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1.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 84: 104806, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149289

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a contagious viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). One of the key features of COVID-19 infection is inflammation. There is increasing evidence pointing to an association between cytokine storm and autoimmunity. One autoimmune disease of interest in connection to COVID-19 is hyperthyroidism. COVID-19 has been shown to decrease TSH levels and induce thyrotoxicosis, destructive thyroiditis, and de novo Graves' disease. It has also been suggested that the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 antigens following vaccination can cross-react through a mechanism called molecular mimicry which can elicit autoimmune reactivity, potentially leading to potential thyroid disease post vaccine. However, if the COVID-19 vaccine is linked to reduced COVID-19 related serious disease, it could potentially play a protective role against post COVID-19 hyperthyroidism (de novo disease and exacerbations). Further studies investigating the complex interplay between COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccine and thyroid dysfunction can help provide substantial evidence and potential therapeutic targets that can alter prognosis and improve COVID-19 related outcomes in individuals with or without preexisting thyroid disease.

2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093058

ABSTRACT

After the widespread of COVID-19 virus worldwide, vaccination targeted reducing spread of cases and mortality rates. However, vaccination hesitancy was observed among the communities worldwide. Vaccination hesitancy involved parents regarding the decision of vaccinating their children- After obtaining ethical approval, an online cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 March to 22 April 2021 to evaluate the parents' acceptance of vaccinating their children against the COVID-19 virus in Syria. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis in IBM, SPSS V. 28.0 package program (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Among 283 participants, 105 participants agreed to vaccinate their children, and 178 were not. A significant correlation between age and vaccine willingness was found (P-value < 0.0001*), especially in the age group between 18 and 30 years old (45.2%). Parents who accepted vaccinating themselves were more willing to vaccinate their children (34.6%). According to our results, there is a greater need to enhance awareness and knowledge programs about the vaccine's effectiveness and encourage parents to accept giving the vaccine to their children.

3.
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092736

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a contagious viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). One of the key features of COVID-19 infection is inflammation. There is increasing evidence pointing to an association between cytokine storm and autoimmunity. One autoimmune disease of interest in connection to COVID-19 is hyperthyroidism. COVID-19 has been shown to decrease TSH levels and induce thyrotoxicosis, destructive thyroiditis, and de novo Graves’ disease. It has also been suggested that the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 antigens following vaccination can cross-react through a mechanism called molecular mimicry which can elicit autoimmune reactivity, potentially leading to potential thyroid disease post vaccine. However, if the COVID-19 vaccine is linked to reduced COVID-19 related serious disease, it could potentially play a protective role against post COVID-19 hyperthyroidism (de novo disease and exacerbations). Further studies investigating the complex interplay between COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccine and thyroid dysfunction can help provide substantial evidence and potential therapeutic targets that can alter prognosis and improve COVID-19 related outcomes in individuals with or without preexisting thyroid disease.

4.
Health Policy Plan ; 37(9): 1203-1206, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062897

ABSTRACT

The field of teleradiology has been of interest for almost 55 years and its potential prospects for healthcare have been constantly assessed and investigated. In view of the global preventive measures, such as social distancing and hand hygiene, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has further accentuated the necessity for telemedicine and teleradiology. In a country as densely populated as India wherein radiology services are often fragmented, teleradiology can prove to be a lifesaving technology and aid dampen the repercussions stemming from the highly skewed doctor to patient ratio. Although innovative, the effective adoption of teleradiology faces several obstacles in India, such as inadequate technological infrastructure, a lack of knowledge among most medical practitioners, urban-rural disparities and a lack of financing. Similar challenges continue to also be faced by several other developing countries across the globe. This article therefore aims to elaborate on the most important facets of implementation of teleradiology observed in the Indian context to help provide salient pointers for the readership of relevant jurisdictions who may be embracing comparable teleradiology challenges. Despite the hurdles, the future of teleradiology seems promising. The respective governments, policymakers and all relevant stakeholders must continue to take decisive action to ensure that this potential is fully exploited by allocation of necessary funds, strengthening of information technology and its related fields, involvement of human resources with adequate technical and administrative expertise as well as taking continued action to improve existing telemedicine and teleradiology services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Teleradiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing
5.
World J Virol ; 11(4): 186-197, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought fundamental changes to our problems and priorities, especially those related to the healthcare sector. India was one of the countries severely affected by the harsh consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To understand the challenges faced by the healthcare system during a pandemic. METHODS: The literature search for this review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We also used Reference Citation Analysis (RCA) to search and improve the results. We focused on the published scientific articles concerned with two major vital areas: (1) The Indian healthcare system; and (2) COVID-19 pandemic effects on the Indian healthcare system. RESULTS: The Indian healthcare system was suffering even before the pandemic. The pandemic has further stretched the healthcare services in India. The main obstacle in the healthcare system was to combat the rising number of communicable as well as noncommunicable diseases. Besides the pandemic measures, there was a diversion of focus of the already established healthcare services away from the chronic conditions and vaccinations. The disruption of the vaccination services may have more severe short and long-term consequences than the pandemic's adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Severely restricted resources limited the interaction of the Indian healthcare system with the COVID-19 pandemic. Re-establishment of primary healthcare services, maternal and child health services, noncommunicable diseases programs, National Tuberculosis Elimination Program, etc. are important to prevent serious long-term consequences of this pandemic.

