs and symptoms were : diarrhea was found in 194 (55.4%) patients, followed by watery diarrhea in 77 (22.0%) patients. Fever was found in 30 (8.6%) patients. The least sign was nausea which was found in 15 (4.3%) patients. Abdominal pain and cramps were detected in 22 (6.3%) patients. Out of 350 stool specimens submitted for bacteriological culture, 62 (17.7%) were positive versus 288 (82.3%) were negative. Among the 62-culture positive, 13 specimens yield Campylobacter growth, so the campylobacter detection rate among human specimens was 3.7%. The isolated Campylobacter were as follow;11(3.1%) were Campylobacter jejuni, one (0.3%) was Campylobacter coli, one (0.3%) was undifferentiated campylobacter. On the other hand, 58 (16.6%) of the specimens yield bacterial growth other than Campylobacter, as follows: E. coli was detected in 28 (8.0%), Proteus Spp. was detected in 12 (3.4%), H. pylori was detected in 10 (2.9%) and Klebsiella Spp. was detected in 8 (2.3%). The remaining specimens 279 (79.7%) yield no growth. The results of the PCR technique revealed that 8 (2.38%) specimens were positive for Campylobacter, while the majority 335 (95.7%) were negative and 7(2.0%) of the specimens were not done. While the analysis of 175 chicken fecal samples taken from chickens were mainly suffering from diarrhea showed that the distribution of chickens according to their ages in days showed predominance was those 30-39 (40.6%) days old. It is clear that the majority of specimens (74.3%) were collected from Baquba districts. The results showed that specimens collected Al- Muqdadiya district farms had yielded the high

16.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 113:631-642, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826253

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis is a critical preventative step in Coronavirus researches. Because of the fast spread of this virus, it is necessary to present a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which is very faster for radiologists. Feature Selection (FS) is a significant technique to obtain an accurate CAD system. This paper presented an effective FS model which based on wrapper approach as evaluator and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as search method for classifying cases of COVID-19 using Computed Tomography (CT). This model was used PSO algorithm to identify the significant features subset within overall features set. Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers were used as evaluators with 10-fold cross validation and reached accuracy of 99.6% for SVM and 94.27% for KNN respectively. The results were shown that proposed PSO-FS model is an intelligent and outperforms other two traditional FS search methods, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Greedy Stepwise (GS). © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ ; 31(2):379-384, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776976

ABSTRACT

A good number of patients experience post-Covid complications. Doctors and nurses are the front liners who are at greater risk of having this disease. Neurological symptoms are frequent in patients with post-COVID-19 infection. The study aims to observe the post-acute neurological symptoms among doctors and nurses of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh, after they recover from initial infection or among the asymptomatic cases. It was a retrospective observational study among the doctors and nurses who became RT PCR positive from late April to mid-September 2020. A total of 100 subjects were interviewed over the phone for the presence or absence of neurological symptoms four weeks post Covid-19 infection. Total 54 doctors and 46 nurses were evaluated;the male-female ratio was 1:1.77, the mean age was 35.6+/-7.6 years. Post-acute COVID neurological symptoms (PACNS) were present in 60% of respondents. Fatigue (51%) was the most common symptom, followed by sleep disturbance, headache, myalgia, loss of taste and smell. PACNS were more in symptomatic patients at the initial Covid infection than asymptomatic cases.

19.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057402, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to rapidly assess the health system impact of COVID-19 in the urban slums of Bangladesh. DESIGN: Setting and participantsA cross-sectional survey among 476 households was conducted during October-December 2020 in five selected urban slums of Dhaka North, Dhaka South and Gazipur City Corporation. In-depth interviews with purposively selected 22 slum dwellers and key informant interviews with 16 local healthcare providers and four policymakers and technical experts were also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of people suffering from general illness, percentage of people suffering from chronic illness, percentage of people seeking healthcare, percentage of people seeking maternal care, health system challenges resulting from COVID-19. RESULTS: About 12% of members suffered from general illness and 25% reported chronic illness. Over 80% sought healthcare and the majority sought care from informal healthcare providers. 39% of the recently delivered women sought healthcare in 3 months preceding the survey. An overall reduction in healthcare use was reported during the lockdown period compared with prepandemic time. Mismanagement and inefficient use of resources were reported as challenges of health financing during the pandemic. Health information sharing was inadequate at the urban slums, resulting from the lack of community and stakeholder engagement (51% received COVID-19-related information, 49% of respondents knew about the national hotline number for COVID-19 treatment). Shortage of human resources for health was reported to be acute during the pandemic, resulting from the shortage of specialist doctors and uneven distribution of health workforce. COVID-19 test was inadequate due to the lack of adequate test facilities and stigma associated with COVID-19. Lack of strong leadership and stakeholder engagement was seen as the barriers to effective pandemic management. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study are expected to support the government in tailoring interventions and allocating resources more efficiently and timely during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Population
20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322312

ABSTRACT

This is a pedagogical paper on estimating the number of people that can be infected by one infectious person during an epidemic outbreak, known as the reproduction number. Knowing the number is crucial for developing policy responses. There are generally two types of such a number, i.e., basic and effective (or instantaneous). While basic reproduction number is the average expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible, effective reproduction number is the number of cases generated in the current state of a population. In this paper, we exploit the deterministic susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model to estimate them through three different numerical approximations. We apply the methods to the pandemic COVID-19 in Italy to provide insights into the spread of the disease in the country. We see that the effect of the national lockdown in slowing down the disease exponential growth appeared about two weeks after the implementation date. We also discuss available improvements to the simple (and naive) methods that have been made by researchers in the field. Authors of this paper are members of the SimcovID (Simulasi dan Pemodelan COVID-19 Indonesia) collaboration.

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