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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 331-337, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the severity of symptoms affects the treatment option for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the treatment pattern for mild to moderate non-ICU cases must be evaluated, particularly in the current scenario of mutation and variant strain for effective decision making. METHODS: The objective of retrospective analysis was to assess clinical and treatment outcomes in mild to moderate symptoms in non-ICU patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to major tertiary care hospitals in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, between April and August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 811 people were admitted for COVID-19 treatment, age ranging from 14 to 66, diabetes mellitus (31%, n = 248) and hypertension (24%, n = 198) were the most common comorbid conditions. The hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treated group (G1 n = 466) had an MD of 8 and an IQR of 5-13 for time in hospital with a 4.3% mortality rate, while the non-HCQ group (G2 n = 345) had an MD of 6 and an IQR of 3-11 for time in hospital with a 3.2% mortality rate. A combination of antiviral and antibiotic treatment was found to be effective, other most frequent intervention was analgesics 85.7%, anticoagulant 75%, minerals (Zinc 83% and Vit D3 82%). CONCLUSIONS: The therapy and clinical outcomes from the past will be the guiding factor to treat the COVID variants infection in the future. Patients treated with HCQ had a higher mortality rate, whereas those who were given a non-HCQ combination had a greater clinical outcome profile. DATA AVAILABILITY: Data available on request due to ethical restrictions. The anonymized data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available to maintain privacy and adhere to guidelines of the ethics protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305190

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the severity of symptoms affects the treatment option for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the treatment pattern for mild to moderate non-ICU cases must be evaluated, particularly in the current scenario of mutation and variant strain for effective decision making. Objectives This retrospective study’s objectives were to assess clinical and treatment outcomes in mild to moderate non-ICU COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia. Methods Non-ICU patients with COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms who were admitted to major tertiary care hospitals in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, between April and August 2019 were studied retrospectively for clinical outcomes. Results A total of 811 people were admitted for COVID-19 treatment, with age ranging from 14 to 66, diabetes mellitus (31 %, n = 248) and hypertension (24%, n = 198) were the most common comorbid conditions. The majority of the patients (77 %, n = 621) had reported symptoms for COVID -19 infection. The hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treated group (G1 n = 466) had an MD of 8 and an IQR of 5-13 for time in hospital with a 4.3 % mortality rate, while the non-HCQ group (G2 n = 345) had an MD of 6 and an IQR of 3-11 for time in hospital with a 3.2 % mortality rate. The mortality rate among non-HCQ treated patients varied, but a combination of antiviral and antibiotic treatment was found to be effective, other most frequent intervention was analgesics 85.7 %, anticoagulant 75 %, minerals (Zinc 83 % and Vit D3 82 %). Conclusions The COVID 19 therapy and clinical outcomes from the past will be the guiding factor to treat the mutant strain infection in the future. Patients treated HCQ had a higher mortality rate, whereas those who were given a non-HCQ combination had a greater clinical outcome profile.

3.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(11): 1348-1354, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to document the quality of work life (QWL) among healthcare staff of intensive care units (ICUs) and emergency units during COVID-19 outbreak using the WHOQoL-BREF. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted for two months (May - June 2020) among healthcare staff working in intensive care units (ICUs) and emergency units of the hospitals under the National Guard Health Authority (NGHA) across five cities of Saudi Arabia. The study used the WHOQoL-BREF instrument to document the QWL through an electronic institutional survey. The data was analyzed through IBM SPSS version 23. The study was approved by an ethics committee. RESULTS: A total of 290 healthcare professionals responded to the survey. The mean overall quality of life score was 3.37 ± 0.97, general health = 3.66 ± 0.88, domains, i.e., physical = 11.67 ± 2.16, psychological = 13.08 ± 2.14, social = 13.22 ± 3.31 and environment = 12.38 ± 2.59. Respondents aged > 40 years, male gender, married status, being a physician and, having a work experience > 15 years and no extra working hours, had higher mean scores for several domains of Quality of life (QoL), overall QoL and general health (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The QWL among healthcare staff during COVID-19 pandemic was low. Demographic factors were mainly the determinants for a higher QWL while the variable of extra working hours was a determinant of lower QWL. Despite the pandemic, no COVID-19 related variables affected the work life of healthcare staff.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200875

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is crucial for disease prevention and vaccine development. We studied the antibody responses in 48 human MERS-CoV infection survivors who had variable disease severity in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected for 6 years postinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antibody Formation , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine-based regimens versus standard treatment in patients with the coronavirus disease admitted in 2019 to a hospital in Saudi Arabia. A comparative observational study, using routine hospital data, was carried out in a large tertiary care hospital in Al Baha, Saudi Arabia, providing care to patients with COVID-19 between April 2019 and August 2019. Patients were categorized into two groups: the Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) group, treated with HCQ in a dose of 400 mg twice daily on the first day, followed by 200 mg twice daily; the non HCQ group, treated with other antiviral or antibacterial treatments according to protocols recommended by the Ministry of Health (MOH) at the time. The primary outcomes were the length of hospital stay, need for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation. Overall survival was also assessed. 568 patients who received HCQ (treatment group) were compared with 207 patients who did not receive HCQ (control group). HCQ did not improve mortality in the treated group (7.7% vs. 7.2%). There were no significant differences in terms of duration of hospitalization, need for and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation among the groups. Our study provides further evidence that HCQ treatment does not reduce mortality rates, length of hospital stay, admission and time in ICU, and need for mechanical ventilation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(7): 1355-1365.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevalence and significance of digestive manifestations in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. We aimed to assess the prevalence, spectrum, severity, and significance of digestive manifestations in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified across a geographically diverse alliance of medical centers in North America. Data pertaining to baseline characteristics, symptomatology, laboratory assessment, imaging, and endoscopic findings from the time of symptom onset until discharge or death were abstracted manually from electronic health records to characterize the prevalence, spectrum, and severity of digestive manifestations. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between digestive manifestations and severe outcomes related to COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1992 patients across 36 centers met eligibility criteria and were included. Overall, 53% of patients experienced at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom at any time during their illness, most commonly diarrhea (34%), nausea (27%), vomiting (16%), and abdominal pain (11%). In 74% of cases, gastrointestinal symptoms were judged to be mild. In total, 35% of patients developed an abnormal alanine aminotransferase or total bilirubin level; these were increased to less than 5 times the upper limit of normal in 77% of cases. After adjusting for potential confounders, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms at any time (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.76-1.15) or liver test abnormalities on admission (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.80-2.12) were not associated independently with mechanical ventilation or death. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, gastrointestinal symptoms and liver test abnormalities were common, but the majority were mild and their presence was not associated with a more severe clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North America , Young Adult
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