7.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 14: 878276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002497

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder of the brain that manifests as dementia, disorientation, difficulty in speech, and progressive cognitive and behavioral impairment. The emerging therapeutic approach to AD management is the inhibition of ß-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), known to be one of the two aspartyl proteases that cleave ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies confirmed the association of high BACE1 activity with the proficiency in the formation of ß-amyloid-containing neurotic plaques, the characteristics of AD. Only a few FDA-approved BACE1 inhibitors are available in the market, but their adverse off-target effects limit their usage. In this paper, we have used both ligand-based and target-based approaches for drug design. The QSAR study entails creating a multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model using 552 molecules with acceptable statistical performance (R 2 = 0.82, Q 2 loo = 0.81). According to the QSAR study, the activity has a strong link with various atoms such as aromatic carbons and ring Sulfur, acceptor atoms, sp2-hybridized oxygen, etc. Following that, a database of 26,467 food compounds was primarily used for QSAR-based virtual screening accompanied by the application of the Lipinski rule of five; the elimination of duplicates, salts, and metal derivatives resulted in a truncated dataset of 8,453 molecules. The molecular descriptor was calculated and a well-validated 6-parametric version of the QSAR model was used to predict the bioactivity of the 8,453 food compounds. Following this, the food compounds whose predicted activity (pKi) was observed above 7.0 M were further docked into the BACE1 receptor which gave rise to the Identification of 4-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one (PubChem I.D: 4468; Food I.D: FDB017657) as a hit molecule (Binding Affinity = -8.9 kcal/mol, pKi = 7.97 nM, Ki = 10.715 M). Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation for 150 ns and molecular mechanics generalized born and surface area (MMGBSA) study aided in identifying structural motifs involved in interactions with the BACE1 enzyme. Molecular docking and QSAR yielded complementary and congruent results. The validated analyses can be used to improve a drug/lead candidate's inhibitory efficacy against the BACE1. Thus, our approach is expected to widen the field of study of repurposing nutraceuticals into neuroprotective as well as anti-cancer and anti-viral therapeutic interventions.

8.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 81: 104395, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995990

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on several aspects of global healthcare systems, particularly surgical services. New guidelines, resource scarcity, and an ever-increasing demand for care have posed challenges to healthcare professionals, resulting in the cancellation of many surgeries, with short and long-term consequences for surgical care and patient outcomes. As the pandemic subsides and the healthcare system attempts to reestablish a sense of normalcy, surgical recommendations and advisories will shift. These changes, combined with a growing case backlog (postponed surgeries + regularly scheduled surgeries) and a physician shortage, can have serious consequences for physician health and, as a result, surgical care. Several initiatives are already being implemented by governments to ensure a smooth transition as surgeries resume. Newer and more efficient steps aimed at providing adequate surgical care while preventing physician burnout, on the other hand, necessitate a collaborative effort from governments, national medical boards, institutions, and healthcare professionals. This perspective aims to highlight alterations in surgical recommendations over the course of the pandemic and how these changes continue to influence surgical care and patient outcomes as the pandemic begins to soften its grip.

