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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480580

ABSTRACT

Stroke is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Prior to modern therapy, post-stroke mortality was approximately 10% in the acute period, with nearly one-half of the patients developing moderate-to-severe disability. The most fundamental aspect of acute stroke management is "time is brain". In acute ischemic stroke, the primary therapeutic goal of reperfusion therapy, including intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV TPA) and/or endovascular thrombectomy, is the rapid restoration of cerebral blood flow to the salvageable ischemic brain tissue at risk for cerebral infarction. Several landmark endovascular thrombectomy trials were found to be of benefit in select patients with acute stroke caused by occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation, which has led to a paradigm shift in the management of acute ischemic strokes. In this modern era of acute stroke care, more patients will survive with varying degrees of disability post-stroke. A comprehensive stroke rehabilitation program is critical to optimize post-stroke outcomes. Understanding the natural history of stroke recovery, and adapting a multidisciplinary approach, will lead to improved chances for successful rehabilitation. In this article, we provide an overview on the evaluation and the current advances in the management of acute ischemic stroke, starting in the prehospital setting and in the emergency department, followed by post-acute stroke hospital management and rehabilitation.

2.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 54(4): 312-322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067910

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate five illustrative cases and perform a literature review to identify and describe a working approach to adult-onset white matter diseases (WMD). STATE OF THE ART: Inherited WMD are a group of disorders often seen in childhood. In adulthood, progressive WMDs are rare, apart from the common nonspecific causes of hypertension and other cerebrovascular diseases. The pattern of WMDs on neuroimaging can be an important clue to the final diagnosis. Due to the adoption of a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach, WMD is becoming better recognised, in addition to the rapidly evolving field of genomics in this area. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: While paediatric WMDs have a well-defined and literature-based clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis, adult-onset WMDs remain an important, pathologically diverse, radiographic phenotype, with different and distinct neuropathologies among the various subtypes of WMD. Adult-onset WMDs comprise a wide collection of both acquired and inherited aetiologies. While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neurological complications are emerging, we are as yet unaware of it causing WMD outside of post-anoxic changes. It is important to recognise WMD as a potentially undefined acquired or genetic syndrome, even when extensive full genome testing reveals variants of unknown significance. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: We propose a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach to WMD and continued exploration of acquired and genetic factors. Adult-onset WMD, even given this approach, can be challenging because hypertension is often comorbid. Therefore, we propose that undiagnosed patients with WMD be entered into multicentre National Organisation for Rare Diseases registries to help researchers worldwide make new discoveries that will hopefully translate into future cures.


Subject(s)
Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/pathology
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