Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20638, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475483

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity that has provoked global health concerns. Since the etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. Accurately predicting the progression of the disease would aid in appropriate patient categorization and thus help determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins that are closely associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Twenty-seven proteins were differentially expressed between severely ill COVID-19 patients with an adverse or favorable prognosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that 15 of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signaling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and in cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated practical predictors of the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA assays revealed that CHI3L1 and IGFALS may serve as highly sensitive prognostic markers. Our findings can help formulate a diagnostic approach for accurately identifying COVID-19 patients with severe disease and for providing appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Proteomics/methods , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Virus Diseases
5.
JMA J ; 4(3): 187-190, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351174

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 opened with news of an epidemic of pneumonia caused by a new coronavirus similar to the SARS coronavirus in Wuhan, China, and subsequently caused a worldwide pandemic. In Japan, the first infected person was found in January, and later, more than 700 passengers and crew members of the Diamond Princess, a large cruise ship that called at Yokohama port, were found to be infected, and the ship was forced to respond to the outbreak. The causative virus was quickly identified as a beta coronavirus similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus of 2003 and was named SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was named COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2, like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, infects the epithelial cells of the lungs and causes viral pneumonia. As of March 7, 2021, more than 116 million people have been infected and more than 2.5 million people have died worldwide. As a result of the global pandemic, regional blockades have been imposed around the world, and the development of vaccines and therapeutic agents has become an urgent necessity in order to restore normal social activities. In this review, the experience of the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is described.

7.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(1): 33-51, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262996

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of coronavirus, which binds to cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion for cell entry, is a candidate vaccine target for blocking coronavirus infection. However, some animal studies have suggested that inadequate immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces a lung eosinophilic immunopathology upon infection. The present study evaluated two kinds of vaccine adjuvants for use with recombinant S protein: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which are expected to function as both an antigen carrier and an adjuvant in immunization; and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, which have previously been shown to be an effective adjuvant in an ultraviolet-inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine. All the mice immunized with more than 0.5 µg S protein without adjuvant escaped from SARS after infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV; however, eosinophilic infiltrations were observed in the lungs of almost all the immunized mice. The AuNP-adjuvanted protein induced a strong IgG response but failed to improve vaccine efficacy or to reduce eosinophilic infiltration because of highly allergic inflammatory responses. Whereas similar virus titers were observed in the control animals and the animals immunized with S protein with or without AuNPs, Type 1 interferon and pro-inflammatory responses were moderate in the mice treated with S protein with and without AuNPs. On the other hand, the TLR agonist-adjuvanted vaccine induced highly protective antibodies without eosinophilic infiltrations, as well as Th1/17 cytokine responses. The findings of this study will support the development of vaccines against severe pneumonia-associated coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Gold/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100311, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230816

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major global public health concern. Although rapid point-of-care testing for detecting viral antigen is important for management of the outbreak, the current antigen tests are less sensitive than nucleic acid testing. In our current study, we produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exclusively react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and exhibit no cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV. Molecular modeling suggests that the mAbs bind to epitopes present on the exterior surface of the nucleocapsid, making them suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. We further select the optimal pair of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) mAbs using ELISA and then use this mAb pair to develop immunochromatographic assay augmented with silver amplification technology. Our mAbs recognize the variants of concern (501Y.V1-V3) that are currently in circulation. Because of their high performance, the mAbs of this study can serve as good candidates for developing antigen detection kits for COVID-19.

9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20198-20201, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691088

ABSTRACT

The Diamond Princess cruise ship was put under quarantine offshore Yokohama, Japan, after a passenger who disembarked in Hong Kong was confirmed as a coronavirus disease 2019 case. We performed whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) directly from PCR+ clinical specimens and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak. All tested isolates exhibited a transversion at G11083T, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 dissemination on the Diamond Princess originated from a single introduction event before the quarantine started. Although further spreading might have been prevented by quarantine, some progeny clusters could be linked to transmission through mass-gathering events in the recreational areas and direct transmission among passengers who shared cabins during the quarantine. This study demonstrates the usefulness of haplotype network/phylogeny analysis in identifying potential infection routes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Haplotypes , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Ships , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing
11.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1098-1102, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661147

ABSTRACT

During a COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship we sampled environmental surfaces after passengers and crew vacated cabins. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 58 of 601 samples (10%) from case cabins 1-17 days after cabins were vacated but not from noncase cabins. There was no difference in detection proportion between cabins of symptomatic (15%, 28/189; cycle quantification [Cq], 29.79-38.86) and asymptomatic cases (21%, 28/131; Cq, 26.21-38.99). No SARS-CoV-2 virus was isolated from any of the samples. Transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients may be similar and surfaces could be involved in transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Environmental Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sampling Studies , Ships , Specimen Handling
12.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 73(5): 366-368, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141681

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan (China) in December 2019 is currently spreading rapidly worldwide. We recently reported a laboratory protocol for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays using two primer sets, N and N2. On January 30-31, 2020, the protocol and the reagents for these assays were distributed to the local public health institutes and quarantine depots in Japan nationwide, and thereafter SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing was initiated. For further validation, the assays were compared with the commercially available kits using the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and clinical specimens obtained from COVID19-suspected individuals. The LightMix Modular SARS and Wuhan CoV E-gene (LM S&W-E) assay was highly sensitive for the SARS-CoV-2, as was the N2 set, as both the assays showed consistent results for the clinical specimens. While the LM S&W-E set targets the highly conserved region of E gene in the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the N2 set was designed to target specifically the unique region in the SARS-CoV-2 N gene. Therefore, the N2 set exhibits high specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection. These results indicate that the protocol using the N and N2 sets is comparable to the commercially available kits, and thus is reliable for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47921

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, Japan repatriated 566 nationals from China. Universal laboratory testing and 14-day monitoring of returnees detected 12 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection; initial screening results were negative for 5. Common outcomes were remaining asymptomatic (n = 4) and pneumonia (n = 6). Overall, screening performed poorly.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...