9.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 82: 104368, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995987

ABSTRACT

Obesity affects over 650 million adults worldwide and increases the risk of cardiovascular events, diabetes, and hypertension. While lifestyle recommendations are popular management options, bariatric surgery has emerged as a standard of care in refractory cases, reported to cause at least a 30% reduction in mortality. In addition, it mitigates obesity-related complications leading to a significant improvement in the quality of life for morbidly obese patients (BMI >40). Despite the numerous benefits, demand and access to bariatric surgery vary across different demographics such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status. This demand and access were further reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This has resulted in cancellations of elective surgeries such as weight loss procedures and promotes a sedentary lifestyle which has short-term and long-term detrimental consequences on the health of obese patients. In the context of the prevalent epidemiological trends, this reduction in bariatric services will disproportionately affect the elderly, males, low SES, and African Americans. This editorial highlights the prevalent discrepancies in demand and access to bariatric surgery amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, and possible recommendations to improve overall access and utilization of bariatric services in morbidly obese patients belonging to all demographics.

10.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 4: 100041, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991197
11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104266, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966311
12.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e6107, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958718

ABSTRACT

Recently, in Pakistan, several cases of mysterious dengue-like illness are being reported, which has concerned the authorities and requires prompt action. We present a case of a 52-year-old female patient presenting with a history of continuous fever, documented up to 104 F, for 5 days. The symptoms were associated with headache, nausea, retro-orbital headache, arthralgia, and myalgia. Currently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature for the endemic mysterious virus and may serve as the groundwork for future studies.

14.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 103941, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936016

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic since 2020 created havoc across the globe. This led to the establishment of effective vaccines to mitigate the virus. Several vaccines are developed to create immunity amongst the population. However, due to emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2, despite a double dose of vaccines, people have still infected that termed vaccine breakthrough infection. This paper aims to highlight the recent re-surging massive outbreak of COVID-19 in China despite mass vaccination and, discuss the issue of vaccine breakthrough infection, possible causes, and recommendations to enhance immunity and curb the transmission.

17.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104051, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906723

ABSTRACT

The monkeypox virus, which belongs to the orthopoxy virus family, causes fever, lethargy, headache, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and rash, as well as various complications such as superimposed infections, sepsis, keratitis, encephalitis, and bronchopneumonia. Following replication at the site of injection, the virus often enters by the oropharynx, nasopharynx, or intradermal pathway, spreading to lymph nodes before viremia, promoting viral dissemination to other organ systems. Monkeypox cases have recently been brought to WHO's notice from 12 presently non-endemic member nations spread over three WHO regions, with 92 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 cases of suspicion as of May 21, 2022. Monkeypox is presently endemic in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Benin, Cameroon, Gabon, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. Monkeypox cases have been detected all across the world, posing a challenge to healthcare infrastructure that is still recovering from the COVID-19 outbreak. Close monitoring and exact data collecting, the implementation of successful programs across the world, and public support of preventative measures are some of the strategies being used to cope with the increasing incidence of monkeypox.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(6): 1589-1592, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903692

ABSTRACT

The United Nations has declared Yemen as the world's worst humanitarian crisis with 21 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. Due to the convergence of severe economic instability exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, stifling war, and spiking food prices, the Yemeni people are at the brink of famine with women and children especially malnourished. Desperate to feed their families, civilians are forced to resort to begging, participate in child marriages, or plunge into debt. An inflated currency has significantly diminished the purchasing power of the Yemeni population, and COVID-19 restrictions have made acquisition of food and essential commodity imports arduous. Immediate action by global and local governments is essential to prevent the deaths of thousands of people in the wake of severe food scarcity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , Yemen/epidemiology
19.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104039, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894773
20.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 79: 104011, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894769

ABSTRACT

Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) approved RTS, S/AS01 (RTS, S) as the world's first malaria vaccine for partial malaria protection in young children at risk. While this immunization drive begins during the unprecedented pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus, the WHO has also approved 7 Vaccines in 2021 for the vaccination of children at risk. This article explores the quandary that would occur to the officials in charge of carrying out large vaccination campaigns against these two deadly infectious illnesses in several regions including the continent of Africa. The article also outlines the priorities for resolving this dilemma, offers evidence-based solutions, and provides a summary of recent significant events and their consequences. While providing the latest data, a discussion on the causation of the dilemma with clear recommendations for possible solutions has been explored as well.

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